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1 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.

0
Introduction to 3G/UMTS
Networks
By

Kittipong Thamapa
Email: kittipong.thamapa@nokia.com
2 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

List at least three significant events in the evolution of CDMA
networks

List the four main network subsystems of 3G

Explain how existing GSM networks support 3G

Name the four basic air interface access technologies

List at least three key benefits of WCDMA and identify at
least three advantages of 3G networks for both the operator
and the end-user

Objectives
3 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Vision of 3G/UMTS Specification
Worldwide specified
Clear added value to GSM and backward compatible
with GSM/ISDN
Full support for multimedia and advanced services
and service must not be limited by network capability
Full coverage and mobility 384 Kbps
Limited coverage ~2 Mbps
High spectrum efficiency compare to existing system

4 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Americas: GSM
EDGE IS-136
China: GSM
EDGE, WCDMA
SEAP: GSM
EDGE, WCDMA
Korea: WCDMA
Japan: WCDMA
Europe: GSM
EDGE, WCDMA
3G globally
5 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
1900 First human voice transmission (Reginald
Fessenden)
1948 John Pierce describes CDMA Multiplexing
Significant events in (W)CDMA
evolution
Where was CDMA first used?
1906 First radio broadcast (Fessenden)
1949 Claude Shannon & John Pierce describe major
CDMA effects

1956 "Antimultipath" RAKE receiver patented
6 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
1970s CDMA used in several military communication and
navigation
systems

Why was CDMA implemented for military use?
1980s Studies for narrowband CDMA for commercial mobile
networks

Significant events in (W)CDMA
evolution
1990s Studies for wideband (~5 MHz) CDMA for mobile
cellular
systems
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Significant events in (W)CDMA
evolution
1996 UMTS forum established
1997 ITU requests proposals for candidate radio transmission
technologies for IMT-2000 radio interface
1993 USA used CDMA standardised in 2nd generation
1998 ITU receives 10 proposals for terrestrial RTTs and
5 for satellite RTTs including:

- CDMA2000 (USA)
- ARIB W-CDMA (Japan)
- UTRA (Europe)
8 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
1998 3GPP formed to develop of a joint 3G system based
on evolved GSM core and UTRA air interface
1999 ETSI starts UMTS project

1999 4 UMTS licenses awarded in Finland
(beauty contest, January)
2001-2 Commercial use of WCDMA network
Significant events in (W)CDMA
evolution
9 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0

3G.IP
OHG
Specification Bodies
3G
3GPP : 3G Partnership Project
www.3gpp.org
10 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
3G Access Rate targets
Environment RT Service Peak Rate
(Delay fixed 20 300 ms)
NRT Service Peak Rate
(Delay varies 20 300 ms)
Rural Outdoor
(Speed < 250 km/h)
144 384 kb/s 144 384 kb/s
Urban/Suburban
(Speed < 150 km/h)
384 512 kb/s
384 512 kb/s
Indoor/Low Range Outdoor
(Speed < 10 km/h)
- 2 Mb/s
(Special conditions)
- 2 Mb/s
(Special conditions)
Pedestrian & Office (<10 km/h):
bit rate <= 2 Mb/s
Outdoor (< 150 km/h):
bit rate 384 kb/s, target 512 kb/s
Outdoor (<250 km/h):
bit rate 144 kb/s, preferably more
3G Radio Access
11 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Features of WCDMA
Efficient use of spectrum
No frequency management
Low mobile station transmit power
Uplink and downlink resource utilisation independent
Wide variety of data rates
Improvement of multi-path resolution RAKE receiver
Statistical multiplexing advantage
Increased standby-time from higher rate control
channels.


12 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Key operator benefits
New service capabilities
(means new business opportunity
for operators)
Revenue opportunity with increased
data/voice traffic
New frequency spectrum
The path towards IP mobility


13 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Key end-user benefits
Integrated customised
services
Simplified service
provisioning and service
upgrades
Wireless personal Internet
Multimedia messaging
Enhanced e-mail
Improved quality of service
Support for video/audio clips
14 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
HW/SW Changes
Network evolution
MSC&VLR
HLR & AC & EIR
PSTN
BSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
TCSM
TCSM
ISDN
A GSM network is made from 3 Sub-Systems (BSS, NSS and OSS)
Value Added
Service Platform(s):
SMSC, VMS
Even at the start, VAS (value added services) were part of GSM networks
TRX Change & Transmission Upgrade
HW/SW Changes
IN
IN was introduced for new services and differentiation (e.g. Pre-Paid)
IP Networks
Data Rates in GSM are increased by implementation of Features like HSCSD
SGSN
GGSN
IP Networks
GPRS is added to existing networks to support Packed Data Higher data rates are obtained by introducing EDGE in the GSM network
UMTS Rel'3; new WBTS, Radio Network Controller(RNC),
Media Gateway (MGW), 3G-SGSN
MGW RNC
BTS
3G-SGSN
15 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
The subsystems of UMTS
WCDMA
ATM
Iu

