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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Exploring LTE
Day 1
11-12
th
Sep 13
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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Contents
Day 2
LTE Signaling
LTE Procedures
Parameters
KPIs and Counters
NSN LTE solution approach
Radio
Transport
Core
LTE Key Features
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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Mobile broadband traffic more than doubles
every year, Video traffic dominates since 2011
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Motivation for LTE
The Communications Service Provider view
Source: Light Reading (adapted)
Voice dominated Data dominated
Traffic volume
Revenue
Time
Network cost (LTE)
Network cost
(existing technologies)
Profitability
LTE reduces the cost/Mb
LTE improves
user experience
Mobile network
traffic and costs
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Motivation for LTE
Subscriber view: better broadband experience
Broadband
everywhere
LTE
on low
frequency
bands, e.g.
digital dividend
High-Speed
Broadband
Capacity for
all
LTE
on large
frequency bands,
e.g. 2.6GHz
10-20ms latency
100 Mbps peak data rate
already with initial devices

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Main LTE Requirements [3GPP TS25.913]
Peak data rates of uplink/downlink 50/100 Mbps
Reduced Latency:
Enables round trip time <10 ms
Ensure good level of mobility and security
Optimized for low mobile speed but also support high mobile speed
Frequency flexibility and bandwidth scalability:
with 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz allocations
Improved Spectrum Efficiency:
Capacity 2-4 times higher than with Release 6 HSPA
Efficient support of the various types of services, especially from the PS
domain
Packet switched optimized
Operation in FDD and TDD modes
Improved terminal power efficiency
Support for inter-working with existing 3GPP system and non-3GPP specified
systems
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Standardisation bodies around LTE

Next Generation Mobile Networks. Is a group of mobile
operators to share, assess, and drive aspects of mobile
broadband technologies focusing on LTE & EPC (Evolved
Packet Core) and its evolution.
More in www.ngmn.org
Collaboration agreement established in December
1998. The collaboration agreement brings together a
number of telecommunications standards bodies: ARIB,
CCSA, ETSI, ATIS, TTA, and TTC.
More in www.3gpp.org
LTE/SAE Trial Initiative. The LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI)
is a global collaborative technology trial driven by vendors
and network operator focused on accelerating the availability
of commercial and inter-operable next generation LTE mobile
broadband systems.
More in http://www.lstiforum.com/
LSTI
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TD-LTE specific Initiative : GTI

Founded by leading mobile network operators in 2011.

Global TD-LTE Initiative (GTI) is a virtual open platform to
advocate co-operation among global operators to promote TD-
LTE.

GTI is formed to create value for stakeholders across the TD-LTE
ecosystem for early adoption of the technology and convergence
of TD-LTE and LTE FDD.


GTI organizes a series of activities to bring operators and
vendors together for sharing development strategies and
technology know-how, expediting the development of terminals
and fostering of global roaming and low-cost terminals, etc

More info http://www.lte-tdd.org/

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3GPP LTE Background (1/2)
Milestones
End 2004 3GPP workshop on UTRAN Long Term Evolution
March 2005 Study item started
December 2005 Multiple access selected
March 2006 Functionality split between radio and core agreed
September 2006 Study item closed & approval of the work items
December 2007 1st version of all radio specs approved
March 2008 3GPP Release 8 Stage 1 specifications were frozen
December 2008 3GPP freeze of LTE as part of Release 8 (exceptions
for the EPC to be completed until March2009)
2005 2006 2007 2008
Feasibility
study started
Multiple
access
selected
Feasibility
study closed
Work item
started
Work plan
approved
Stage 2
approved
Stage 3
approved
Radio Specs
approved
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3GPP LTE Background (2/2)
Schedule
2009 Start of Customer Trials
March 2009 Ratification of 3GPP Release 8:
LTE standardization is completed and approved by 3GPP Release 8 supporting FDD and
TDD modes with the same specification and hardware components
2010 3GPP Release 9 gets ready. Self-organised networks
2011 3GPP Release 10 gets ratified (LTE A)
2012 3GPP Release 8 networks deployments for TDD

2008 2009 2010 2011
Demonstrate
LTE Air
Interface
Performance
Operator Trials.
Friendly-use
networks
LTE Networks
Launch:
commercial
solution
available
(3Q2010)
Large Scale LTE
Networks.
VoIP service
optimized.
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LTE Overview
Market Trends
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Why LTE?
Superior mobile broadband user experience
GSM HSPA+
LTE
Throughput latency
GSM HSPA+ LTE
10ms
100 Mbps 150
ms
<1 Mbit
<50
ms
>42 Mbps
Industry commitment behind the ecosystem
443 LTE network operator
commitments in 130 countries
> 380 million LTE subscribers
by 2015
Forecast for LTE lead markets by Research and
Markets
Technology convergence
GSM
WCDMA
CDMA
WiMAX
TD-
SCDMA
FDD
LTE
TD-
LTE
LTE
Advanced
>90% harmonized
in 3GPP
Extensive range of radio spectrum support
23 different FDD frequency band options
11 different TDD frequency band options


+ new ones still being specified
both for new
band deployment and re-farming
cases
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LTE in 2012
continuing in 2013
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Worldwide LTE Footprints
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LTE Network Deployments
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TDD LTE Presence
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Global TDD LTE Networks
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LTE Operating Bands
LTE TDD
bands
LTE FDD
bands
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Spectrum used in LTE FDD deployments
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Mobile Subscriptions by Technology
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LTE Subscriptions
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Worldwide LTE Subscribers Key Operators
Source Infonetics Research
As of J une 30, 2013 (2Q13)
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LTE Regional Subscriptions Share: Q1 2013
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LTE User Segmentation
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LTE Device Update
Multi-band, multi-mode LTE dongles and CPEs are commercially available from all
major chipset and device manufacturers.
Most of the 948 LTE user devices confirmed by GSA are Category 3 as defined by the
3GPP standard
40 Category 4 devices are available, in most form factors
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TDD LTE Devices
Bands 38 (2.6 GHz) and 40 (2.3 GHz) have the largest ecosystems of TD
LTE user devices.
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What are the LTE challenges?
Best price, transparent flat rate
Full Internet
Click-bang responsiveness
reduce cost per bit
provide high data rate
provide low latency
The Users expectation ..leads to the operators challenges
Netwok challenges
Backhaul
Devices availability
Interoperability
LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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Evolution Path to LTE
Operator migration paths to LTE
Enabling flat broadband architecture
TDSCDMA
GSM /
(E)GPRS
LTE
CDMA
I-HSPA

WCDMA /
HSPA
>90 % of world radio access market migrating to LTE
TD-LTE
WiMaX
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Network Architecture Evolution
S- GW + P-GW
GGSN
SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)
Direct tunnel
GGSN
SGSN
I-HSPA
MME
HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8
Node B +
RNC
Functionality
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
GGSN
SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)
HSPA
HSPA R6
LTE
User plane
Control Plane
Flat architecture: single network element in user
plane in radio network and core network
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LTE/EPC Network Architecture
Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)
MME
S10
S6a
Serving
Gateway
S1-U
S11
PDN
Gateway
PDN
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
PCRF
Gx Rx
SGi S5/S8
HSS
Mobility
Management
Entity
Policy &
Charging Rule
Function
S-GW /P-GW
LTE-UE
Evolved Node B
(eNB)
X2
LTE-Uu

eNB
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LTE Interworking with 2G/3G Networks
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LTE Interworking with 3G Alternative
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EPC Network Elements (1/2)
MME: Mobility Management Entity
Pure signalling entity inside the EPC:
Signalling coordination for EPC bearer setup/release
Subscriber attach/detach
Tracking area updates
Roaming Control
Trigger and distribution of paging messages to UE
Security control
Authentication, integrity protection

