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BY

DUNA SAMSON
MATAWAL D.S
EJEH S.P
A PAPER PRESENTED AT NIGERIAN BUILDING AND
ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE CONFERENCE ON 2
nd
TO
4
th
JUNE, 2014

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
LITERATURE REVIEW
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
Nigeria is a developing country
with an estimated population of
170 million.
The country is faced with many
Infrastructural problems such as
Inadequate Infrastructure
For these infrastructure to be
developed, it requires the use of
cement and other construction
materials.
The high and increasing cost of
cement has contributed to the non-
realization of these infrastructures.

Background of Study Continues
For example, from June 2003 to
June 2005, the price of 50kg of
cement rises from N730 to N1600,
an inflation of 119% in 2 years.
While in 1984 the same bag cost
N5.00 an inflation of 31,900% in 21
years.



Background of Study Continues
Background of Study Continues

Part of the solution to the high cost of
cement is the use of supplementary
cementing material (SCM).

This study was geared towards
finding alternative and relatively
cheap materials for use as
substitute for Ordinary Portland
Cement in the production of
Sandcrete hollow blocks.
Fly Ash (FA) was used as cement
replacement in the study

Background of Study Continues
1.2 Aim of Study
The aim of study is to produce
hollow Sandcrete blocks using fly
ash (FA) as cement replacements,
the study also has the following
objectives.
(a)Determine the composition of the
ash (FA) and to establish whether
they can be used as Pozzolana.
(b) Determine the optimum percentage
of ash to be used as partial
replacement of cement in the
production of sandcrete hollow
blocks.
(c)Evaluate the Engineering properties
of the hollow sandcrete blocks made
with the ash at the various
percentages of cement replacements.

Objective of Study Continues
1.3 Statement of Research Problem
The problems to be addressed by
this study are:
Over dependency on cement.
High level of pollution.
Emission of green gases (CO
2
)
Depletion of natural resources.
2.1 Fly Ash (FA)
Fly ash (Pulverized fuel Ash) is finely
divided residue resulting from the
Combustion of coal or powered coal.
Nigeria is estimated to have a coal
deposit of about 1.54 trillion tonnes
Ugwu (1996).
The use of coal in Nigeria has reduced
as compared to its use in the sixties,
due to the discovery of oil.


2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Recent development in Nigeria has
shown that the era of coal will soon
be visited.
The ash resulting from the plant,
being a waste if not utilized will
results in environmental Pollution.




Fly Ash Continues
Dunstan (1984), Hang and Lee
(1989) equally reported that fly ash
concrete have high sulphate
resistance and can be used to
improve water tightness, when
used in water retaining structures.

Fly Ash Continues
BS 3892 (1965) recommends a
maximum of 35% by weight of the
pozzolana in Portland cement.
Ogalla (2004) studied the
performance of fly ash in concrete
and concluded that cement can be
replaced with the ash at 20%
replacement.


Fly Ash Continues




3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS


The materials used for the study are
Cement
Fine aggregate (Sand)
Water
Fly ash (FA)

Materials and Methods Cont.
3.1 Cement

Ashaka brand of Portland cement was
used.
The Cement was procured from a
reputable dealer in Yelwa market,
bauchi


The fine aggregate(sharp Sand) used
was obtained from a stream in Bayara
along Bauchi Dass road in Bauchi.

The test conducted on the fine aggregate
were
Particle size distribution
Silt Content
3.2 Fine Aggregate (Sand)
Portable clean water from tap fit for
drinking was used throughout the
experimental work
No test was necessary on the water,
as it is portable.
3.3 Water
The fly ash (FA) used for this study,
was procured from Ashaka Cement
Factory Gombe.
The fly ash is the waste resulting
from the combustion of coal used
for burning limestone and other
raw materials.
3.4 Fly Ash
3.4.1 Production of fly Ash (FA)
The physical and chemical analysis
of FA was carried out in line with
the standard procedure. at the
National Metallurgical
Development Centre Jos, Plateau
State, Nigeria.

