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Six sigma
Orientation
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expectations
What is Quality?
Know Six Sigma
Awareness with respect to origin
and history of Six Sigma.
The utility and benefits
Introduction to Six Sigma as
methodology
The Six Sigma organization
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What is Quality?
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Evolution of Quality
Historically

Proactive Quality
Create process that will produce
less or no defects
Contemporary

Reactive Quality
Quality Checks (QC) - Taking the
defectives out of what is produced

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Segments in Quality
Methodologies Standards Capability Models
Six Sigma
Lean
ISO 9000, ISO
14000 etc.
COPC
Malcolm Baldrige
eSCM
CMM
CMMI
Scientific way
to improve
capability?
Sharing
Benchmarked
practices-
Standardizing
Best practices
to build
capability
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What is Six Sigma?
It is a methodology for continuous improvement
It is a methodology for creating products/ processes that perform at high
standards
It is a set of statistical and other quality tools arranged in unique way
It is a way of knowing where you are and where you could be!
It is a Quality Philosophy and a management technique

Six Sigma is not:
A standard
A certification
Another metric like percentage
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The term sigma is used to designate the distribution or spread about the
mean (average) of any process or procedure.

For a process, the sigma capability (z-value) is a metric that indicates how well
that process is performing. The higher the sigma capability, the better. Sigma
capability measures the capability of the process to produce defect-free
outputs. A defect is anything that results in customer dissatisfaction.
Two Meanings of Sigma

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Path to Six Sigma
4 Sigma
6,210 Defects
2 Sigma
308,537 Defects
3 Sigma
66,807 Defects
5 Sigma
233 Defects
6 Sigma
3.4 Defects
Sigma levels and
Defects per million
opportunities
(DPMO)
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What it means to be @ Six Sigma
Is 99% (3.8) good enough?

99.99966% Good At 6
20,000 lost mails per hour 7 lost mails per hour
Unsafe drinking water almost 15
minutes each day
One minute of unsafe drinking
water every seven months
5,000 incorrect surgical
operations per week
1.7 incorrect surgical operations
per week
2 short or long landings at most
major airports daily
One short or long landing at major
airports every five years
200,000 wrong drug prescriptions
each year
68 wrong drug prescriptions each
year
Example quoted from GE Book of Knowledge - copyright GE
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The term Six Sigma was coined by Bill Smith, an engineer with Motorola

Late 1970s - Motorola started experimenting with problem solving through
statistical analysis

1987 - Motorola officially launched its Six Sigma program
Origin of Six Sigma
Motorola
the company that invented Six Sigma
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Jack Welch launched Six Sigma at GE in Jan,1996

1998/99 - Green Belt exam certification became the criteria for management
promotions

2002/03 - Green Belt certification became the criteria for promotion to
management roles
The Growth of Six Sigma
GE
the company that perfected Six Sigma
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The GE model for process improvements

The Growth of Six Sigma
Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
Combination of change management & statistical analysis
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The Growth of Six Sigma
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BPMS
Business Process Management System
DMAIC
Six Sigma Improvement Methodology
DMADOV
Creating new process which will perform @ Six Sigma
Three Methodologies of Six Sigma
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BPMS
Business Process Management System
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To understand the process; its mission, flow and scope

To know the customers and their expectations

To identify, monitor and improve correct performance measures for the process





The Need of BPMS
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The Methodology
Define Process
Mission
Map
Process
VOC and
VOP
Build
PMS
Develop
Dashboar
ds
Identify
Improve
ment
Opportun
ities
Define purpose
of the process,
its goal and its
boundaries
Identify Critical
to Quality and
Critical to
process
Visual
representation
of performance
Map process
steps, identify
input/ output
measures
MSA, DCP,
indicators and
monitors
Service
excellence and
process
excellence
The DMAIC
cycle
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DMAIC
Six Sigma Improvement Methodology
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A logical and structured approach to problem solving and process improvement

An iterative process (continuous improvement)

A quality tool with focus on change management





What is DMAIC ?
E
Effectiveness
= Q
Quality
Improvement
x A
Acceptance
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The Approach





















Practical
Problem
Statistical
Problem
Statistical
Solution
Practical
Solution
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D
Define

M
Measure

A
Analyze

I
Improve

C
Control
Identify and state the practical problem
Validate the practical problem by collecting data
Convert the practical problem to a statistical one, define
statistical goal and identify potential statistical solution
Confirm and test the statistical solution
Convert the statistical solution to a practical solution




Methodology
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D
VoC - Who wants the project and why ?
The scope of project / improvement
Key team members / resources for the project
Critical milestones and stakeholder review
Budget allocation




Define
D
Define

M
Measure

A
Analyze

I
Improve

C
Control
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M
Ensure measurement system reliability
Prepare data collection plan
Collect data
- Is tool used to measure the output variable flawed ?
- Do all operators interpret the tool reading in the same way ?
- How many data points do you need to collect ?
- How many days do you need to collect data for ?
- What is the sampling strategy ?
- Who will collect data and how will data get stored ?
- What could the potential drivers of variation be ?




