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1600-1750

The term Baroque is probably derived from


thePortuguese word barroco (Spanish barrueco),
(Italian barocco) used to describe an irregular or
imperfectly shaped pearl, and this usage still
survives in the jewelers term baroque pearl.
In informal usage, the word baroque can simply
mean that something is "elaborate", with many
details, without reference to the Baroque styles
of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Baroque is a period of artistic style that used
exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted
detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and
grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture,
literature, dance, and music. The style began
around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of
Europe.
The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of
Baroque architecture and art as a means of
impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power
and control. Baroque palaces are built around an
entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception
rooms of sequentially increasing opulence.

Baroque Music is a style of European Classical Music between 1600 to
1750. The baroque period is notable for the development of
counterpoint, a period in which harmonic complexity grew alongside
emphasis on contrast. In opera, interest was transferred from
recitative to aria, and in church music the contrasts of solo voices,
chorus, and orchestra were developed to a high degree. In
instrumental music the period saw the emergence of the sonata, the
suite, and particularly the concerto grosso, as in the music of Corelli,
Vivaldi, Handel, and Bach. Most baroque music uses continuo. Note
that 18th century writers used 'baroque' in a pejorative sense to
mean 'coarse' or 'old-fashioned in taste'.

There are several well-known
composers of baroque music, such as
Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric
Handel, Antonio Vivaldi, and many
more.

Counterpoint describes two or more independent
lines of music played simultaneously, in other
words "note against note. Counterpoint reached a
high level of development in the baroque era,
especially the music of J.S. Bach.
Instrumental forms such as Concerto Grosso;
Fugue; Suite (often containing Allemande,
Courante, Sarabande, Gigue, Gavotte, Minuet);
Sonata (such as Sonata da camera, Sonata di
chiesa, and Trio Sonata); Partita; Canzona;
Sinfonia; Fantasia; Ricercar; Toccata; Prelude;
Passacaglia; Chaconne; Stylus Fantasticus.
sVocal forms such as Opera (Opera seria,
Opera comique, and Opera-ballet); Oratorio;
Passion; Mass; Cantata; Chorale.
String instruments such as the lute, violin,
viola, cello and double bass.
Brass instruments like the trumpet, horn and
sackbut were used.
Popular wind instruments included the
recorder, flute, oboe and bassoon. Baroque
keyboard music was often composed for the
organ or harpsichord.
Occasionally, baroque composers utilized other
unique and lesser-known instruments which
have since become obscure.
The Baroque trumpet is a lot different from
the modern day trumpet which is equipped
with valves.
The Baroque trumpet is very limited in its
range.
It is sometimes referred to as the natural
trumpet
Harpsichord (Italian cembalo; French clavecin),
stringed keyboard instrument in which the
strings are plucked to produce sound. It was
developed in Europe in the 14th or 15th
century and was widely used from the 16th to
the early 19th century, when it was superseded
by the piano.
One of the string instruments used during
the Baroque period is the Lute.
It has a flat fir belly, or soundboard, and a
deep, extremely lightweight, pear-shaped
body made by bending narrow strips of
wood (ribs) and gluing them side by side.
The Viol looks like a Cello with frets and six
strings.
It was made in three principal sizes (treble,
tenor, and bass), it has a deep body and sloped
shoulders; a violin-like bridge; C-shaped sound
holes; and tied-on gut frets that contribute to its
clear, penetrating sound.
The baroque flute was wooden with holes as
opposed to the more recent ones made of metal
and are fitted with keys.
The word flute was used indiscriminately to
denote both types during medieval times, but
in the baroque period flute or flauto specifically
meant the end-blown recorder.