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FHWA Condensed Superpave

Asphalt Specifications
Lecture Series
SUPERPAVE
Aggregates
Usually refers to a soil that has in some way
been processed or sorted.
Aggregate Size Definitions
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size
one size larger than the first sieve to
retain more than 10%
Maximum Aggregate Size
one size larger than nominal maximum
size
100
100
90
72
65
48
36
22
15
9
4
100
99
89
72
65
48
36
22
15
9
4
100
0
.075 .3 2.36 4.75 9.5 12.5 19.0
Percent Passing
control point
restricted zone
max density line
max
size
nom
max
size
Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power
Superpave Aggregate Gradation
100
0
.075 .3 2.36 12.5 19.0
Percent Passing
Design Aggregate Structure
Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power
Superpave Mix Size
Designations
Superpave Nom Max Size Max Size
Designation (mm) (mm)

37.5 mm 37.5 50
25 mm 25 37.5
19 mm 19 25
12.5 mm 12.5 19
9.5 mm 9.5 12.5
Gradations
* Considerations:
- Max. size < 1/2 AC lift thickness
- Larger max size

+ Increases strength

+ Improves skid resistance

+ Increases volume and surface area of agg
which decreases required AC content


+ Improves rut resistance
+ Increases problem with segregation of particles
- Smaller max size

+ Reduces segregation

+ Reduces road noise

+ Decreases tire wear
Percent Crushed Fragments in
Gravels
Quarried materials always 100% crushed
Minimum values depended upon traffic
level and layer (lift)

Defined as % mass with one or more
fractured faces
Percent Crushed Fragments in
Gravels
0% Crushed 100% with 2 or More
Crushed Faces
Coarse Aggregate Angularity
Criteria
Traffic Depth from Surface
Millions of ESALs < 100 mm > 100
mm

< 0.3
< 1
< 3
< 10
< 30
< 100
100
55/--
65/--
75/--
85/80
95/90
100/100
100/100
--/--
--/--
50/--
60/--
80/75
95/90
100/100
First number denotes % with one or more fractured faces
Second number denotes % with two or more fractured faces
Asphalt Cements
Background
History of Specifications
Background
Asphalt
Soluble in petroleum
products
Generally a by-product of
petroleum distillation
process
Can be naturally occurring
Tar
Resistant to
petroleum products
Generally by-product
of coke (from coal)
production

Penetration Testing
Sewing machine needle
Specified load, time, temperature
100 g
Initial
Penetration in 0.1 mm
After 5 seconds
Penetration Specification
Five Grades
40 - 50
60 - 70
85 - 100
120 - 150
200 - 300
Ductility
Typical Penetration Specifications
Penetration 40 - 50 200 - 300
Flash Point, C 450+ 350+
Ductility, cm 100+ 100+
Solubility, % 99.0+ 99.0+
Retained Pen., % 55+ 37+
Ductility, cm NA 100+
Viscosity Graded Specifications
Types of Viscosity Tubes
Asphalt Institute Tube
Zietfuchs Cross-Arm
Tube
Table 1 Example
AC 2.5 AC 40
Visc, 60C 250 + 50 4,000 + 800
Visc, 135C 80+ 300+
Penetration 200+ 20+
Visc, 60C <1,250 <20,000
Ductility 100+ 10+
40
50
60
70
85
100
120
150
200
300
Penetration Grades
AC 40
AC 20
AC 10
AC 5
AC 2.5
100
50
10
5
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

6
0
C

(
1
4
0
F
)