3.5 Physical and Chemical
Analysis of FA
In order to ascertain the suitability of
the ashes.
Their individual pozzolanic activity
index were determined using equa. 1.

3.6 Determination of Pozzolanic
Activity Index (PAI)

Determination of Pozzolanic
Activity Index (PAI) Cont.
------1

Compressive strength at 28 days test specimen
Compressive strength of the control specimen at 28 days
PAI =
Cement paste were made with
various quantities of FA as cement
replacements.
The percentage replacements were
made at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and
50%.



3.7 Effect of FA on Cement
The test conducted on the cement
paste were
Consistency
Setting times and
Soundness

Effect of FA on Cement Cont.
The FA were collected, broken into
smaller sizes, and grounded using
mortar and pestle.
The ash was sieved using sieve size
212m
The quantities of the ash passing
sieve size 212m was used to
produce the blocks.

3.8 Production of Sandcrete
Hollow Blocks
Sandcrete mixes 1 part of Cement
to 6 parts of Sand(1:6) and 1 part of
cement to eight part of sand (1:8)
ratio were used.
A water cement ratio of 0.6 was
adopted in all the mixes as
recommended by Okpala and
Ihaza (1987).

Production of Sandcrete hollow
blocks Continues
For each mix proportion 0, 5, 10,
20, 30, 35, 40 and 50% of cement
content was replaced with FA.

Production of Sandcrete hollow
blocks Continues
Mixing was done mechanically,
with cement and FA being mixed
first, the fine aggregate was then
added while mixing continued,
followed by the addition of the
required quantity of water until a
uniform colour and consistency
was achieved.

Production of Sandcrete hollow
blocks Continues
Casting was done manually. The
process adopted represent the true
situation of hollow Sandcrete block
production in most part of Nigeria.
Curing was done by sprinkling the
blocks with water every morning
and evening, until the blocks were
saturated.
Production of Sandcrete hollow
blocks Continues
The blocks were assessed at 1, 3, 7,
14, 28, and 56 days curing periods.
For each test, three specimen were
assessed, and the average value of
the three was reported.
A total of 288 hollow sandcrete
blocks were produced.


Production of Sandcrete hollow
blocks Continues
3.9 Test on Sandcrete Hollow
Blocks
3.9.1 Compressive Strength
The compressive strength is a measure
of the maturity of blocks. The test was
performed in accordance with NIS (1974)
specification.

) (
) (
2
mm specimen of Area Gross
N load failure
strength e compressiv
-------- (2)
3.9.2 Density Test
This test is aimed at determining
the unit weight of the blocks.
The test were conducted in
accordance to Appendix B.1, BS
2028 (1968) specification.

) (
) (
3
m block of Volume
kg block of weight
Density
- - -(3)

The drying shrinkage of the blocks
was determined in accordance with
Appendix B.2, BS 2028 (1968)
specification.
3.9.3 Shrinkage Test
100 x
block of length Original
block dried of length block of length Original
Shrinkage

- - -(4)
The water absorption test are good
indicators of the apparent porosity
of the blocks.
It was performed in accordance
with Appendix B.1 NIS (1974)
specification.
3.9.4 Water Absorption Test
100 x
block dry of weight
absorped water of Weight
absorption Water
- - -(5)
4.0 RESULTS

S/N
Property Value
1
2
3
4
Specific gravity
Loose bulk density (kg/m
3
)
Loss on ignition (%)
Specific surface (m
2
/g)
3.15
1350
1.00
2.30
Table 1: Test results for the physical properties of
Ashaka Brand of Portland cement

Table 2: Test result for the chemical analysis of
Ashaka Brand of Portland Cement
S/N
Oxide composition Percentage of oxide composition
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
CaO
SiO
2