Serving Gateway
Manages the user data in the EPC
Receives packet data from the eNodeB and sends packet data to it
HSS
eNB
MME
Serving
Gateway
S1-U
S1-MME
S11
S6a
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EPC Network Elements (2/2)
Packet Data Network Gateway
Connection between EPC and a number of external data networks (comparable
to GGSN in 2G/3G networks)
IP Address Allocation for UE
Packet Routing/Forwarding between
Serving GW and external Data Network
Packet screening (firewall functionality)


Policy and Charging Rule Function
Quality of Service (QoS) negotiation with the external PDN
Charging Policy: How packets should be accounted

HSS: Home Subscriber Server
Permanent and central subscriber database
Stores mobility and service data for every subscriber
Contains AuC (authentication center) functionality

MME
Serving
Gateway
S5/S8
PDN
Gateway
PDN
SGi
PCRF
S7 Rx+
S11
HSS
S6a
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Inter-cell RRM: HO, load balancing between cells
Radio Bearer Control: setup , modifications and
release of Radio Resources
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Management,
MME-UE Connection
Radio Admission Control
eNode B Meas. collection and evaluation
Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler)
eNB Functions
IP Header Compression/ de-compression
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
protection on the radio interface
MME Selection at Attach of the UE
User Data Routing to the S-GW/ P-GW
Transmission of Paging Msg coming from MME
Transmission of Broadcast Info (e.g. System info,
MBMS)
Only network element defined as
part of eUTRAN
Replaces the old Node B / RNC
combination from 3G.
Provides all radio management
functions
To enable efficient inter-cell radio
management for cells not attached
to the same eNB, there is a inter-
eNB interface X2 specified. It will
allow to coordinate inter-eNB
handovers without direct involvement
of EPC during this process.



Evolved Node B (eNB)
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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LTE/EPC Network Architecture
Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)
MME
S10
S6a
Serving
Gateway
S1-U
S11
PDN
Gateway
PDN
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
PCRF
Gx Rx
SGi S5/S8
HSS
Mobility
Management
Entity
Policy &
Charging Rule
Function
S-GW /P-GW
LTE-UE
Evolved Node B
(eNB)
X2
LTE-Uu

eNB
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LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface
LTE-Uu interface
Air interface of LTE
Based on OFDMA in DL and SC-FDMA in
UL
FDD and TDD duplex methods
Scalable bandwidth 1.4MHz to currently
20 MHz
X2 interface
Inter eNB interface
X2AP: special signalling protocol
Functionalities:
In inter- eNB HO to facilitate handover
and provide data forwarding.
Provides load information to
neighbouring eNBs
Logical interface: It does not need direct
site-to-site connection

(E)-RRC User PDUs User PDUs
PDCP
..
RLC
MAC
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA)
TS 36.300
eNB
LTE-Uu
eNB
X2
User PDUs
GTP-U
UDP
IP
L1/L2
TS 36.424
X2-UP
(User Plane)
X2-CP
(Control Plane)
X2-AP
SCTP
IP
L1/L2
TS 36.421
TS 36.422
TS 36.423
TS 36.421
TS 36.420
[currently also in TS 36.300]
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S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces
S1-MME interface
Control interface between eNB and
MME
S1AP:S1 Application Protocol
MME and UE will exchange non-
access stratum signaling via eNB
through this interface (i.e.
authentication, tracking area updates)

S1-U interface
User plane interface between eNB and
serving gateway
Pure user data interface (U=User plane)
MME
Serving
Gateway
S1-MME
(Control Plane)
S1-U
(User Plane)
NAS Protocols
S1-AP
SCTP
IP
L1/L2
User PDUs
GTP-U
UDP
IP
L1/L2
TS 36.411
TS 36.411
TS 36.412
TS 36.413
TS 36.414
TS 36.410
[currently in TS 36.300]
eNB
S1 interface is divided into two parts:
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S10 and S6a interfaces
S10
Interface between different MMEs
Used during inter-MME tracking area
updates
It is a pure signaling interface, no user
data runs on it
S6a
Interface between the MME and the
HSS
The MME uses it to retrieve
subscription information from HSS
during attach
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S11 and S5/8 interface
S11
Interface between MME and SGW
A single MME can handle multiple
Serving GWs, each one with its
own S11 interface
Used to coordinate the
establishment of SAE bearers
within the EPC.

S5/S8
Interface between SGW and
PGW
S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW
belong to the same network (non-
roaming case)
S8: Roaming case, mainly used
to transfer user packet data
between PDN GW and SGW

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S7 and SGi Interface
S7
> Interface between PGW and PCRF
> It allows the PCRF to request the
setup of a SAE bearer with
appropriate QoS
> To indicate profile changes to the
PCRF to apply a new policy rule.

SGi
> Interface used by the PDN GW to
send and receive data to and from the
external data network
> It is either IPv4 or IPv6
> This interface corresponds to the Gi
interface in 2G/3G networks

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S3 and S4 Interface
S3/S4
> Interfaces between EPC and 2G/3G packet switched core network domain
> They would allow inter-system changes between SAE and 2G/3G
> The S3 is a pure signaling interface used to coordinate the inter-system change between
MME and SGSN
> The S4 is the user plane interface and it is located between SGSN and Serving GW
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S12 Interface
S12
> Interfaces between EPC and 3G Radio access network
> It would allow inter-system changes between SAE and 3G
> The S12 is the user plane interface used for tunneling user data directly between the
Serving SAE GW and the UTRAN.
> It is based on the Gn interface between the SGSN and the GGSN and so uses the
GTP-U protocol.
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S9 Interface
S9
> Interface between the hPCRF and the vPCRF used in roaming cases.
> To retrieve QoS profile from hPCRF to vPCRF
SCTP
IP
L1/L2
DIAMETER
S9 Application
hPCRF
S9
(Control Plane)
vPCRF
TS 29.215
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Charging Architecture Non Roaming
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Charging Architecture
> Charging for LTE/SAE is performed on a per IP bearer basis.
> The network elements involved in LTE/SAE charging are:
> The PCRF for charging rule instructions
> The PDN GWs Policy & Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) with its collection
and credit control client functions,
> The Serving GW with its collection functions for interoperator charging.
> The Charging Gateway Function (CGF), collecting CDR for offline charging.
> The Online Charging Function (OCS), containing credit information for online
charging.
> The Billing System (BS)
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Gy Interface
SCTP
IP
L1/L2
DIAMETER
DCCA
Gy
(based on Diameter)
OCS
TS 32.299
PDN
Gateway
PCEF
Gy
Interface between the P-GW and the Online Charging System (OCS)
OCS is used for flow based charging information transfer.
The Gy interface uses Diameter Credit-Control application (DCCA), as
defined in IETF RFC 4006
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LTE/SAE Roaming Architecture Case 1
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LTE/SAE Roaming Architecture Case 2
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LTE Interworking with non 3gpp Access
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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LTE Air Interface
OFDM Concepts
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Multiple Access