NMS
CN
RAN
O&M
Uu
UE
UE = User Equipment
RAN = Radio Acces Network
CN = Core Network
NMS = Network Management System
Service
Platform
16 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
3G network management layers
Mobility Management (MM)
Session Management (SM)
Communication Management (CM)
Radio Resource Management (RRM)
UE RAN CN
Higher layer functions:
Call Control
Supplementary Service
SMS

Circuit/Packet-switched
session management:
PDP Context Activation
CS-call Setup



Managed mainly by
CN domains
Location Update
Location Registration
Paging


Control of Radio Resources
Admission Control
Load Control
Packet Scheduling
Handover Control
Resource Management
Power Control
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So you see bla, bla, bla, yada, yada
110000110101100011101110001
The difference between analogue and digital
1G move to 2G
18 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
4 Basic Air Interface Access
Technology
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple
Access)

SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
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20 to 50 miles
High power Lower Frequency
lines to switching center
1. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
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With FDMA, the users transmit
simultaneously using separate
frequencies
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2. SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
Disadvantages with FDMA?
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TDMA divides the frequency
into multiple time slices
3. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
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4. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
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CDMA identifies each conversation
by a code rather than frequency or time
slice
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Sharing the frequency by using different
codes
Codes
Power (P)
Time
Frequency
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2G move to 3G
WCDMA air interface (5 MHz bandwidth)
Frequency
Band
Spreading
Factor
Power
WCDMA
Originating Bit Received Bit
3G Service support various data rate
by using different Spreading Factor
27 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Spreading and sharing the same space
f f
f f
User A User A
User B User B
Data Data Data after Data after
spreading spreading
P P
P P
Transmission Transmission
over the air over the air
Despread Despread
User A signal User B signal
at the receiver at the receiver
f f
f f
f f f f
P
P
P
P
28 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
Managing interference in CDMA
Despread Despread
signal at signal at
the receiver
the receiver
Transmission
Transmission
over the air
over the air
signal signal
interference interference
f f
f f
p p
p p
signal signal
interference interference
29 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
3GPP Specifications
Release 3 (known as Rel' 99)
Compatibility with GSM
Inter-operability
Services
UTRAN specifications, including WCDMA
air interface (Uu)

Release 4 and 5 (known as Rel'00)
Release 4 mainly specifies All-IP core
network
Release 5 will specify VoIP and adding
features to Release 4
The role of the MSC/VLR will change; the
traffic will no longer go through the element,
but it will control the calls as a server

30 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
1. Which of the following definitions for the
abbreviation 3GPP is true?
A. It is a specification body organised by the
manufactures to promote new
technologies.
B. It is an EU organisation that specifies all
the features that a 3G network must
support.
C. It is an organisational body by the
operators to promote the harmonisation
of different 3G technologies.
D. It is the name of the interface between
the RAN and the CN.
E. It is a specification body that takes care
of the specification work in co-operation
with many institutes.

31 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
2. Name the four subsystems in the UMTS
network Release 3.
RAN (Radio Access Network)
CN (Core Network)
NMS (Network Management Subsystems) NetAct
Service Platform
32 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
3. Which of the following elements is not part
of the core network?
A. HLR
B. GGSN
C. RNC
D. EIR


33 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
4. Which of the following sentences about
EDGE is true?
A. EDGE is needed to support IN prepaid
services.
B. EDGE is using a more efficient coding
and modulation technique than in GSM to
increase data throughput.
C. EDGE and GSM networks are
incompatible.
D. EDGE will allow telephone calls to take
place faster as people can talk faster than
in GSM institutes.

34 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
5. The SGSN is not needed to support 3G IP
connections.

FDMA
SDMA
TDMA
CDMA

FALSE
6. List the four basic air interface
technologies.


35 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
7. Which of the following is true
(circle the correct answer)?

A. 1
st
generation networks are digital and 2
nd

generation networks are analogue.
B. WCDMA is a 2
nd
generation technology.
C. TDMA and CDMA were introduced in 2
nd

generation networks.
D. Data, fax, and SMS services will first be
introduced with WCDMA.

36 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
8. Describe the main difference between
analogue and digital.
Analogue
: The information, I.e. voice , is modulate directly
with carrier and transmit over the air. (easy to trap
information)

Digital
: The information, quantised to digital format ( 0 or 1
) (if it analogue) then modulate and transmit over
the air.
37 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
9. Which of the following are benefits of
WCDMA (circle the correct answer)?
A. Improvement of Erlang capacity.
B. No frequency change allows
imperceptible soft handovers.
C. New available frequency spectrum.
D. All of the above.

38 NOKIA Kittipon Thamapa v2.0
10. CDMA is an access technology, which was
developed for high capacity commercial mobile
networks.

a. Integrated services that may be customised per subscriber
b. Ability to download and activate new services at will
c. Multimedia messaging
d. Possibility for telecommuting
e. Improved quality of service
f. Videophony
g. Location-based services
h. Support for video/audio clips


FALSE
11. Which of the following are benefits or
services for the end user? .