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1 NOKIA FILENAMs.

PPT/ DATE / NN
3G Radio
Network Planning
Fundamentals

- Day 2 -
2 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Agenda Day 2
Radio Resource Management
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
RAN Sharing
Multilayer Planning
3 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
- Objectives -
At the end of this module you will be able to...
List all RRM entities and explain their function
Explain the interworking between Load Control,
Admission Control and Packet Scheduler
Describe the different handover possibilities
List the two most important soft handover
parameters
Describe the difference between non-
controllable and controllable traffic
Explain why LA, RA, SA and URA area planning
is needed
Explain the cell search/synchronisation
procedure of the UE
Explain how scrambling code planning affects
cell search performance
Explain the concept of group planning

4 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
NRT traffic RT traffic
Conversational Streaming Interactive Background
PS domain CS domain
Radio Resource Management
UMTS Traffic Classes











Conversational class is meant for traffic which is very delay
sensitive while background class is the most delay insensitive
traffic class.
Conversational and streaming classes are mainly intended to
be used to carry real time traffic flows.
Interactive class and Background are mainly meant to be used
by traditional Internet applications like WWW, Email, Telnet,
FTP and News
5 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
RAN Data Rates
AMR speech
Rate (kbps) 12.20 10.20 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75
PS data
Rate (kbps) 512* 384 320 256 144** 128 64 32 16 8
Non-transparent CS data
Rate (kbps) 57.6 28.8 14.4
Transparent CS data
Rate (kbps) 64 33.6 32 28.8
* RAN2
DL
** RAN2
Extensive multicall capability
Maximum user data rate 384 kbps (512kbps DL in RAN2)
6 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management (RRM) is responsible for efficient utilization
of the air interface resources
RRM is needed to maximize the radio performance
Guarantee Quality of Service (BLER, BER, delay)
Maintain the planned coverage for each service
Ensure planned capacity with low blocking
optimise the use of capacity
RRM can be divided into
Power control
Handover control
Admission control
Load control (Congestion control)
Packet scheduling
Resource Manager
DOCUMENTTYPE
TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere
TypeYourNameHere TypeDateHere
Radio Resource Management
Overview
Iu
Iur
Iub
Iub
MS
BTS
BTS
SRNC
DRNC
Power Control
Power Control
Load Control
Admission Control
Load Control
Admission Control
Packet Scheduler
Load Control
Handover Control
Power Control

7 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Logical Model
AC Admission Control
LC Load Control
PS Packet Scheduler
RM Resource Manager
PC Power Control
HC HO Control
PC
HC
Connection based functions
LC
AC
Network based functions
PS
RM
8 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Overview of RRM Algorithms
Power control (PC) maintains radio link level quality by
adjusting the uplink and downlink powers.
The quality requirements are tried to get with minimum transmission
powers to achieve low interference in radio access network. The basic
functions of WCDMA power control are:
Open loop power control (RACH, FACH)
Fast closed loop power control (DCH, DSCH)
Outer loop power control
Handover Control (HC) controls the active state mobility of
UE in RAN.
HC maintains the radio link quality and minimises the radio network
interference by optimum cell selection in handovers. The Handover
Control (HC) of the Radio Access Network (RAN) supports the following
handover procedures:
Intra-frequency soft/softer handover
Intra-frequency hard handover
Inter-frequency handover
Inter-system (GSM) handover

9 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Overview of RRM Algorithms
Admission Control (AC) decides whether a request to
establish a Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is admitted in the
Radio Access Network (RAN) or not.
Admission control is used to maintain stability and to achieve high
traffic capacity of RAN. The AC algorithm is executed when radio
access bearer is setup or the bearer is modified. The AC measures
take place as well with all kind of handovers.
Load Control (LC) continuously updates the load
information of cells controlled by RNC
Load Control and provides this information to the AC and PS for radio
resource controlling purposes. In overload situations, the LC performs
the recovering actions by using the functionalities of AC, PS and HC.
10 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Overview of RRM Algorithms
Packet scheduler (PS) schedules radio resources for NRT
radio access bearers both in uplink and downlink direction.
The traffic load of cell determines the scheduled transmission capacity.
The information of load caused by NRT bearers is determined by PS.
It can be said that PS controls the NRT load when system is not in
overload.
PS also allocates and changes the bitrates of NRT bearers. PS controls
both dedicated and shared channels.