1 2 3 4 5
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P
o
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Frequency
TDMA
Time Division
Multiple
Access,
2G e.g. GSM,
PDC
FDMA
Frequency
Division
Multiple
Access
1G e.g. AMPS,
NMT, TACS
CDMA
Code Division
Multiple Access
3G e.g. UMTS,
CDMA2000
1 2 3
UE 1 UE 2 UE 3
4 UE 4 UE 5 5
OFDMA
Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiple Access
e.g. LTE
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OFDM Technology
OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDM is a multicarrier transmission technique which is based on FDM. The main
difference between single carriers system and OFDM relates to how the information
is mapped onto many separately modulated carriers

FDM System: FDM system utilizes multiple frequencies to simultaneously transmit multiple signals in
parallel





OFDM System:OFDM uses the similar concept as FDM but increases the spectral efficiency by enabling
the spacing between subcarriers to be reduced untill they are effectively overlapping. This can be done since
OFDM utilizes subcarrier frequencies which are orthogonal

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OFDM
[+] Advantages:
The cancellation of inter-symbol interference makes more complex the
hardware design of the receivers. In WCDMA for instance the RAKE receiver
requires a huge amount of DSP capacity with high data rate. OFDM makes the
ISI cancellation more easy.
OFDM makes the radio interface more robust
Easy for system design with IFFT/FFT, low cost
Flexible for resource selection on Frequency domain
[-] Disadvantage:
OFDM system has high requirement on time
and frequency synchronization
High PAPR
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Multicarrier Transmission and Reception

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Use of IFFT and FFT in generating OFDM Signal
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OFDM Basics (I)
Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated radio signals
using orthogonal subcarriers spread across a wideband channel
Orthogonality:
The peak (centre
frequency) of one
subcarrier
intercepts the
nulls of the
neighbouring
subcarriers
15 kHz in LTE: fixed
Total transmission bandwidth
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OFDM Basics (II)
Data is sent in parallel across the set of subcarriers, each subcarrier only
transports a part of the whole transmission
The throughput is the sum of the data rates of each individual (or used) subcarriers
while the power is distributed to all subcarriers
FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is used to create the orthogonal subcarriers. The
number of subcarriers is determined by the FFT size (by the bandwidth)
Power
frequency
bandwidth
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Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference
Due to multipath propagation

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing will
be used

3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects
like e.g. Doppler

What should be the solutions to these challenges?
(see next slides)

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OFDM and Multipath
Multipath causes Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) which affects the subcarrier
orthogonality due to phase distortion
Solution to avoid ISI is to introduce a Guard Period (Tg) after the pulse
Tg needs to be long enough to capture all the delayed multipath signals
To make use of that Tg (no transmission) Cyclic Prefix is transmitted

4
time
Ts
Time Domain
time
time
T
g

1
2
3
time
When the delay
spread of the multi-
path is greater than
the guard period
duration (Tg) there is
inter-symbol
interference (ISI)
4
1
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3
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Cyclic Prefix (CP) and Guard Time
Note: CP represents an
overhead resulting in symbol
rate reduction.
Having a CP reduces the
bandwidth efficiency but the
benefits in terms of minimising
the ISI compensate for it
t
total symbol time T(s)
Guard Time
T(g)
CP
T(g)
Useful symbol
time T(b)
Consists in copying the last part of a symbol shape for a duration of guard-time
and attaching it in front of the symbol
CP needs to be longer than the channel multipath delay spread.
A receiver typically uses the high correlation between the Cyclic Prefix (CP) and
the last part of the following symbol to locate the start of the symbol and begin
then with decoding
2 CP options in LTE:
Normal CP: for small cells or with short multipath delay spread
Extended CP: designed for use with large cells or those with long delay profiles

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OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi-Carrier
OFDM allows a tight packing of small carrier - called the
subcarriers - into a given frequency band.
No ACI (Adjacent Carrier Interference) in OFDM
due to the orthogonal subcarriers !
P
o
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D
e
n
s
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y

P
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D
e
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y

Frequency (f/fs) Frequency (f/fs)
Saved
Bandwidth
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Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference
Due to multipath propagation solution: use cyclic prefix

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing
will be used
solution: orthogonal subcarriers

3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects
like e.g. Doppler
solution: use reference signals will be explained later



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Plain OFDM
time
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Time Division Multiple Access
on OFDM
time
s
u
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...
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OFDMA is registered trademark of Runcom Technologies Ltd.
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Plain Orthogonal Frequency
Multiple Access
OFDMA
time
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Orthogonal Frequency
Multiple Access
OFDMA
time
...
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Resource Block (RB)
1 2 3
common info
(may be addressed via HL)
UE 1 UE 2 UE 3
Different Methods for OFDM Multiple Access
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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70
OFDMA Parameters
Frame duration: 10ms created from slots and subframes
Subframe duration (TTI): 1 ms (composed of 2x0.5ms slots)
Subcarrier spacing: Fixed to 15kHz
Sampling Rate: Varies with the bandwidth but always factor or
multiple of 3.84 to ensure compatibility with
WCDMA by using common clocking

Frame Duration
Subcarrier Spacing
Sampling Rate (MHz)
Data Subcarriers
Symbols/slot
CP length
1.4MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz
10 ms
15 kHz
Normal CP=7, extended CP=6
Normal CP=4.69/5.12 sec, extended CP= 16.67sec
1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72
72 180 300 600 900 1200
10ms
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
71
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71
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDMA
The transmitted power is the sum of the
powers of all the subcarriers

Due to large number of subcarriers, the
peak to average power ratio (PAPR)
tends to have a large range

The higher the peaks, the greater the
range of power levels over which the
power amplifier is required to work

Having a UE with such a PA that works
over a big range of powers would be
expensive

Not best suited for use with mobile
(battery-powered) devices
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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72
SC-FDMA and OFDMA
OFDMA transmits data in parallel across multiple subcarriers
SC-FDMA transmits data in series employing multiple subcarriers
In the example:
OFDMA: 6 modulation symbols (01,10,11,01,10 and 10) are transmitted per OFDMA
symbol, one on each subcarrier
SC-FDMA: 6 modulation symbols are transmitted per SC-FDMA symbol using all
subcarriers per modulation symbol. The duration of each modulation symbol is 1/6
th
of the
modulation symbol in OFDMA
OFDMA
SC-FDMA
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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73
SC-FDMA and OFDMA
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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75
LTE Air Interface
Frame Structure

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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76
LTE Physical Layer Structure Frame Structure
(FDD)
FDD Frame structure ( also called Type 1 Frame) is common to both uplink and
downlink.
Divided into 20 x 0.5ms slots
Structure has been designed to facilitate short round trip time