Measure
D
Define

M
Measure

A
Analyze

I
Improve

C
Control
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A
Understand statistical problem
Baseline current process capability
Define statistical improvement goal
Identify drivers of variation (significant factors)




Analyze
D
Define

M
Measure

A
Analyze

I
Improve

C
Control
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A
Root Cause Analysis (fish bone)

A brainstorming tool that helps define and display major causes, sub causes and
root causes that influence a process

Visualize the potential relationship between causes which may be creating
problems or defects

Problem Backbone
Primary Cause
Secondary Cause
Root Cause




Analyze Identify Drivers of Variation
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A
Control Impact Matrix

A visual tool that helps in separating the vital few from the trivial many
Vital Few
High Control High Impact
Cost Ineffective
Low Control High Impact
Cost Ineffective
High Control Low Impact
Trivial Many
Low Control Low Impact
Control
I
m
p
a
c
t





Analyze Identify Drivers of Variation
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A
Pareto Chart

Pareto principle states that disproportionately large percentage of defects are
caused due to relatively fewer factors (generally, 80% defects are caused by 20%
factors)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
L K A F B C G R D
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Frequency Cumulative Frequency




Analyze Identify Drivers of Variation
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A
Process Map Analysis

Visually highlights hand off points / working relationships between people,
processes and organizations

Helps identify rework loops and non value add steps

Vendor Vendor Process B Process B Process A Process A Customer Customer Vendor Vendor Process B Process B Process A Process A Customer Customer




Analyze Identify Drivers of Variation
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A
Hypothesis Testing

A statistical tool used to validate if two samples are different or whether a
sample belongs to a given population

Null Hypothesis (H
o
) is the statement of the status quo

Alternate Hypothesis (H
a
) is the statement of difference






Analyze Identify Drivers of Variation
One way ANOVA
Regression
Homogeneity of
Variance
Moods Median
Chi-Square
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I
Map improved process
Pilot solution
Identify operating tolerance on significant factors




Improve
D
Define

M
Measure

A
Analyze

I
Improve

C
Control
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C
Ensure measurement system reliability for
significant factors
Improved process capability
Sustenance Plan
- Is tool used to measure the input / process variables flawed ?
- Do all operators interpret the tool reading in the same way ?
- Statistical Process Control
- Mistake Proofing
- Control Plan




Control
D
Define

M
Measure

A
Analyze

I
Improve

C
Control
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C
Control Plan

Have the new operating procedures and standards been documented ?

What Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools will be used to monitor the process
performance ?

Who will review the performance of the output variable and significant factors
on closure of the project and how frequently ?

What is the corrective action or reaction plan if any of the factors were to be
out of control ?




Control Sustenance Plan
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Six Sigma Organization
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Six Sigma - Three Dimensions
Tools
Organization
Methodology
Process variation
LSL US
L
Upper/Lower
specification
limits
Regression



























Driven
by
customer
needs
Enabled by quality
team.
Led by
Senior
Mgmt
Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
Vendor Vendor Process B Process B Process A Process A Customer Customer Vendor Vendor Process B Process B Process A Process A Customer Customer
Process Map Analysis
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
L K A F B C G R D
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Frequency Cumulative Frequency
Pareto Chart
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The Quality Team
Master Black Belt
Black Belt Black Belt
Green Belt
Green Belt
Green Belt
- Thought Leadership
- Expert on Six Sigma
- Mentor Green and Black Belts
- Backbone of Six Sigma Org
- Mentor Green Belts
- Full time resource
- Deployed to complex or high
risk projects
- Part time or full time resource
- Deployed to less complex projects
in areas of functional expertise
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Six Sigma Career Option!
Basic - Six Sigma Awareness
Green Belt Projects
Participate in Black Belt Projects
Assist business functions with day to day
activities
Mentor/Train Green Belts
Black Belt Projects
Change Agents
Work along with the business owners
Mentor/ Train Black Belts
Run Strategic projects
More Strategic than tactical role

Green Belt (GB)
Black Belt (BB)
Master Black Belt (MBB)
Highly paid!
Work like a Consultant!
Huge demand in the industry!

OverallA high flying Career!!
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Thank You