11 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Wideband Power Based RRM
Nokia RRM has the following principles for the operation of network based
algorithms, admission control, packet scheduler and load control:
RRM is operating cell basis, i.e. operations are done for a single cell
without taking neighbouring cells account.
System load is measured based on total averaged power/ interference
in a cell. In uplink it is the total received wideband interference power
(PrxTotal) and in downlink it is the total transmitted power (PtxTotal).
AC, PS and LC operations are based these two measurements.
AC, PS and LC operations are done separately for uplink and downlink.





RRM has the ability to manage cell loading based on the total average
uplink/downlink power, which has the affect of eliminating the cell shrinkage
occurring due to variations in neighbour cell interference levels.


Uplink Downlink
Node B Measurement Total received wideband
power PrxTotal
Total transmitted
wideband power PtxTotal
RRM in RNC Keep load at PrxTraget
(max)
Keep load at PrxTraget
(max)
12 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control
The target of the power control (PC) is to achieve the minimum signal-to-
interference ratio (SIR) that is required for the sufficient quality of the connection
Power control provides protection against large changes in shadowing, immediate
response for fast changes in signal levels and interference levels (SIR). Power
control is also needed to cope with the near far problem
PC entity fulfils the radio link power related adjustment by the following basic
procedures:
Uplink open loop PC algorithm and random access procedure
PC for downlink common physical channels
Fast closed loop PC
Outer loop PC

13 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control Loops
Fast Closed loop PC measures the Interference level
Outer loop PC maintains the set quality

SRNC
RNC
SRNC
RNC
Node B
Iub
UE UE
Fast Closed
Loop PC
UL Outer
Loop PC
DL Outer
Loop PC
Immediate response
to fading and fast
changes in signal
and interference
levels
Quality loop: Maintains
the specified error rate
14 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control Loops
UL Open loop power control for initial power setting of the UE
UE performs the initial transmission power calculation with the help of received info from RNC
path loss between Node B and UE
uplink interference level (measured by Node B)
required received C/I
With Random Access Channel (RACH) power ramping is done with preambles
Preamble: In the beginning mobile sends low power and increases it until Node B is able to
detect it
After the initial transmission and the synchronisation procedure the fast closed loop PC starts.


P2

Downlink / BS
RACH
P1
L1 ACK / AICH
Uplink / MS
Preamble
Not detected
Message part Preamble
15 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control Loops
Fast Closed loop power control (UL/DL)
Closed loop PC mechanism aims to maintain a SIR target value specified
by outer loop PC. The SIR is measured on pilot bits of the dedicated control
channel and a corresponding transmit power control (TPC) command is
sent on the reverse link.
In UL closed loop PC, the BTS measures the SIR on pilot bits of the UL
DPCCH and transmits the corresponding Transmit Power Control (TPC)
value on DL DCH. The UE decodes the TPC value and responds
accordingly
In DL closed loop PC UE measures the SIR value on pilots bits of the DL
DPCH and transmits the corresponding TPC command on UL DPCCH.
In Nokia RAN 1.5 the DL closed loop PC will be such that a TPC command
will be generated by the UE for every time slot in a radio frame.
16 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control Loops
Outer loop power control
The outer loop PC adjusts the SIR target used by the closed loop PC. The
SIR target is independently adjusted for each connection based on the
estimated quality of the connection. The initial value is provided by
admission control functionality in the RNC.
The SIR target value is to be set so that the usage of radio resources is
most effective, the power is set to minimum possible, still ensuring that the
quality of the connection is good enough.
In uplink outer loop PC the RNC monitors the link quality and adjusts the
new SIR target accordingly for the fast closed loop PC.
UE takes care of the downlink outer loop PC. Downlink outer loop PC sets
the SIR target for the downlink fast closed loop PC according to quality
estimates of the received channel.
Downlink outer loop PC functions are mainly located in the UE, but some
control parameters, e.g. BLER target, are set by the RNC.