10 ms frame
0.5 ms slot
s
0
s
1
s
2
s
3
s
4
s
5
s
6
s
7
s
18
s
19
..
1 ms sub-frame
SF
0
SF
1
SF
2
SF
9
..
sy
4
sy
0
sy
1
sy
2
sy
3
sy
5
sy
6
0.5 ms slot
SF
3
- Frame length =10 ms
- FDD: 10 ms sub-frame for UL
and 10 ms sub-frame for DL
- 1 Frame = 20 slots of 0.5ms each
- 1 slot = 7 ( normal CP) or 6
symbols ( extended CP)
SF: SubFrame
s: slot
Sy: symbol
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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77
Presentation / Author / Date
LTE Physical Layer Structure Frame Structure
(TDD)
Frame Type 2 : similar in time-domain to FDD but with some specific fields to
enable also TD-SCDMA co-existence (China)
A radio frame (10ms) contains 2 half frames of 5ms each
Two switching point periodicities: 5m or 10 ms
Each half frame carries 5 subframes
Subframes 1 and 6 are special subframes and consist of three specialised fields
inherited from TD-SCDMA with configurable lengths subject to a total of 1ms
Subframes 0, 5 and DwPTS are always reserved for downlink
Subframes 2, 7 and UpPTS are reserved for uplink in case 5 ms switch-point
periodicity
Remaining fields are dynamically assigned between UL and DL
DwPTS: Downlink Pilot time Slot
UpPTS: Uplink Pilot Time Slot
GP: Guard Period to separate between UL/DL
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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78
UL/DL Configurations ( TDD)
TDD allows for flexible bandwidth allocation between uplink and downlink to
support asymmetric traffic
The number of subframes dedicated to uplink and downlink within the 10ms frame can be
adjusted
7 different frame configurations
Chosen UL/DL Configuration should be the same across all cells of a network to avoid
interference between transmission directions
NSNs first TD release (RL15TD) supports Configuration 1 and 2 only. Configuration
1 provides almost 1:1 UL-to-DL ratio
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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79
Special Subframe Configuration (TDD)
Total length of special subframe is 1ms but the length of the each field may vary
9 different formats supported
NSNs first TD release supports formats 5 and 7
Fields:
Downlink Pilot time Slot
A regular shortened downlink subframe
Contains reference signals and control information
It may carry data at discretion of the scheduler
Contains PSS (note: SSS is transmitted on the last symbol of subframe 0)
Uplink Pilot Time Slot
Mainly used for RACH transmission
Guard Period
Switching point between downlink and uplink transmission
Compensates for the delay when switching between transmission directions
Its length determines the maximum supportable cell size
SUBFRAME 1
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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80
Subframe structure and CP length
Normal cyclic prefix:
Extended cyclic prefix:
Copy
= Cyclic prefix
= Data
5.21 s
16.67 s
Subframe length is 1 ms for all bandwidths
A Subframe contains 2 slots. The slot length is 0.5 ms
Slot carries 7 symbols with normal CP or 6 symbols with extended CP. The
length of the CP depends on the symbol position within the slot:
Normal CP: symbol 0 in each slot has a CP length of = 160 x Ts (5.21s) and
remaining symbols have a CP length of = 144 x Ts (4.7s)
Extended CP: CP length for all symbols in the slot is 512 x Ts (16.67s)
Ts: sampling time of the
overall channel. Basic Time
Unit
Ts =
1 sec
Subcarrier spacing X max FFT size
Ts = 32.5nsec
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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81
Normal and Extended Cyclic Prefix
Normal Cyclic Prefix
160 Ts 144 Ts
2048 Ts
Ts = 1/30720 ms
Cyclic Prefix
144 Ts 144 Ts 144 Ts 144 Ts 144 Ts
2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts
7 2048 Ts
+ 6 144 Ts
+ 1 160 Ts
15360 Ts = 0.5 ms
Main Body
512 Ts 512 Ts
2048 Ts
Ts = 1/30720 ms
Cyclic Prefix
512 Ts 512 Ts 512 Ts 512 Ts
2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts 2048 Ts
6 2048 Ts
+ 6 512 Ts
15360 Ts = 0.5 ms
Main Body
Extended Cyclic Prefix
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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82
Resource Block
Physical Resource Block or Resource Block (PRB or RB):
12 subcarriers in frequency domain (180kHz) x 1 slot period in time domain (0.5ms)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Subcarrier 1
Subcarrier 12
1
8
0

K
H
z

1 slot 1 slot
1 ms subframe
Capacity allocation is based on Resource
Blocks


Resource
Element
Note: Although 3GPP definition of RB
refers to 0.5ms, in some cases it is
possible to found that RB refers to 12
subcarriers in frequency domain and 1ms
in time domain. In particular, since the
scheduler in the eNodeB works on TTI
basis (1ms) RBs are considered to last
1ms in time domain. They can also be
known as scheduling resource blocks
Time zone shared for UL and DL


R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
83
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83
Resource Element
Theoretical minimum capacity allocation unit
Equivalent to one subcarrier x one symbol period
72 or 84 Resource Elements per Resource Block
Each Resource Element can accommodate 1 modulation symbol, e.g. 2
bits for QPSK, 4 bits for 16QAM and 6 bits for64 QAM
Modulation symbol rate per Resource Block is 144 ksps or 168 ksps
Case 1: Normal Cyclic Prefix Case 2: Extended Cyclic Prefix
7 symbols = 0.5 ms 6 symbols = 0.5 ms
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

1
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

=

1
8
0

k
H
z

Resource Element
1
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

=

1
8
0

k
H
z

Time Domain Time Domain
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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84
b
0
b
1
QPSK
Im
Re
10
11
00
01
b
0
b
1
b
2
b
3
16QAM
Im
Re
0000
1111
Im
Re
64QAM
b
0
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
3GPP standard defines the following options: QPSK,
16QAM, 64QAM in both directions (UL and DL)
UL 64QAM not supported in RL15TD
Not every physical channel is allowed to use any
modulation scheme:
Scheduler decides which form to use depending on carrier
quality feedback information from the UE

Modulation Schemes
QPSK:
2 bits/symbol
16QAM:
4 bits/symbol
64QAM:
6 bits/symbol
Physical
channel
Modulation
PDSCH QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM
PMCH QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM
PBCH QPSK
PDCCH
(PCFICH,
)
QPSK
PUSCH QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM
PUCCH BPSK
and/or
QPSK
PHICH

BPSK
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
85
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85
Modulation and TB Size
DL MCSs
MCS I
TBS
MCS_index Mod order
0-QPSK 0 0 2
1-QPSK 1 1 2
2-QPSK 2 2 2
3-QPSK 3 3 2
4-QPSK 4 4 2
5-QPSK 5 5 2
6-QPSK 6 6 2
7-QPSK 7 7 2
8-QPSK 8 8 2
9-QPSK 9 9 2
10-16QAM 9 10 4
11-16QAM 10 11 4
12-16QAM 11 12 4
13-16QAM 12 13 4
14-16QAM 13 14 4
15-16QAM 14 15 4
16-16QAM 15 16 4
17-64QAM 15 17 6
18-64QAM 16 18 6
19-64QAM 17 19 6
20-64QAM 18 20 6
21-64QAM 19 21 6
22-64QAM 20 22 6
23-64QAM 21 23 6
24-64QAM 22 24 6
25-64QAM 23 25 6
26-64QAM 24 26 6
27-64QAM 25 27 6
28-64QAM 26 28 6
From TS 36.213 (DL example shown here)