Al
2
O
3

Fe
2
O
3

SO
3

MgO
Na
2
O
K
2
O
63.7
19.90
5.6
2.90
2.30
1.50
0.20
0.71
Table 3: Particle size distribution results for fine aggregate
Total weight of sample = 300g
BS Sieve size Average weight
retained
(g)
Average cum
retained
(g)
Average cum wt
passing
(g)
Average %
passing
Cum.
2.36mm 45.30 45.30 254.70 84.9
2.00mm 17.90 63.20 236.8 78.93
1.18mm 106.5 169.7 130.3 43.4
600m 75.2 244.9 55.1 18.4
300m 31.91 276.81 23.19 7.73
150 m 11.33 288.14 11.86 3.95
63 m 7.93 296.07 3.93 1.31
Receiver 3.93 300 0 0.00
Specific gravity 2.60
Table 4: Silt content test result for fine aggregate
Test No Average value
Average volume of sample (ml)
Average volume of silt (ml)
Silt content =
22.33
1.2
5.37
Silt content =
5
Table 5: Particle size distribution for fly ash (FA)
Total weight of sample = 100g
BS Sieve
size
Weight
retained (g)
Cum Wt
retained (g)
wt passing
(g)
% passing
300m 0 0 100 100.0
212 m 3.2 3.2 96.8 96.8
150 m 14.8 18.0 82 82.0
63 m 13.0 31 69 69.0
Receiver 69.0 100 - -
Table 6: Test results for the Physical properties of
fly ash (FA)
S/N Property Value
1
2
3
4
5
Specific gravity
Bulk density (kg/m
3
)
Loss on ignition (%)
Moisture content (%)
pH
2.25
850
9.4
1.3
9.2
6 Colour Dark grey
Table 7: Test result for the Chemical Analysis of Fly
Ash (FA)
S/N Oxide composition Percentage of oxide composition
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
SiO
2

Al
2
O
3

Fe
2
O
3

CaO
MgO
Na
2
O
K
2
O
SO
3

48.0
22.0
7.8
7.0
1.23
0.80
2.23
1.0
Table 8: Pozzolanic activity index for FA/OPC
S/N
Test specimen
(% replacements)
28 days compressive
strength (N/mm
2
)
Average
compressive
strength (N/mm
2
)
1.
2.
3.
0% ash
0% ash
0% ash
3.28
3.15
3.17

3.20
4.
5.
6.`
30% ash
30% ash
30% ash
2.26
2.35
2.29

2.30
*PAI = Pozzolanic activitiy index
Table 9: Consistency test result for FA/OPC
S/N % Cement replaced by FA Consistency (%)
1 0 33
2 5 34
3 10 35
4 20 37
5 30 39
6 35 40
7 40 41
8 50 43
Table 10: Setting times test results for FA/OPC
S/N % Cement replaced by
FA
Initial setting time Final setting time
1 0 59mins 234mins
2 5 90mins 248mins
3 10 105mins 268mins
4 20 118mins 281mins
5 30 137mins 295mins
6 35 148mins 302mins
7 40 162mins 310mins
8 50 174mins 328min
Table 11: Soundness test results for FA/OPC
S/N % Cement replaced by FA Soundness (mm)
1 0 1.5
2 5 1.6
3 10 1.8
4 20 2.0
5 30 2.4
6 35 2.6
7 40 2.8
8 50 3.2
Table 12: Compressive Strength of Sandcrete Hollow
Blocks Produced with FA at mix ratio 1:6.

S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by FA
compressive Strength (N/mm
2
)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days


1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6
1 0 0.44 0.85 1.60 2.56 3.60 3.93
2 5 0.40 0.74 1.42 2.34 3.45 3.32
3 10 0.37 0.63 1.30 2.21 3.29 3.06
4 20 0.25 0.50 1.12 1.96 2.88 2.91
5 30 0.15 0.36 0.84 1.46 2.30 2.23
6 35 0.08 0.20 0.72 1.33 1.72 2.02
7 40 0.00 0.12 0.43 0.98 1.05 1.78
8 50 0.00 0.08 0.33 0.65 0.90 1.22
Table 13: Compressive Strength of Sandcrete Hollow
Blocks Produced with FA at mix ratio 1:8.