17 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control Loops
P1
P2
UE1 and UE2 are transmitting on the same frequency
=> equalizing transmitter powers is critical ("near-far" problem)

Optimum situation: P1 = P2 at the Node B at all times

Different path attenuations are compensated by using
power control.

Open loop power control: UE adjusts its initial transmitter
power according to received signal level

Closed loop power control: Node B commands UE
to increase or decrease its transmission power at 1.5 kHz
It is based on received signal to interference ratio (SIR)
estimates in Node B.

Closed loop power control also follows the fast fading pattern
at low and medium speeds (< 50 km/h)
Node B
UE2
UE1
TPC commands
TPC commands
if SIR > (SIR)set then "down"
else "up"
UE adjusts
power according
to TPC commands
18 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Uplink Outer Loop Power Control
CN
RNC
if SIR > (SIR)set then "down"
else "up"
frame reliability info
(SIR)set adjustment
command
outer loop
control
if FER increase then
(SIR)set "up"
else (SIR)set "down"
required (SIR)set for 1 % FER
time
MS stands still
outer loop TPC maintains link
quality
optimises capacity / range
is the "link adaptation" method in
WCDMA
during soft handover: comes after
soft handover frame selection
19 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Common Channel Power Planning
BTS power allocation rule:
For Pilot CPCIH 10 %,
For other common channels, 10 %
For dedicated channels, the rest
Ec/Ior=fraction of the power of the channel of interest
from the total BS power.
20 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Power Control & Diversity
At low UE speed, power control compensates the fading : fairly
constant receive power and Tx power with high variations
With diversity the variations in Tx power is less
At UE speed >100km/h fast power control cannot follow the
fast fading, therefore diversity helps keep receive power level
more or less constant
In the UL Tx affects adjacent cell interference and Rx power
affects interference within the cell.
21 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Handovers
Soft/Softer handover
In Soft HO MS is simultaneously connected to multiple cells
In softer HO MS is simultaneously connected to multiple cell within same Node B
Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO)
Intra-frequency handover
Hard handover
Intra-Frequency hard handover
Arises when inter-RNC SHO is impossible
Decision procedure is the same as SHO
MEHO and RNC controlled HO
Causes temporary disconnection of the user
Inter-Frequency handover (RAN1.5)
Can be intra-BS hard handover, intra-RNC hard handover, inter-RNC hard handover
Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO)
Decision algorithm located in RNC
Handovers both for RT and NRT Services
Inter-System handover (RAN1.5)
Handovers for CS voice and CS data (NEHO)
Network initiated cell Re-selection for PS (RT or NRT) data to GSM/GPRS
22 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Softer HO
Soft-Soft HO
Softer-Soft HO
Soft HO
Radio Resource Management
Soft Handover
23 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
1. The CPICH E
c
/N
0
exceeds
Strongest pilot in active set -
Addition Window. The mobile station
starts Addition Time timer
2. The CPICH E
c
/N
0
has been
continuously higher than Strongest
pilot in active set Addition Window,
RNC add the neighbour to Active set
after the Addition Time timer expires.
3. The CPICH E
c
/N
0
is smaller than
Strongest pilot in active set - Drop
Window. The mobile station starts
Drop Time timer
4. The CPICH E
c
/N
0
has been
continuously smaller than Strongest
pilot in active set Drop Window,
RNC drops the cell from the active
set to the neighbour set after the
Drop Time timer expires.
Radio Resource Management
Nokia Soft Handover Algorithm
Strongest pilot in active set
Addition Window
Drop Window
MS E
c
/N
0
value
time
Addition Time Drop Time
MS E
c
/N
0
Neighbor Set Neighbour Set Active Set Active Set Neighbor Set Neighbour Set
1. 2. 3. 4.
24 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Load Control
The purpose of load control is to optimise the capacity of a cell
and prevent overload situation.
Load control consists of Admission Control (AC) and Packet
Scheduler (PS) algorithms, and Load Control (LC) which
updates the load status of the cell based on resource
measurements and estimations provided by AC and PS.