MCS index -> from 0 to 28 -> it is decided by
the scheduler which should translate a specific
CQI in an MCS index

Modulation Order -> indicates the modulation
type (QPSK, ) by indicating the number of bits
per symbol
QPSK = 2
16QAM = 4
64QAM = 6

ITBS = TBS index
The TBS Index is mapped to a specific TBS size
for a specific #RBs
Uses a different table
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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86
LTE Air Interface
MIMO

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
87
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output MIMO Principle
T
m
T
2
T
1
R
n
R
2
R
1






Input
M x N
MIMO
system
Output
MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple Output
M transmit antennas, N receive antennas form MxN MIMO system
huge data stream (input) distributed toward m spatial distributed
antennas; m parallel bit streams (Input 1..m)
Spatial Multiplexing generate parallel virtual data pipes
using Multipath effects instead of mitigating them
Signal from j
th
Tx antenna
S
j
MIMO
Processor
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
88
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
MIMO Principle (2/2)
T
m
T
2
T
1
R
n
R
2
R
1
MIMO
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
o
r







Input
M x N
MIMO
Output
h
1,1
h
2,1
h
n,1
h
n,2
h
n,m
h
2,2
h
2,m
h
1,m
h
1,2
Receiver learns Channel Matrix H
inverted Matrix H
-1
used for
recalculation
of original input data streams 1..m


m
j
i j j i i
n s h y
1
,
Signal at i
th
Rx antenna
Y
i
Signal from j
th
Tx antenna
S
j
n
i
: Noise at receiver
H =
h
1,1
h
2,1
h
n,1



h
1,2
h
2,2
h
n,2



h
1,m
h
2,m
h
n,m






R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
89
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Transmit diversity for two antennas
Benefit: Diversity gain, enhanced cell coverage
Each Tx antenna transmits the same stream of data with different coding and
different subcarriers -> Receiver gets replicas of the same signal which increases
the SINR.
Synchronization signals are transmitted only via the 1
st
antenna
eNode B sends different cell-specific reference signals per antenna
It can be enabled on cell basis by O&M configuration
Processing is completed in 2 phases:
Layer Mapping: distributing a stream of data into two streams
Pre-coding: generation of signals for each antenna port
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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90
S1
S2
Spatial multiplexing (MIMO) for two antennas
Benefit: Double the peak rate compared to a 1Tx antenna
Spatial multiplexing with two code words
Supported physical channel: PDSCH
Two code words
(S1+S2) are
transmitted in
parallel to one
UE which
doubles the
peak rate
Layer
Mapping
L1
L2
Precoding
Map onto
Resource
Elements



Map onto
Resource
Elements
OFDMA
OFDMA
Modulatio
n
Modulatio
n
Code word
1
Code word
2

Scale


W
2
W
1
2 code words
transferred when
channel
conditions are
good

Signal generation is similar to Transmit
Diversity: i.e. Layer Mapping & Precoding
Can be open loop or closed loop depending
if the UE provides feedback

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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91
DL adaptive open loop MIMO for two antennas
Benefit: High peak rates (two code words) and good cell
edge performance (single code word)
2 TX antennas
Dynamic selection between
Transmit diversity
Open loop spatial multiplexing with
two code words
Supported physical channel: PDSCH
Dynamic switch considers the UE specific
link quality
Two code words (A+B) are
transmitted in parallel to one UE
which doubles the peak rate
One code word A is
transmitted via two
antennas to one UE
which improves the LiBu
A
B
A
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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92
Downlink Adaptive Closed Loop MIMO
2 TX antennas
Transmission mode 4
Dynamic selection for between
Rank 1
Rank 2
based on filtered CQI, PMI and rank
information
Operator configurable thresholds for the
MIMO switch
same codewords
different
codewords
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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93
Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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94
Air Interface Protocols

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
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95
Radio Protocols Architecture

MAC
RLC
PDCP
Physical Layer
RRC
L
1
L
2
L
3
Radio Bearer
Logical Channel
Transport Channels
Control Plane User Plane
Physical Channels
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
96 96
LTE Protocol Layers
RRC:
Broadcast of system information
Radio connection management & Radio bearers
Paging, handovers, QoS management, Radio Measurement Control

PDCP:
Ciphering, Header Compression (RoCH)
Integrity protection for C-plane data
Transfer of U-plane and RRC Data
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
97 97
LTE Protocol Layers
MAC:
Mapping & multiplexing of logical channels to transport channels
Hybrid-ARQ error correction
Priority handling, Scheduling
Random access management
Transport format selection (part of LA)

RLC:
Transfer of upper-layer PDUs
Managing different transfer modes
Error correction (ARQ)
Concatenation, Segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
98
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
98





FDD | TDD - Layer 1
( DL: OFDMA, UL: SC-FDMA )
Medium Access Control (MAC)
Physical Channels
Transport Channels
RLC
(Radio Link
Control)

PDCP
(Packet Data
Convergence
Protocol)

RLC
(Radio Link
Control)
PDCP
(Packet Data
Convergence
Protocol)
RLC
(Radio Link
Control)
PDCP
(Packet Data
Convergence
Protocol)
RLC
(Radio Link
Control)
PDCP
(Packet Data
Convergence
Protocol)
RLC
(Radio Link
Control)
PDCP
(Packet Data
Convergence
Protocol)
Logical Channel
(E-)RRC
(Radio Resource Control)
IP / TCP | UDP |
Application Layer
Radio Bearer
ROHC (RFC 3095)
Security
Segment./Reassembly
ARQ
Scheduling /
Priority Handling
HARQ
De/Multiplexing
CRC
Coding/Rate Matching
Interleaving
Modulation
Resource Mapping/MIMO
NAS Protocol(s)
(Attach/TA Update/)
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
99
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
99

MME
NAS Protocols Transfer
eNB
UE
MME
NAS
NAS
RRC
RRC
PDCP
PDCP
RLC
RLC
MAC
MAC
PHY
PHY
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
100
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
100
Data Flow Example
Header
Header
Payload Payload
PDCP
Header
PDCP
Header
PDCP PDU
PDCP PDU
PDCP SDU
PDCP SDU
RLC
Header
RLC
Header
RLC
Header
RLC SDU
RLC SDU RLC SDU
MAC
Header
MAC
Header
RLC PDU
RLC PDU
Transport block Transport block
CRC CRC
E-Mail (IP packet)
FTP Download (IP packet)
H
H
Payload
Payload
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY
PDU = Protocol Data Unit
SDU = Service Data Unit
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
101
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
101
LTE Channels

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
102
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
102
Upper Layers