S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by FA
compressive Strength (N/mm
2
)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8
1 0 0.40 0.79 1.48 2.28 2.90 3.25
2 5 0.36 0.62 1.26 2.09 2.71 3.04
3 10 0.30 0.51 1.11 1.98 2.58 2.93
4 20 0.20 0.40 1.01 1.73 2.25 2.50
5 30 0.10 0.25 0.70 1.30 1.70 1.94
6 35 0.00 0.14 0.53 1.18 1.45 1.78
7 40 0.00 0.07 0.32 0.75 0.93 1.31
8 50 0.00 0.04 0.25 0.40 0.68 0.98
Table 14: Density of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks
Produced with FA at mix ratio 1:6.
S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by RHA
Density (kg/m
3
)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6
1 0
2016 2002 1995 2006 1985 1976
2 5 1986 1978 1949 1980 1940 1941
3 10 1942 1934 1928 1952 1904 1910
4 20 1898 1901 1886 1912 1883 1888
5 30 1840 1881 1836 1883 1820 1840
6 35 1816 1845 1800 1854 1792 1802
7 40 1792 1815 1782 1808 1772 1784
8
50 1770 1793 1760 1782 1749 1768
Table 15: Density of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks
Produced with FA at mix ratio 1:8
S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by RHA
Density (kg/m
3
)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8
1 0
1976 1968 1957 1979 1970 1958
2 5 1959 1943 1922 1936 1922 1908
3 10 1905 1902 1902 1906 1870 1884
4 20 1878 1871 1848 1882 1832 1838
5 30 1821 1839 1802 1842 1794 1804
6 35 1784 1822 1770 1823 1761 1778
7 40 1769 1792 1745 1785 1748 1756
8
50 1748 1768 1732 1758 1736 1739
Table 16: Shrinkage of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks
Produced With FA at mix ratio 1:6.

S/N
% of
Cement
Replace
d by
RHA
Shrinkage (%)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6
1 0 NV 0.01 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.038
2 5 NV 0.011 0.018 0.020 0.030 0.040
3 10 NV 0.016 0.020 0.021 0.041 0.042
4 20 NV 0.020 0.025 0.023 0.041 0.048
5 30 0.008 0.020 0.028 0.030 0.042 0.051
6 35 0.008 0.022 0.030 0.035 0.042 0.052
7 40 0.009 0.024 0.034 0.038 0.043 0.053
8 50 0.009 0.025 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.053
* NV No Value.

Table 17: Shrinkage of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks
Produced with FA at mix ratio 1:8
* NV No Value.

S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by RHA
Shrinkage (%)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8
1 0 NV 0.014 0.020 0.024 0.030 0.039
2 5 NV 0.014 0.025 0.025 0.038 0.041
3 10 NV 0.019 0.029 0.025 0.045 0.043
4 20 NV 0.024 0.031 0.030 0.046 0.049
5 30 0.008 0.025 0.034 0.032 0.047 0.052
6 35 0.008 0.025 0.038 0.040 0.048 0.053
7 40 0.009 0.030 0.039 0.042 0.049 0.054
8 50 0.009 0.030 0.041 0.045 0.050 0.054
Table 18: Water Absorption of Sandcrete Hollow
Blocks Produced With FA at mix ratio 1:6
S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by FA
Water Absorption (%)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6 1: 6
1 0 8.20 7.60 6.20 5.70 5.10 4.70
2 5 8.25 7.80 6.30 5.80 5.30 4.90
3 10 8.30 7.82 6.28 5.98 5.62 5.15
4 20 8.40 7.82 6.60 6.18 5.74 5.27
5 30 8.42 7.95 7.10 6.40 5.96 5.48
6 35 8.42 8.10 7.40 6.40 5.82 5.68
7 40 8.44 8.15 7.58 6.39 6.01 5.91
8 50 8.46 8.20 7.80 6.48 6.10 5.92
Table 19: Water Absorption of Sandcrete Hollow
Blocks Produced With FA at mix ratio 1:8.
S/N
% of
Cement
Replaced
by FA
Water Absorption (%)
1
day
3
days
7
days
14
days
28
days
56
days
1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8 1: 8
1 0 8.40 7.90 7.05 6.50 6.02 5.60
2 5 8.50 8.10 7.35 6.85 6.10 5.74
3 10 8.51 8.14 7.40 7.02 6.40 5.63
4 20 8.50 8.20 7.80 7.28 6.60 5.74
5 30 8.54 8.18 8.15 7.50 6.85 5.86
6 35 8.56 8.25 8.26 7.47 6.90 6.12
7 40 8.58 8.35 8.38 7.51 6.80 6.28
8 50 8.58 8.40 8.42 7.70 6.85 6.34
5.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
5.1 Materials
5.1.1 Cement
The values obtained were all within the
range specified by Neville (1982) and
BS 12 (1978) Specification
S/N
Oxide
Composition
Test results
obtained
Range
specified by
BS 12 (1978)
Range
specified by
A.M Neville
(1982)
1. CaO 63.7 60 67 60 67
2. SiO
2
19.90 17 25 17 25
3. Al
2
O
3
5.6 3 8 2 8
4. Fe
2
O
3
2.90 0.5 6.0 0 6
5. SO
3
2.30 1 3 1 3
6. MgO 1.5 0.1 4.0 0.1 4.0
7. Na
2
O 0.20 0.2 1.3 0.2 1.5
8. K
2
O 0.71 0.2 1.3 0.2 1.5
Table 20: Comparison of test results of Ashaka
Brand of Portland Cement
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