LC
AC
PS
NRT load
Load change
info
Load status
25 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Load Control
Since the main criteria in a WCDMA system for the radio
resources is the interference, the load of the cell under the
RNC is measured periodically based on
uplink interference level
downlink transmission power levels
In uplink, the basic measured quantity indicating load is the
total received power of a Node B, PrxTotal
In downlink, the basic measured quantity indicating load is the
total transmitted power of a Node B, PtxTotal
26 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
PrxTarget (dB) defines the optimal operating point of the cell
interference power, up to which the AC of the RNC can
operate.

Radio Resource Management
Radio Interface Load in Uplink
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Noise rise as a function of fractional load
Fractional load
N
o
i
s
e

r
i
s
e

[
d
B
]

PrxTarget [dB] + PrxOffset [dB]
PrxTarget [dB]
Noise floor
FEASIBLE LOAD AREA
MARGINAL LOAD AREA
OVERLOAD AREA
27 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Load in DL
PtxTotal
[dBm]
PtxTarget [dBm]
PtxTarget [dBm]+PtxOffset [dB]
Cell maximum [dBm]
Load
[0...1]
0
1
max _
_

BTS tx
total tx
P
P

OVERLOAD AREA
MARGINALLOAD AREA
FEASIBLELOAD AREA
Load in DL
PtxTotal
[dBm]
PtxTarget [dBm]
PtxTarget [dBm]+PtxOffset [dB]
Cell maximum [dBm]
Load
[0...1]
0
1
max _
_

BTS tx
total tx
P
P

OVERLOAD AREA
MARGINALLOAD AREA
FEASIBLELOAD AREA
Radio Resource Management
Radio Interface Load in DL
In the downlink, the own cell load factor can be defined as the
ratio of the measured transmission power, PtxTotal, to the
maximum transmission power of cell
28 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Admission Control
Admission Control (AC) decides whether a request to establish a Radio Access
Bearer (RAB) is admitted in the RAN or not.
AC is used to maintain stability and to achieve high traffic capacity of RAN. The AC
algorithm is executed when radio access bearer is setup or the bearer is modified.
The AC measures take place as well with all kind of handovers.
The AC algorithm estimates the load increase, which the establishment of the
bearer would cause in the radio network. Both uplink and downlink direction is
estimated separately.
The inter-cell interference effect is estimated. Bearer is not admitted if the predicted
load exceeds particular thresholds either in uplink or downlink.
In decision procedure AC will use the load information produced by the Load Control
(LC) and packet scheduler (PS) functionalities of RRM.
29 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Overload area
Load Target
Overload Margin
P
o
w
e
r

Time
Estimated capacity for
NRT traffic.
Measured load caused
by noncontrollable load
Radio Resource Management
Admission Control
The traffic can be divided into two groups
Real Time (RT) or non-controllable
Non-Real Time (NRT) or controllable
THUS some portion of capacity must be reserved for the RT
traffic for mobility purposes all the time. The proportion
between RT and NRT traffic varies all the time.

30 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Admission Control
Since it is not enough to divide the load to RT and NRT one must take into account the
interference coming from surrounding cells.
Traffic is divided into controllable and non-controllable traffic.

Non-controllable traffic = RT users +
other-cell users +
noise +
other NRT users which
operate minimum bit rate

Controllable traffic= NRT users


31 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Admission Control
power
time
non-controllable power
controllable power
PrxNc / PtxNc
PrxTotal / PtxTotal
PrxNrt / PtxNrt
PrxOffset / PtxOffset
PrxTarget / PtxTarget
ADMISSION DECISION: A RAB request is accepted if the estimated non-
controllable uplink and downlink load, measured in total received interference
power and transmitted carrier power, keeps below the planned load target and
the current total load below the overload threshold, defined by target and
offset parameters.
32 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Packet Scheduler
Packet scheduler is a general feature, which takes care of scheduling radio
resources for NRT radio access bearers for both UL and DL
Admission control (AC) and packet scheduler (PS) both participate to the handling
of NRT radio bearers
Packet scheduler allocates appropriate radio resources for the duration of a packet
call, i.e. active data transmission.