RLC

MAC

PHY
Logical
channels
Transport
channels
B
C
C
H

C
C
C
H

P
C
C
H

M
T
C
H

M
C
C
H

B
C
H

P
C
H

D
L
-
S
C
H

R
A
C
H

U
L
-
S
C
H

P
B
C
H

P
D
S
C
H

P
H
I
C
H

P
D
C
C
H

P
C
F
I
C
H

P
M
C
H

P
U
C
C
H

P
R
A
C
H

P
U
S
C
H

M
C
H

C
C
C
H

D
C
C
H

D
T
C
H

UL DL
Air interface
D
C
C
H

D
T
C
H

LTE Channels
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
103
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
103
Downlink Channels
Logical channels characterize the data to be transmitted
Transport channels describe how and with what characteristics the data is
transmitted
Multiplexed flows in a transport channel can contain data from a single user from
multiple users
The transport channels from the MAC layer are mapped to the physical channels


Note: No multicast in NSN implementation
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
104
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
104
Downlink Physical Channels
PDSCH:
Carries user data
PBCH:
For system info (cell IDs, cell status, allowed
services, RACH parameters)
PMCH:
For multicast traffic as MBMS services
PHICH:
Carries H-ARQ Ack/Nack messages from eNB
to UE in response to UL transmission

There are no dedicated channels in LTE, neither in UL nor DL
PCFICH:
Carries details of PDCCHs format (e.g.# of symbols)
PDCCH:
Carries resource assignment messages for downlink capacity allocations and scheduling
grants for uplink allocations

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
105
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
105
Downlink Physical Channels Allocation
PBCH:
Occupies the central 72 subcarriers across 4 symbols
Transmitted during second slot of each 10 ms radio frame on
all antennas
PCFICH:
Can be transmitted during the first 3 symbols of
each TTI
Occupies up to 16 RE per TTI
PHICH:
Normal CP: Tx during 1
st
symbol of each TTI
Extended CP: Tx during first 3 symbols of each TTI
Each PHCIH group occupies 12 RE
PDCCH:
Occupies the RE left from PCFICH and PHICH within the first 3
symbols of each TTI
Minimum number of symbols are occupied. If PDCCH data is
small then it only occupies the 1
st
symbol
PDSCH:
Is allocated the RE not used by signals or other physical
channels

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
106
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
106
Uplink Channels
MAC layer provides the logical channels to RLC layer
Transport channels in LTE have been reduced (also for DL direction) by using
in shared channel operation (no dedicated channels like in WCDMA)

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
107
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
107
Uplink Physical Channels
PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel
Intended for the user data (carries traffic for
multiple UEs)
PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel
Carries H-ARQ Ack/Nack indications, uplink
scheduling request, CQIs and MIMO feedback
If control data is sent when traffic data is being
transmitted, UE multiplexes both streams
together
If there is only control data to be sent the UE
uses Resources Element at the edges of the
channel with higher power
PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel
For Random Access attempts. PDCCH
indicates the Resource elements for PRACH
use
PBCH contains a list of allowed preambles
(max. 64 per cell in Type 1 frame) and the
required length of the preamble
RACH
CCCH DCCH DTCH
UL-SCH
PRACH
PUSCH PUCCH
Logical
Transport
PHYS.
RLC
MAC
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
108
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
108
Physical Resource Mapping

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
109
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
109
DL Cell-Specific Reference Signals Mapping
0 l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 l 0 l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 l
O
n
e

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
T
w
o

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
Resource element (k,l)
Not used for transmission on this antenna port
Reference symbols on this antenna port
0 l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 l 0 l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 l 0 l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 l 0 l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 l
0 l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 l 0 l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 l 0 l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 l 0 l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 l
F
o
u
r

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
0 l 6 l 0 l
2
R
6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l
2
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
3
R
3
R
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 0
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 1
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 2
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 3
Channel estimation in LTE is based on reference signals
Cell-specific reference signals shall be transmitted in all downlink Slots
Reference signals position in time domain is fixed whereas in frequency
domain it depends on the Cell ID and slot number parity
In case more than one antenna is used (e.g. MIMO) the Resource
elements allocated to reference signals on one antenna are DTX on the
other antennas
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
110
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
MIMO and the OFDMA Reference Symbols
OFDM Symbols/ Time Domain

S
u
b
-
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
/
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

ANTENNA 1
OFDM Symbols/ Time Domain

S
u
b
-
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
/
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

ANTENNA 2
Reference
Symbol
Unused
Resource
Element
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
111
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
111
DL Physical Channels Allocation
PBCH:
Occupies the central 72 subcarriers across 4 symbols
Transmitted during second slot of each 10 ms frame
on all antennas
PCFICH:
Transmitted during the first symbol of each TTI
Occupies up to 16 RE per TTI
PHICH:
Tx during 1
st
symbol of each TTI or alternativ during
symbols 1 to 3 of each TTI PhichDur
Each PHCIH group occupies 12 RE
PDCCH:
Occupies the REs not used by PCFICH and PHICH
within the first 1, 2 or 3 symbols of each TTI (case 1.4
MHz: within the first 2, 3 or 4 symbols)
In RL15TD: configuration static by
maxNrSymPdcch
PDSCH:
Is allocated the RE not used by signals or other
physical channels

RB
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
112
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
112
Uplink Physical Signals and Channels
Uplink Reference Signals
Demodulation Signals:
Used for channel estimation in the
eNodeB receiver
Located in the 4
th
symbol of each slot
and spans the same bandwidth as the
allocated uplink data
Sounding Reference Signals:
Provides uplink channel quality
estimation as basis for the UL
scheduling decisions -> similar in use as
the CQI in DL
Sent in different parts of the bandwidth
where no uplink data transmission is
available.

Uplink Physical Channels
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
Physical Random Access Channel
(PRACH)
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
113
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
113
Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
114
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
114
Mobility and Connection States (1/2)
2 sets of states for the UE are defined based on the information held in the MME:
EMM: EPS Mobility Management States
ECM: EPS Connection Management States
EMM:
EMM- DEREGISTERED
MME holds no valid location information about the UE (location unknown)
EMM- REGISTERED
UE performs Tracking Area Update procedures to notify availability
UE responds to paging messages
UE performs service request procedure to establish the radio bearers when
uplink data is to be sent

EMM
deregistered
EMM
registered
Attach
Detach
EPS: Evolved
Packet System
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
115
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115
Mobility and Connection States (2/2)
ECM:
UE and MME enter ECM-CONNECTED state when the signaling connection is
established between UE and MME
UE and E-UTRAN enter RRC-CONNECTED state when the signaling
connection is established between UE and the E-UTRAN
ECM idle
ECM
connected
S1 connection establishment
S1 connection release
RRC idle
RRC
connected
RRC connection
establishment
RRC connection
release
UE
E-UTRAN MME
MME
S1 connection RRC connection
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
116 116
LTE Radio Resource Control (RRC) States
RRC Idle state
No signalling connection between UE
and network exists
UE performs cell reselections
Paging needed when the there is data in
downlink direction
RACH procedure used on RRC
connection establishment
No RRC context stored in the eNB (No
C-RNTI).




