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Peter Aristotle C.

Dela Cruz
URC-Graduate School
It is the pregnancy associated with increased
risk whether for the mother, or the fetus
The risk factors may be divided into
socioeconomic, demographic and medical categories.
Risk factors
I. Socioeconomic factors:
1. Socioeconomic status.
2. Occupation.
3. Social support.
Maladaptation may increase anxiety
which can cause physical complications
during pregnancy including preterm labor.
Risk factors
II. Demographic factors:
1. Maternal age: Optimal maternal age for
childbearing is 2030 years.with a steadily
increasing risk of perinatal mortality with
increasing age above 30yrs.
2. Maternal education: As the length of
the mothers" education increases,
perinatal mortality and morbidity rates drop
3 Grandmultiparity.
Risk factors
III. Medical factors & pregnancy problems:
2 Diabetes.
3 Cardiac diseases.
4 Pulmonary diseases.
5 Renal diseases.
6 Postterm and preterm labor, PROM,
7 Previous 2 or more abortions , or
missed abortion or intrauterine fetal death
Teenage pregnancy is defined as a teenage
or underage girl, usually within the ages of
13-17, becoming pregnant.
A combination of factors contributing to the
inability to eradicate teenage pregnancy
(DHHS, 2000)
Earlier menarche on girls
Increase in the rate of sexual activity
among teenagers
Lack of knowledge about contraceptives
Desire by girls to have a child
Some teenagers become pregnant as a
result of rape

Complications of Adolescent
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Preterm labor
Cephalopelvic Disproportion
Postpartal Hemorrhage
Inability to adapt postpartally
Lack of Knowledge about infant care

Could Genetics Contribute to
researchers interviewed 298 men and 237
women whose mothers had experienced
preeclampsia and compared them to men
and women whose mothers did not
experience preeclampsia

Could Genetics Contribute to
Results showed that:
men whose mothers had experienced
preeclampsia were twice as likely to father
a child-whose birth was complicted by the
disorder as were those whose mother had
a pregnancy without the complication.
Women whose own births were
complicated by preeclampsia were three
times as likely to suffer the illness during
their own pregnancies as others

Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study
by the University of the Philippines
Population Institute (2002)
26 percent of our Filipino youth nationwide
from ages 15 to 25 admitted to having a
premarital sex experience.
38 percent of our youth are already in a live-in
3.6 million of our teenagers (5.2 percent of
population) got pregnant.
92 percent of these teens, the pregnancy was
78 percent, did not even use contraceptives
the first time they had sex.
How can adolescent pregnancy
be made safer? (WHO-DMPS 2008)
Improving the involvement of boys
and men and the community at
large, and including mothers-in-
law in societies where they are the
main decision-makers both at
household and community level,
would ensure their support and
acceptance in utilization of services.
Ensuring good pregnancy outcomes
start with home based care
practices that support the mother
and her newborn before, during,
and after the pregnancy.
How can adolescent pregnancy
be made safer? (WHO-DMPS 2008)
Knowledge about pregnancy complications
and recognizing the signs of complications
should be widely disseminated to pregnant
adolescents, their families and the
community at large.
How can adolescent pregnancy
be made safer? (WHO-DMPS 2008)
Adolescent mothers should be
provided with life skills to increase
their autonomy, mobility, self-
esteem, and decision-making
Because adolescents are relatively
more susceptible to violence from
intimate partners than are older
women, it is important to implement
programs to empower adolescents
to deal with domestic violence.
Making pregnancy safer for the young
mothers and their babies is a priority for
countries as they strive to meet targets
for improving basic health care.
Maternal and newborn health programs
have a clear role in better serving the
needs of the young mothers. However,
more and better research is needed to
expand the evidence base on effective
interventions for pregnant adolescents
and to translate knowledge into action.