time
bit rate
RACH/FACH, DSCH or DCH
allocation
Packet call
NRT RAB allocat ed, packet service session
Packet scheduler handles
Admission control handles
Short inactive
periods during
packet call
33 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Resource Manager
The main function of RM is to allocate logical radio resources of NodeB according to
the channel request by the RRC layer for each radio connection
The RM is located in the RNC and it works in close co-operation with the AC and the
PS
The actual input for resource allocation comes from the AC /PS and RM informs the
PS about the resource situation
The RM is able to switch codes and code types for different reasons such as soft
handover and defragmentation of code tree.
Manages the Node B logical resources
Node B reports the available logical HW resources
Maintains the code tree,
Allocates the DL channelization codes, UL scrambling code, UL channelization
code type
Allocates UTRAN Registration Area(URA) specific Radio Network Temporary
Identifier(RNTI) allocated for each connection and reallocated when updating URA
34 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Resource Manager
Spreading = channelization and scrambling operations (producing the
signal at the chip rate, i.e. spreads the signal to the wideband)
Downlink: Scrambling code separates the cells and channelization code
separates connection
The length of the channelization code is the spreading factor
All physical channels are spread with channelization codes, C
m
(n) and
subsequently by the scrambling code, C
FSCR
The code order, m and the code number, n designates each and every
channellization code in the layered orthogonal code sequences.

user data
widespread data
chanellization
code
scrambling
code
35 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
DL Primary Scrambling Code
DL Scrambling code Info is needed for Synchronization between UE and
Node B for cell search & identification procedure during
call set up
handover
Cell search procedure in UE & in frame synchronization
search step 1: slot synchronization to a cell
search step 2: frame synchronization & code group identification
search step 2: scrambling code identification
Each cell has it's own Scrambling code (like BCCH is GSM) which need to
be planned (like frequency planning in GSM)
Total 512 scrambling codes are available (0511), they are in 64 groups,
each group having 8 codes
Codes could be allocated from same group of from different groups in the
planning area

Most Important
step !
36 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Codes 0 1 2 63
0 0 8 16 504
1 1 9 17 505
2 2 10 18 506
3 3 11 19 507
4 4 12 20 508
5 5 13 21 509
6 6 14 22 510
7 7 15 23 511
Here is how Primary Scrambling codes are seen for Planning
Engineer (i=0511)




Radio Resource Management
Primary Scrambling Code
Code
Group 1
37 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
DL Scrambling Code Planning Rule
Scrambling code should be selected in optimum way because
It has affect to the cell search algorithm (time)
The call setup/HO performance depends on the reliability of the search
procedure in cell search step 2 and 3
There must be large enough separation (minimum reuse) between two cells
using the same scrambling code (like frequency reuse in GSM)
Recommended minimum reuse is 64


Scrambling code Planning Rule
Minimize the number of used code groups
Maximize the number of codes per group
The rule is valid in all neighbour sets in all environments

38 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
DL Scrambling Code Planning Rule
Scrambling code planning is independent for each carrier layer
=> same codes could be used
Cell search time increases when the number of neighbours is
high like in Urban area
The size of the neighbour sets should be large enough to
include all useful candidates but as small as possible to
maintain fast synchronization process


39 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
DL Scrambling Code Planning Rule - Example
Area with 12 Node
B(1+1+1) sites
Assign the codes such that
codes form geographic
cluster of cells.
Two code groups enough
up to 15 neighbours
IntraFreqNcell
ScrCode
UE
PriScrCode
Cluster of cells
having 2 code
groups
40 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Registration and Service Areas - Overview
Four Registration areas are known in UMTS

Location area (LA) in core network CS domain
Routing area (RA) in core network PS domain
UTRAN registration area (URA) in UTRAN (not visible to the core
network)
Cell as the smallest entity in the UTRAN (not visible to the core network)

Service Area (SA)

Used to inform the core network about the location of a UE location
based services
UTRAN does not make use of SA


41 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Location Area (LA)
LA is used for location information in the CS domain of the core network

Each cell in the network is assigned a single location area code (LAC)
No overlap between location areas.