P
a
s
s
i
n
g

(
%
)

Figure 1. Particle size Distribution for fine aggregate
silt sand
Gravel
Med
Coarse
Coarse Coarse
Fine Fine
Medium Medium
5.1.2 FINE AGGREGATE
Fine Aggregate (Sand) continues
The materials falls within zone 2
Neville (1982)
Implying that it is good for concrete
works
It has a silt content of 5.37% which is
less than 6%, it implies that it has a
good bond between cement and the
fine aggregate
Table 21. Comparison of FA and OPC
1: Size Distribution

Sieve size % Passing
(FA)
% Passing
(OPC)
212m
150m
63m
100
82
69
100
78
65
Table 22. Comparison of FA and OPC
2: Specific Gravity and Bulk density
S/N Parameter FA OPC
1.
2.
S.G
Bulk Density
2.25
850Kg/m
3
3.15
1350Kg/m
3
Comparison Cont.
The specific gravity of FA was
29% lower than OPC.
The bulk density of FA was 37%
lower than OPC.

Table 23. FA as Pozzolana
S/N Parameter FA(%) ASTM C618
(1978)
1.
2.
3.
MgO
M.C
Carbon Content
1.23
1.30
9.4
Max. 4%
Max. 1.5%
Max. 12%
4.
5.
6.
SiO
2
Al
2
O
3
Fe
2
O
3
48
22
7.8
The sum of
SiO
2
, Al
2
O
3

and Fe
2
O
3
>
70%
TOTAL 77.8% > 70%
5.2 Pozzolanic Activity Index
PAI for FA blocks = 72%
ASTM C 618 (1978) recommends a
Minimum PAI value of 70%
FA confirmed to be Pozzolanic and
can be used as a pozzolanic materials
5.3 Effect of Ashes on Cement paste
5.3.1 Effect of fly Ash on cement paste
30
35
40
45
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
C
o
n
s
i
s
t
e
n
c
y

(
%
)

% of fly ash
Fig 2. Consistency of OPC/FA paste
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
S
e
t
t
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
i
n
s
)

% of Fly ash
Fig 3 Setting Time of OPC/FA paste
Initial setting time
Final Setting time
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
S
o
u
n
d
n
e
s
s

(
m
m
)

% of fly ash
Fig 4. Soundness of OPC/FA paste
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
1 3 7 14 28 56 (days)
D
r
y


D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

(
N
/
m
m
2
)

Curing Period (Days)
Fig 5. Compressive strength of Blocks at 20% cement replacement
with Fly ash
20% FA for mix 1:6
20% FA for mix 1:8
FA
5.5 Compressive Strength
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
D
r
y

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

(
N
/
m
m
2
)

% Replacement of cement with Fly ash
Fig 6. Compressive strength of Blocks at 56 days curing period
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
FA
The blocks containing 20% FA
recorded a maximum compressive
strength values of 2.91N/mm
2
and
2.50N/mm
2
at 56 days curing periods
BS 2028 (1968) Recommended a
minimum strength of 3.5N/mm
2
.
While FMW (1985) Recommended a
minimum strength of 2.1N/mm
2
.

