Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

11/12/2003

1
1
feeling tired?
11/12/2003

2
2
Shiftwork and Fatigue


Once, a pilot crashed after 16 hours on duty
because he read an altimeter incorrectly.
He had been flying safely for 15 hours, and
suddenly he couldn't read an altimeter?
This is hard to believe. That's fatigue.
Fatigue is a loss of alertness which
eventually ends in sleep

11/12/2003

3
3
Fatigue is a serious issue
Fatigued operators can cause accidents, (eg
Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Space Shuttle
Challenger, Exxon Valdez and Chernobyl)
USA cost of sleep-related accidents estimated
to be between $43 - $56 billion
UK annual cost of work accidents caused by
sleepiness estimated to be 115 240 million
25% of fatal truck crashes are due to fatigue
7% of motor vehicle accidents may be attributed
to fatigue, a figure that rises to 15% for motorway
accidents
pilot fatigue is implicated in upwards of 20% of
near-accidents in aviation
11/12/2003

4
4
The Sleep Quiz
11/12/2003

5
5
Im safe at work so it doesnt
matter if Im sleepy?

Falsebeing sleepy can cause:
slower reaction time
impaired judgements and decision making
decline in attention
decreased alertness
increased moodiness and aggressive behaviour
difficulty in remembering things
11/12/2003

6
6
I can tell when Im going to fall
asleep
False.
People do not know how sleepy they
are
The more tired you become, the less
able you are to make a good judgement
about your ability to remain awake
Being awake for 18 hours is as great a
risk as driving drunk

11/12/2003

7
7
Signs of tiredness

The signs include:
not feeling refreshed after sleep
difficulty keeping your eyes open and
focussed
greater tendency to fall asleep while at work
more frequent naps during leisure hours
lots of yawning
extended sleep during days off
increased errors and loss of concentration at
work
feeling irritable, restless and impatient

11/12/2003

8
8
Lack of sleep is the only cause
of fatigue...
False but it is the only cure
Causes of fatigue include:
Workload
Social factors
Individual factors e.g., age, diet,
fitness etc
Shift work

11/12/2003

9
9
The older you get, the fewer
hours of sleep you need
False
Sleep needs remain unchanged throughout
adulthood
Older people wake more frequently through
the night
Shift work becomes harder with age (4050
yrs)
Ability to cope with early starts may improve


11/12/2003

10
10
Most people need 8 hours of
sleep to function at their best
True
7 8 hours is recognised as an average and normal
need
Less than this and you build up a sleep debt
Sleep comprises several stages which must follow a
certain pattern if you are to feel fully rested and alert
Stage 1 and 2: transitional phase between waking and
sleeping
Stage 3 and 4: deep sleep
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep
11/12/2003

11
11
If I sleep a lot now, I wont
need to sleep much later
False
Sleep is not like money you cant save
it up and you cant borrow it
While napping is an effective means of
managing alertness it is not a substitute
for regular sleep


11/12/2003

12
12
Everyone has a biological
clock
True
We have evolved own internal body clock /
circadian rhythm
It controls a number of internal rhythms, eg,
sleep/wake cycle, body temperature
It is this body clock that makes us feel
sleepier and less alert when we try and work
at times normally reserved for sleep



11/12/2003

13
13
The human body can adjust to
nightshift work
False
Our body clock programmes us to feel most
sleepy when it is dark
Eating meals at times normally reserved for
sleep means they are less well digested
On night shifts you tend to get less sleep and
it is of a poorer quality (e.g., after one week of
night shifts, workers had lost the equivalent of
one nights sleep)
Successive night shifts, eg, 4, result in an
increase in accident risk
11/12/2003

14
14
Features of shiftwork
that lead to fatigue
Timing of shifts (earlies, lates and
nights)
Duration of shifts
Rotation of shifts
Rest and recovery periods
11/12/2003

15
15
Early Starts
Associated with a reduction in duration of
sleep
Sleep periods prior to early start are on
average 3 hours shorter
Difficult to compensate with earlier bedtime:
Social pressures
Forbidden zone
Fear of not waking up early
Successive early starts cumulative sleep
deficit

11/12/2003

16
16
Snoring is not harmful as long
as it does not disturb sleep
False
Chronic snoring may indicate sleep
apnoea, a sleep disorder
Other common sleep disorders are:
Insomnia
Restless leg syndrome

11/12/2003

17
17
Drinking coffee cures
drowsiness
False
Caffeine has a short term effect
Caffeine should be used carefully as it will
disrupt sleep
Other measures such as opening windows
and putting on the radio are not effective
The only cure for drowsiness is to get some
sleep
11/12/2003

18
18
Conclusions
Being tired impact on our performance
and increases the risks of an accident
The amount and quality of sleep are
important factors in ensuring you wake
up feeling fully rested
Shift work makes us more prone to
fatigue because it makes us work
against out natural circadian rhythms

11/12/2003

19
19
Coping with Shiftwork
11/12/2003

20
20
Sleep Strategies
Managing your work time
Use naps to improve alertness
Create a good sleep environment
Establish a regular pre-sleep routine
Establish a regular bedtime and wake-up
schedule
Manage your caffeine intake
Other advice:
Avoid alcohol
Take regular exercise
Manage your diet

11/12/2003

21
21
Managing Your Work Time
There are different tips for managing fatigue
depending on your shift pattern and the type
of shift you have just finished.
Example: managing night shifts
Go to bed as soon as you get home
Have an afternoon nap
Avoid exposure to daylight
Eat 3 regular meal with lunch during your night
shift

11/12/2003

22
22
Creating a good sleep
environment
Quiet
Dark
Warm/cool
Comfortable bed that you associate with
sleep
Fresh air
Free from interruptions
11/12/2003

23
23
Pre-sleep routine
You can learn that it is time to relax and
go to sleep
Establish a pre-sleep routine to provide
specific cues:
Reading
Listening to music
Getting dressed for bed
Only get into bed when your tired
11/12/2003

24
24
Napping Not to be used
whilst at work
Limit naps to about 30 45 minutes including
the time it takes to fall asleep
Naps of 15 20 mins are most restorative
Give yourself time to get over sleep inertia
There is no minimum time period for effective
napping
Improved alertness may last for several hours
11/12/2003

25
25
Caffeine
It is a stimulant so it can keep you
awake but it can also disrupt sleep
Use caffeine in moderation and when it
is most needed
Avoid it for several hours before sleep
Dont quit cold turkey, cut back
gradually
How much caffeine is okay?