A LA consists of a set of cells with a size of at minimum one cell and at
maximum an MSC/VLR area.

A RNC may include many LAs or a LA may span over many RNC areas

When crossing the border of an LA in idle mode, the UE has to perform a
location (LA) update procedure.
42 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Routing Area (RA)
The RA is used for paging in PS domain of the core network

Each cell in the network is assigned a single location area code (RAC)
No overlap between routing areas.

A RA has to be a subset of a LA and cannot span upon more than one LA.

A RA has a size of at minimum one cell and at maximum a SGSN area.

When crossing the border of a RA, the UE has to perform a routing area
(RA) update procedure.

A RNC may include many RAs or a RA may span over many RNC areas.

43 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
UTRAN Registration Area (URA)
URA area is used inside UTRAN, but not at CN level

Each cell in the network is assigned at least one URA identifier (URAid)
Overlapping URAs are possible

Overlapping URAs reduces the number of URA updates for a given UE

URA consist of number of cells belonging to either one or several RNCs

URA is used to avoid high amount of cell updates for high mobility UEs.
RNC commands the UE to change from CELL_PCH state to URA_PCH
state
only URA updates instead of cell updates

URA update is a RRC procedure

44 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Cell
A cell is the smallest entity in the UTRAN, it is not known in the core
network


A cell update takes place if the UE leaves the cell border while it is in
CELL_FACH, CELL_DCH or CELL_PCH state.


Cell update is a RRC procedure

45 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Service Area (SA)
The SA identifies an area consisting of one or more cells beloning to the
same LA

The Service Area Identifier is composed of the PLMN Identifier, the
Location Area Code (LAC) and the Service Area Code (SAC).

Service Area is used for location based services
In RAN1.5 the max accuracy is the cell level
In RAN2.1 the accuracy is better -inside the cell

In RAN2.0 there is the Service Area Broadcast feature which enables
information providers to submit short messages for broadcasting to a
specified Service Area within the PLMN.
These messages could be used for informing about e.g. PLMN news,
emergencies, traffic reports, road accidents, delayed trains, weather
reports, theatre programmes, telephone numbers or tariffs

46 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Radio Resource Management
Impact of Registration Areas on Common Channel
Traffic
LA, RA or URA size affects the amount of traffic on PCH in (paging) and on
RACH and FACH (area updates)

With increasing sizes of LA, RA or URA, traffic on the PCH will increase.
The bigger the registration area, the higher the probability that extra
PCH traffic is produced in a cell and the higher the PCH traffic is in that
cell.

With increasing sizes of LA, RA and URA, the traffic on RACH and FACH
will decrease.
The bigger the registration area, the lower the probability for a specific
UE to cross an area border and therefore traffic caused by LA, RA or
URA updates decreases.
The planning task is to define the registration area such, that FACH, RACH
and PCH traffic is kept low while the battery liftime of the UEs is kept high.
47 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Agenda Day 2
Radio Resource Management
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
RAN Sharing
Multilayer Planning
48 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
- Objectives -
At the end of this module you will be able to...
List the actions which are done during pre-
launch optimisation
List the tools which are used during pre-
launch optimisation
List at least three parameters which could
be tuned during pre-launch optimisation
Explain the three golden rules for pre-
launch optimisation
49 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-launch Optimisation
Introduction
Pre-launch Optimisation means actions to meet the defined
coverage and quality criteria
Drive tests are done to test
Coverage for different data rate services
Pilot channel coverage
Soft handover areas and probabilities
Quality (BLER)
Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are defined to measure the
criteria
Cell total data throughput
Call setup success rates for different services
Call drop rates
Soft Handover performance
50 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-launch Optimisation
Process
Network Management
Nokia NetAct
TM
for 3G
Field Tool Server