UEs RRC connection can be maintained even if UE is inactive
RRC connection may be released due to the following reasons:
RRC Connected State
A signalling connection exists between
UE and network
UE location is known in MME with an
accuracy of a cell ID
The mobility of UE is handled by the
handover procedure
The UE performs the tracking area
update procedure

inactive >x min
1. UE is inactive for a long time
2. Max number of RRC connected UEs reached.
Then, longest inactive UE is released
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
117
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
117
EMM & ECM States Transitions
EMM_Deregistered
ECM_Idle
Power On
Registration (Attach)
EMM_Registered
ECM_Connected
Allocate C-RNTI, S_TMSI
Allocate IP addresses
Authentication
Establish security context
Release RRC connection
Release C-RNTI
Configure DRX for paging
EMM_Registered
ECM_Idle
Release due to
Inactivity
Establish RRC Connection
Allocate C-RNTI

New Traffic
Deregistration (Detach)
Change PLMN
Release C-RNTI, S-TMSI
Release IP addresses
Timeout of Periodic TA
Update
Release S-TMSI
Release IP addresses
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
118
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
LTE Bearers

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
119
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
119
LTE/EPS Bearer: Identity & Architecture
cell
S1-U
LTE-Uu
S5/S8
PDN
SGi
eNB Serving
Gateway
PDN
Gateway
E-UTRAN EPC PDN
An EPS bearer identity uniquely identifies an EPS bearer for one UE. The EPS Bearer
Identity is allocated by the MME.
LTE/EPS Bearer spans the complete network, from UE over EUTRAN and EPC up to the
connector of the external PDN.
The SAE bearer is associated with a quality of service (QoS) usually expressed by a label or
QoS Class Identifier (QCI)
LTE-UE
End-to-End Service
EPS Bearer External Bearer
Radio Bearer S1 Bearer S5/S8 Bearer
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
120
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
120
The Default Bearer Concept
Each UE that is attached to the LTE network has at least one bearer
available, that is called the default bearer.
Its goal is to provide continuous IP connectivity towards the EPC (always-
on concept)
From the QoS point of view, the default bearer is normally a quite basic
bearer
If an specific service requires more stringent QoS attributes, then a
dedicated bearer should be established.
cell
S1-U
UE
S5
PDN
Sgi
eNB
Serving
Gateway
PDN
Gateway
Default EPS Bearer
MME
S1-MME
S11
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
121
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
EPS Bearer QoS Attributes
EPS Bearer QoS Parameters
(To be defined per Bearer)
Default Bearer/Dedicated Bearer
GBR/N-GBR
MBR
UL/DL-TFT
QCI
ARP
EPS Bearer QoS Parameters
(To be defined per User)

AMBR
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
122
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122
QoS Class Identifier (QCI) Table in 3GPP
GBR 1
Guarantee Delay budget Loss rate Application QCI
GBR
100 ms 1e-2 VoIP
2
GBR
150 ms 1e-3 Video call
3
GBR
300 ms 1e-6

Streaming
4
Non-GBR 100 ms 1e-6 IMS signalling 5
Non-GBR 100 ms 1e-3 Interactive gaming 6
Non-GBR 300 ms 1e-6
TCP protocols :
browsing, email, file
download
7
Non-GBR 300 ms 1e-6 8
Non-GBR 300 ms 1e-6 9
Priori
ty
2
4
5
1
7
6
8
9
50 ms 1e-3 Real time gaming 3
R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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LTE/EPS Mobility Areas
Two areas are defined for handling of mobility in LTE/EPS:

Tracking Area (TA)
It is the successor of location and routing areas from 2G/3G.
When a UE is attached to the network, the MME will know the UEs
position on tracking area level.
In case the UE has to be paged, this will be done in the full tracking
area.
Tracking areas are identified by a Tracking Area Identity (TAI).
The Cell
Smallest entity regarding mobility
When the UE is connected to the network, the MME will know the
UEs position on cell level
Cells are identified by the Cell Identification (CI) and by the Physical
Cell Identification (PCI)
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Tracking Areas
S-eNB
TAI3
TAI3
TAI3
TAI3
TAI3
TAI3
TAI3
MME
eNB
TAI2
TAI2
TAI2
TAI2
TAI2
TAI2
TAI2
TAI2
TAI1
TAI1
TAI1
TAI1
TAI1
eNB
1 2
MME
3
Cell Identity
Tracking Area
Tracking Area Identity (TAI) vs. Tracking Area Code (TAC)
TAI= MCC + MNC + TAC
Tracking Area Update
(TAU)
Procedure triggered by the
LTE-UE moving to a new
TA.
TAU are performed by the
LTE-UE in both idle and
connected mode.
(GSM/UMTS difference)
For further info refer to TS
23.401 chapter 5.3.3.0

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LTE Handover Principles
Lossless
Packets are forwarded from the source to the target

Network-controlled
Target cell is selected by the network, not by the UE
Handover control in E-UTRAN (not in packet core)

UE-assisted
Measurements are made and reported by the UE to the network

Late path switch
Only once the handover is successful, the packet core is involved
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Handover Procedure
S-GW + P-GW
MME
Source
eNB
Target
eNB
MME MME MME
= Data in radio
= Signalling in radio
= GTP tunnel
= GTP signalling
= S1 signalling
= X2 signalling
Before handover
Handover
preparation
Radio handover
Late path
switching
S-GW + P-
GW
S-GW + P-GW S-GW + P-GW
X2
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Intra frequency handover via X2
Basic Mobility Feature
Event triggered handover based
on DL measurements (ref.
signals)
Network evaluated HO decision
Operator configurable
thresholds for
coverage based and
best cell based handover
Data forwarding via X2
Admission Control gives priority
to HO related access over other
scenarios
S1
S1
X2
MME
S-GW
P-GW
Feature ID(s): LTE53
A reliable and lossless mobility
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Intra LTE Handover via S1
Extended mobility option
Handover in case of
no X2 interface between eNode B,
e.g. multi-vendor scenarios
eNode Bs connected to different CN
elements, e.g. MME relocation
Same measurements and triggers as for X2
based handover
DL Data forwarding via S1
S1
S1
MME SAE-GW
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UE Identifications
IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
GUTI
Global Unique Temporary Identity
C-RNTI
Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity
S-TMSI
S Temporary mobile subscriber Identity
RA-RNTI
Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identity
SI-RNTI
System Information Network Temporary Identity
P-RNTI
Paging Radio Network Temporary Identity
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Contents
Day 1
LTE Overview
LTE Architecture
LTE Interfaces and Protocols
LTE Air Interface
OFDMA and SC- FDMA
Frame Structure
MIMO
Air Interface Channels and Protocols
LTE EPS Session Management
LTE Mobility Aspects
LTE Network Planning
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Radio Planning Process Overview
DIMENSIONING: Computation of number of sites to serve
certain area to fulfil customer requirements (Dim Tool)

NOMINAL PLANNING: Creation of a nominal Plan
Coverage planning with planning tool (i.e. Atoll, NetAct
Planner)
Based on coverage thresholds
Capacity analysis
Site surveys and site pre-validation

DETAILED PLANNING:
Capacity analysis with planning tool
Site validation
eNodeB Parameter planning (i.e. frequency, paging groups,
site data built with default parameters)