Asphalt Cements
New Superpave Performance Graded Specification
PG Specifications

Fundamental properties related to
pavement performance
Environmental factors
In-service & construction temperatures
Short and long term aging
High Temperature Behavior
High in-service temperature
Desert climates
Summer temperatures
Sustained loads
Slow moving trucks
Intersections
Viscous Liquid
Pavement Behavior
(Warm Temperatures)
Permanent deformation (rutting)
Mixture is plastic
Depends on asphalt source, additives, and
aggregate properties
Permanent Deformation
Function of warm weather and traffic
Courtesy of FHWA
Low Temperature Behavior
Low Temperature
Cold climates
Winter
Rapid Loads
Fast moving trucks
Elastic Solid
s = t E
Hookes Law
Pavement Behavior
(Low Temperatures)
Thermal cracks
Stress generated by contraction due to drop in
temperature
Crack forms when thermal stresses exceed
ability of material to relieve stress through
deformation
Material is brittle
Depends on source of asphalt and aggregate
properties
Thermal Cracking
Courtesy of FHWA
Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification
The grading system is based on Climate
PG 64 - 22
Performance
Grade
Average 7-day max
pavement temperature
Min pavement
temperature
Pavement Temperatures are Calculated
Calculated by Superpave software
High temperature
20 mm below the surface of mixture
Low temperature
at surface of mixture
Pave temp = f (air temp, depth, latitude)
Concentric Cylinder
Concentric Cylinder Rheometers
t
Rq
=
M
i
2 p R
i
2
L
g =
W R

R
o
- R
i
Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR)
Parallel Plate
Shear flow varies with
gap height and radius

Non-homogeneous flow
g
R
=
R Q

h
t
R
=
2 M

p R
3

Short Term Binder Aging
Rolling Thin Film Oven
Simulates aging from hot mixing and construction
Pressure Aging Vessel
(Long Term Aging)
Simulates aging of an asphalt
binder for 7 to 10 years
50 gram sample is aged for 20
hours
Pressure of 2,070 kPa (300 psi)
At 90, 100 or 110 C
Bending Beam Rheometer
Air Bearing
Load Cell
Deflection Transducer
Fluid Bath
Computer
Direct Tension Test
D L
e

D L
Load
Stress = s = P / A
Strain
e
f

s
f

Summary
Fatigue
Cracking
Rutting
RTFO
Short Term Aging
No aging
Construction
[RV]
[DSR]
Low Temp
Cracking
[BBR]
[DTT]
PAV
Long Term Aging
Superpave Binder
Purchase Specification
Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification
The grading system is based on Climate
PG 64 - 22
Performance
Grade
Average 7-day max
pavement temperature
Min pavement
temperature
PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82
(Rotational Viscosity) RV
90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)
(Flash Point) FP
46 52 58 64 70 76 82
46 52 58 64 70 76 82
(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %
(Direct Tension) DT
(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening
28
-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22
-28 -34
Avg 7-day Max,
o
C
1-day Min,
o
C
(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV
ORIGINAL
> 1.00 kPa
< 5000 kPa
> 2.20 kPa
S < 300 MPa m > 0.300
Report Value
> 1.00 %
20 Hours, 2.07 MPa
10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31
(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin
( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR S Stiffness & m- value
-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -
18 -24
-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12
-18 -24
Performance Grades
(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin
(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin
< 3 Pa
.
s
@
135
o
C
> 230
o
C
CEC
PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82
(Rotational Viscosity) RV
90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)
(Flash Point) FP
46 52 58 64 70 76 82
46 52 58 64 70 76 82
(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %
(Direct Tension) DT
(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening
28
-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22
-28 -34
Avg 7-day Max,
o
C
1-day Min,
o
C
(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV
ORIGINAL
< 5000 kPa
> 2.20 kPa
S < 300 MPa m > 0.300
Report Value
> 1.00 %
20 Hours, 2.07 MPa
10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31
(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin
( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR S Stiffness & m- value
-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -
18 -24
-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12
-18 -24
How the PG Spec Works
(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin
(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin
< 3 Pa
.
s
@
135
o
C
> 230
o
C
CEC
58 64
Test Temperature
Changes
Spec Requirement
Remains Constant
> 1.00 kPa
PG 58-22
PG 52-28
PG 64-10
PG 58-16
> Many agencies have
established zones
PG Binder Selection
Summary of How to Use
PG Specification
Determine
7-day max pavement temperatures
1-day minimum pavement temperature
Use specification tables to select test
temperatures
Determine asphalt cement properties
and compare to specification limits
Asphalt Concrete Mix
Design
History
Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete
(HMA)
Mix Designs
Objective:
Develop an economical blend of aggregates and
asphalt that meet design requirements
Historical mix design methods
Marshall
Hveem
New
Superpave gyratory
Requirements in Common
Sufficient asphalt to ensure a durable pavement
Sufficient stability under traffic loads
Sufficient air voids
Upper limit to prevent excessive environmental
damage
Lower limit to allow room for initial densification due
to traffic
Sufficient workability
MARSHALL
MIX
DESIGN
Marshall Mix Design
Developed by Bruce Marshall for the
Mississippi Highway Department in the late
30s
WES began to study it in 1943 for WWII
Evaluated compaction effort
No. of blows, foot design, etc.
Decided on 10 lb.. Hammer, 50 blows/side
4% voids after traffic
Initial criteria were established and
upgraded for increased tire pressures and
loads