Compressive Strength Continues
Based on FMW(1985)
recommendation, Sandcrete blocks
containing, Blocks containing fly ash
of 1:6 sand cement ratio from 0 up to
30% replacement have strength
greater than 2.1 N/mm
2
, when cured
at 28, and 56days, while for mix ratio
1:8 from 0 up to 20% replacements
have strength greater than 2.1
N/mm
2
when cured at 28 and 56ays.
Compressive Strength Continues
Studies conducted by Oyetola and
Abdullahi (2003), Rasheed (1992),
Adeshola (1993) and Duna et al
(2003) assessed the compressive
strength of hollow sandcrete blocks
produced by reputable
manufacturers in Minna, Kaduna,
Ilorin, Bauchi and Gombe States.
Compressive Strength Continues
They obtained maximum
compressive strength values of 0.79,
1.06, 0.68, 0.64 and 0.78 N/mm
2

respectively. When compared with
the compressive strength results
obtained from this study i.e. (blocks
containing FA), the strengths
recorded were higher than those
obtained from the states mentioned.

Compressive Strength Continues
1800
1810
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1 3 7 14 28 56 (days)
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
K
g
/
m
3
)

Curing Period (Days)
Fig 9. Density of Blocks at 20% cement replacement with FA
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
FA
5.7 Density
FA
1550
1600
1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
D
e
n
s
i
t
y


(
K
g
/
m
3
)

% Replacement with FA
Fig 10. Density of Blocks at 56 days curing period
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
BS 2028 (1968) specifies that the density
for type A and B blocks should be
within the range of (625-2100 kg/m
3
).
Therefore the values obtained for the
densities were all within the range
specified for sandcrete blocks.
Density Continues
FA
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
1 3 7 14 28 56 (days)
S
h
r
i
n
k
a
g
e

(
%
)

Curing Period (Days)
Fig 11. Shrinkage of Blocks at 20% cement replacement with FA
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
5.8 Shrinkage
FA
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
S
h
r
i
n
k
a
g
e

(
%
)

% Replacement with FA
Fig 12. Shrinkage of Blocks at 56 days curing period
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
The shrinkage is one of the
measures of assessing the
quality of blocks;
The test results reveal that at
the first day curing, there were
no noticeable shrinkages
Shrinkage Cont.
Higher shrinkage values were
obtained on blocks made with 1:8
mix ratios than that of mix ratio 1:6.
This is also in agreement with
Owolabi (1992) which confirms
that shrinkages are well
pronounced in leaner mix than in
rich mixes.

Shrinkage Continues
The magnitude of the
shrinkage is small and does
not adversely affect the
volume of the sandcrete
blocks.
Shrinkage Continues
The shrinkage values obtained were
also in conformity with the values
obtained by Rasheed (1992), Adeshola
(1993) and Matawal et al (2006), which
gives their shrinkage values as 0.03,
0.02 and 0.05% respectively.
Shrinkage Continues
BS 2028 (1968) specifies that the
shrinkage should not be more
than 0.07%.

Shrinkage Continues
FA
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1 3 7 14 28 56(days)
W
a
t
e
r

a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

%

Curing Period (Days)
Fig 13. Water absorption of Blocks at 20% cement replacement with FA
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
5.9 Water Absorption
FA
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 5 10 20 30 35 40 50
W
a
t
e
r

a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

%

% Replacement with FA
Fig 14. Water absorption of Blocks at 56 days curing period
20% of replace 1:6
20% of replace 1:8
The test results reveal that blocks
made with 1: 8 mix ratio recorded
higher water absorption than those
made with 1:6 mix ratio for all the
replacement levels and curing
periods.
Water Absorption Continues
NIS (1974) recommends maximum
water absorption of up to 25% by
weight. Therefore the values
obtained for the water absorption
are all within the specified values.