PRE-LAUNCH OPTIMISATION: Cluster acceptance
Drive test measurements, analysis and changes
implementation
Data build assessment/ consistency
DIMENSIONING
Nominal
Planning
Detailed
Planning
Pre-launch
Optimisation
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Link Budget Example
Downlink
Output
power per
antenna
connector

Losses
(Cable,
jumpers,
)

eNode B
Antenna
Gain
Path loss
UE
body
loss
IM UE
ant.
gain

Receiver
Sensitivity

43
dBm
0.5 dB 18 dBi
0 dB

3 dB
2Tx
MIMO
Gain

2.1 dB
0 dB 0 dB
- 98.6
dB
63.5 dB
-96.5
dB
M
A
P
L

1
6
0

d
B

EIRP
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Link Budget Example

DL UL
Operating Band (MHz) 2300
Channel Bandwidth (MHz) 20
Tx Power per Antenna (dBm) 40.0 23.0
Antenna Gain (dBi) 18.0 0.0
Feeder Loss (dB) 2.0 -
Body Loss (dB) - 1.0
Total Tx Power Increase (dB) 3.0 -
User EIRP (dBm) 59.0 22.0
Feeder Loss (dB) - 2.0
Antenna Gain (dBi) 0.0 18.0
Noise Figure (dB) 8.0 3.0
Body Loss (dB) 1.0 -
Total Number of PRBs per TTI 100
Cyclic Prefix Normal Normal
Number of OFDM Symbols per Subframe 14 14
DL-to-UL configuration DL-to-UL Conf 2
Special Subframe Format "S" Subframe Format 7
Number of Regural DL/UL Subframes 6.0 2.0
Number of Special Subframes 2.0
DwPTS/UpPTS Length (OFDM symbols) 10.0 2.0
GP Length (OFDM symbols) 2.0
DL/UL Ratio 74.29% 20.00%
Modulation and Coding Scheme 5-QPSK 4-QPSK
Service Type Data
Cell Edge User Throughput (kbps 1024 512
Number of PRBs per User 87 40
Channel Model Enhanced Pedestrian A 5 Hz
Antenna Configuration 4Tx-4Rx 1Tx-4Rx
Required SINR at Cell Edge (dB) -0.89 -5.29
Maximum SINR at Cell Edge (dB) -0.03 -
Cell Load (%) 30% 30%
Interference Margin [Formula/Simulation] (dB) 1.23 1.00
Number of Received Subcarriers (dB) 30.8 26.8
Thermal Noise Density (dBm/Hz) -174
Subcarrier Bandwidth (kHz) 15
Noise Power per Subcarrier (dBm) -132.17
Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) -94.27 -107.65
Maximum Allowable Path Loss (dB)
(clutter not considered)
154.05 144.65
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Link Budget Example
Clutter Type High Dense Urban Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural (open)
Maximum Allowable Path Loss (dB)
(clutter not considered)
144.65
BTS Antenna Height (m) 20.0 20.0 20.0 22.0 24.0
MS Antenna Height (m) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Average Penetration Loss (dB) 27.0 24.0 20.0 18.0 12.0
Standard Deviation Outdoor (dB) 10.0 10.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
Cell Area Probability 95.0% 95.0% 95.0% 95.0% 95.0%
Log Normal Fading Margin (dB) 11.5 11.5 8.6 8.6 8.6
Gain Against Shadowing (dB) 3.3 3.3 2.4 2.4 2.4
Maximum Allowable Path Loss (dB)
(clutter considered)
109.41 112.41 118.46 120.48 126.46
Cell Range (km) 0.142 0.166 0.277 0.383 0.655
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Cell Radius Comparison
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
2600 FDD-LTE 2300 TDD - LTE 1800 FDD-LTE 750 FDD-LTE
Dense Urban Urban Sub Urban Rural
Clutter 2600 FDD-LTE 2300 TDD - LTE 1800 FDD-LTE 750 FDD-LTE
Dense Urban
0.14
0.16
0.23 0.62
Urban
0.22
0.25
0.37 1.00
Sub Urban
0.40
0.43
0.58 1.88
Rural
0.82
0.89
1.33 3.49
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Peak data rates LTE FDD
Directly linked to available spectrum bandwidth
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Peak data rate
[Mbps]
Downlink
Uplink
Bandwidth [MHz]
150
125
100
75
50
25
8.8 / 2.8
22.2 / 7.0
36.7 / 11.4
73.7 / 22.9
110.1 / 35.2
149.8 / 46.9
100Mbps
service
requires
2x15MHz
bandwidth
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Peak data rates
Driven by LTE terminal capabilities
Class 1 Class 2 Class 5 Class 3 Class 4
Peak rate DL/UL
RF bandwidth
Modulation DL
Modulation UL
Rx diversity
MIMO DL
10/5
Mbps
50/25
Mbps
100/50
Mbps
150/50
Mbps
300/75
Mbps
20 MHz* 20 MHz* 20 MHz* 20 MHz* 20 MHz*
64 QAM 64 QAM 64 QAM 64 QAM 64 QAM
16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM 64 QAM
yes yes yes yes yes
optional 2 x 2 2 x 2 2 x 2 4 x 4
All LTE devices
which have been
sold today
All 3GPP Rel.8 LTE terminals can receive 20 MHz bandwidth, but (baseband) processing
power is variable
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LTE Radio Planning tools
The recommended Radio Planning tools provided by 3rd Party are:

Atoll from FORSK
NetAct MultiRadio Planner (NAP) from AIRCOM
Planet from MENTUM

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Input Data for planning an LTE network

General (technology independent) inputs
Digital maps
Areas to be served
Site data if not green field case along with site limitations
Propagation model data

LTE specific part
Power budget
UE and BTS Equipment details (NF, Link Adaptation etc.)
Grade of Service Expected (e.g. location probability and maximum outage as
% of customers)
Number of customers
Services used
Traffic profiles
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PCI Planning
Introduction
There are 504 unique Physical Cell IDs (PCI)
Physical Layer Cell Identity = (3 N
ID1
) + N
ID2
N
ID1
: Physical Layer Cell Identity group. Range 0 to 167
Defines SSS sequence
N
ID2
: Identity within the group. Range 0 to 2
Defines PSS sequence



Resource element
allocation to the
Reference Signal

PCI impacts the allocation of
resource elements to the
reference signal and the set
of physical channels

Allocation pattern repeats every 6
th
Physical Layer Cell Identity
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PCI Planning
Recommendations
In priority order (All four should be fulfilled, ideally)
1. Avoid assigning the same PCI to neighbour
cells
2. Avoid assigning mod 3 PCI to neighbour
cells
3. Avoid assigning mod 6 PCI to neighbour
cells
4. Avoid assigning mod 30 PCI to neighbour
cells

PCI is also used to calculate the PCFICH offset
A term of the calculation is: 'pyhCellId
modulo {2 * (number of PRBs in DL)}
PCI of neighbour cells should have different
PCI modulo {2 * (number of PRBs in DL)} to
avoid the same frequency (location) of the
PCFICH


Id = 5
Id = 4
Id = 3
Id =
11
Id =
10
Id = 9
Id = 8
Id = 7
Id = 6
Id = 2
Id = 1
Id = 0
Example 1 PCI Identity Plan
Example 2 PCI Identity Plan
143
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