Marshall Mix Design
Select and test aggregate
Select and test asphalt cement
Establish mixing and compaction
temperatures
Develop trial blends
Heat and mix asphalt cement and
aggregates
Compact specimen (100 mm diameter)
Marshall Design Criteria
Light Traffic Medium Traffic Heavy Traffic
ESAL < 10
4
10
4
< ESAL< 10

ESAL > 10
6

Compaction 35 50 75

Stability N (lb.) 3336 (750) 5338 (1200) 8006 (1800)

Flow, 0.25 mm (0.1 in) 8 to 18 8 to 16 8 to 14

Air Voids, % 3 to 5 3 to 5 3 to 5

Voids in Mineral Agg.
(VMA) Varies with aggregate size
Asphalt Concrete Mix
Design
Superpave
Superpave Volumetric Mix
Design
Goals
Compaction method which simulates field
Accommodates large size aggregates
Measure of compactibility
Able to use in field labs
Address durability issues
Film thickness
Environmental
reaction
frame
rotating
base
loading
ram
control and data
acquisition panel
mold
height
measurement
tilt bar
Key Components of Gyratory Compactor
Compaction
Compaction
Gyratory compactor
Axial and shearing action
150 mm diameter molds
Aggregate size up to 37.5 mm
Height measurement during compaction
Allows densification during compaction to be
evaluated
1.25
o

Ram pressure
600 kPa
% G
mm
Log Gyrations
10 100 1000
N
ini
N
des
N
max
Three Points on SGC Curve
SGC Critical Point Comparison
%G
mm
= G
mb
/ G
mm

G
mb
= Bulk Mix Specific Gravity from compaction
at N cycles
G
mm
= Max. Theoretical Specific Gravity
Compare to allowable values at:
N
INI
: %G
mm
< 89%
N
DES
: %G
mm
< 96%
N
MAX
: %G
mm
< 98%

Design Compaction
N
des
based on
average design high air
temp
traffic level
Log N
max
= 1.10 Log N
des

Log N
ini
= 0.45 Log N
des

% G
mm
Log Gyrations
10 100 1000
N
ini
N
des
N
max
Superpave Testing
Specimen heights
Mixture volumetrics
Air voids
Voids in mineral aggregate (VMA)
Voids filled with asphalt (VFA)
Mixture density characteristics
Dust proportion
Moisture sensitivity
Superpave Mix Design
Determine mix properties at N
Design
and compare to
criteria

Air voids

4% (or 96% G
mm
)

VMA See table
VFA See table
%G
mm
at N
ini
< 89%
%G
mm
at N
max
< 98%

Dust proportion 0.6 to 1.2
Superpave Mix Design
Gyratory Compaction Criteria