Water Absorption Continues
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 CONCLUSION
This work is aimed at assessing the
possibility of using FA as pozzolana
in the production of sandcrete
blocks.
A series of tests on the engineering
properties of the hollow sandcrete
blocks containing FA were
conducted.
Test results on the blocks were
compared with that of the control,
international and local standards and
test results from blocks produced
from reputable commercial
manufacturers

CONCLUSION Continues
Based on the results and
discussion made, the following
conclusions can be drawn.



CONCLUSION Continues
1. The sum of pozzolanic oxides of the
FA used for the study was obtained
as 77.8%.
2. The specific gravity of FA was 2.25.
The obtained value was 29% lower
than that of ordinary Portland
cement, OPC.




CONCLUSION Continues
3. The bulk density of FA obtained was
850kg/m
3
. The value obtained was
37% lower than that of ordinary
Portland cement, OPC.
4. The pozzolanic activity index PAI,
determined at 30% ash to cement
replacement was 72% for FA.

CONCLUSION Continues
5. The normal consistency of the paste
increases as the proportion of the
ash increases. The average
consistency of FA cement paste was
38%.
CONCLUSION Continues
6. The initial and final setting
times increase as the
percentages of the ashes
increased. All the values
obtained fall within the values
recommended by BS 12 (1978).

CONCLUSION Continues
7. The soundness increases slightly
with increase in percentage of ash.
The maximum soundness values of
2.8mm was obtained for FA cement
paste. All the values obtained were
within the values recommended by
BS 12 (1978).
CONCLUSION Continues
8. The quality of the raw materials
used for the sandcrete blocks
(cement and sand) were
assessed; the test results show
that the materials meet the
requirements specified by the
standards, BS 12 (1978), BS 882
part 1 and 2 (1973).

CONCLUSION Continues
9. There were similarities in the
particle size distribution of FA
and OPC used in the hollow
sandcrete blocks production,
making the materials to blend
properly.

CONCLUSION Continues
10. The compressive strength
increases with increase in
curing periods.
11. The compressive strength
decreased with increase in FA
content.
CONCLUSION Continues
12. Based on FMW(1985)
recommendation, Sandcrete blocks
containing, Blocks containing fly ash
of 1:6 sand cement ratio from 0 up to
30% replacement have strength
greater than 2.1 N/mm
2
, when cured
at 28, and 56days, while for mix ratio
1:8 from 0 up to 20% replacements
have strength greater than 2.1 N/mm
2

when cured at 28 and 56days.
CONCLUSION Continues
13. The sandcrete blocks made
with 1:6 (cement: sand) ratio
had higher densities than
those made with 1:8 mixes.
14. The densities of the blocks
obtained were all within
the values specified by BS
2028 (1968).
CONCLUSION Continues
15. The shrinkage of the sandcrete
blocks increased slightly as the
percentages of FA increases; and also
increased with increase in curing
period.
16. The higher shrinkage values were
obtained on blocks made with 1:8
(cement: sand) mix ratio as
compared with those made with 1:6
mixes.

CONCLUSION Continues
17. The shrinkage values
obtained were all within
the values specified by the
standards.
18. The water absorption
increased with increase in
percentage of FA content and
decreases as the curing period
increases.

CONCLUSION Continues
19. Higher water absorption values
were obtained for blocks made
with 1:8 (cement: sand) mix ratio
as compared with those made
with 1:6 mixes.
20. The water absorption values
obtained were all within the
values specified by British and
Nigerian standards.

CONCLUSION Continues
6.2 Recommendation
Based on the results obtained from this
study, the following recommendations can be
made:


There is the need to study the noise,
heat absorption (acoustic and
thermal) including the electrical
resistivity of the pozzolanic blocks.
There is the need to construct a
house using the blocks containing
FA, so as to reflect the real situation.
The constructed house will help in
assessing the strength of the wall on
dry and wet situations as well as to
evaluate the actual cost of
construction and compared with
that of blocks with no ash.

Recommendation Continues
Thank You

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