RAN Optimisation
pre-defined procedures
semi / full automated
configuration
Start
WindowAdd
Change 1 stepsize
WindrowDrop
Change 1 stepsize
CompThreshold
Change 1 stepsize
DropTimer
Change 1 stepsize
NMS: Collect
network
performance data
Evaluate KPI
'HO Overhead'.
OK ?
Evaluate all
network KPIs.
OK ?
Yes
Go to relevant
optimisation
flow-chart
No
End
Yes
No


KPIs, counters
air-interface
Field Tool
WCDMA RAN
KPIs,
measurements
Configuration
51 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Tools
Drive test tools for Coverage verification
Agilent scanner
Nemo Technologies TOM
Ericsson TEMS
Post Processing tool for rollout verification, planning validation,
infrastructure verification and network optimisation
Actix Analyzer v. 4.1 and NetAct
Network Configuration tool for Performance Info (PI, KPI)
Network Element Management Unit (Nemu)
Network protocol analyzer for troubleshooting
NetHawk
Uplink and Downlink loading tools
52 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Initial Drive Testing Configuration
Iub
(ATM)
Iu-CS
( ATM )
STM-1
STM-1
RNC
BTS
Extract radio parameters which are
exchanged over the RRC protocol:
Uplink SIR target, Downlink BLER
target, UL CRC OK/NOK etc.
NBAP
Radio link Measurement report
Dedicated RRC messages
Nethawk analyser
A WCDMA scanner (Agilent, Nemo
Technologies TOM or Ericsson TEMS) can be
used for (passive) idle mode downlink
measurements:
CPICH Ec/Io
Active set (neighbor list measurements)
Location information
When used together with a UE (no
monitoring) and the protocol analyzer, it can
(analysing messaging in Iub interface) be
used to assess the UE behavior
Postprocessing (Actix and/or
a customised tool) tool to
correlate the data from
network and terminal side by
using the timestamp
Additional
terminals (if
available) used
to increase
network load.
Hardblocking
will be used to
limit required
number of
terminals
Iu-PS
(IP)
53 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Load Generation
Because the load situation in the network in the beginning is small, load
generation is needed to simulate the situation in loaded network
In uplink there is a possibility to generate noise simply by adding noise to
the UL branch to test coverage
by using the UEs which increases the the load in the cell (noise like
interference)
Use X simultaneous Y kbits/s RT services to achieve the load
In downlink it is more challenging and also important since a smaller or
larger part of the interference is orthogonal and it is less thermal noise like.
Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) is a mechanism used to
simulate the users or control signals on the other orthogonal channels of
a downlink link
OCNS is a feature candidate in RAN2.1

54 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
There are few parameters that
have a great influence for the
Soft Handover of the network






Pre-Launch Optimisation
Soft Handover Optimisation Example
Addition
Window
Too wide soft HO
area
Too small soft HO
area
+ Soft HO
Overhead
UL macrodiversity
gain decrease
- UL Troughput
too high
too low
unnecessary soft
HO branch
addition
- DL Troughput
frequent HOs
+ signalling
overhead
Add Window
Drop Window
Maximum Active Set Size
Drop Time
Transmission power of the CPICH channel
Replacement Window
55 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
KPI improvement
Purpose: Increase network
performance
Target: Soft Handover Overhead at
optimal point
Method: adjust window_add and
window_drop parameters
Result: Optimal parameter value
found
Before After
20
25
30
35
40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Simulation Phase
SHOO[%]
Selected
optimal
parameter
value
30
Degraded performance
Semi-optimal
Active set
size
Microscopic
analysis
on area of 1
km
2

and 39 sites
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Optimising Soft Handover Areas
56 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Optimisation Based on Statistics
Optimisation is mainly based on Nokia NetAct reports
Field measurements are used to get additional information from the
pinpointed problem spots
Useful for optimisation
To locate the problem spots geographically and by network elements
To prioritise actions needed with the help of KPIs
To identify reasons for non-performance by giving information on
various statistical indicators and network history
Basis for area-wide performance improvement
Area wide parameter tuning based on long-term statistics and trends
Alarms of future problems in fast-growing traffic areas
Prior notice to be able to react in time and to be prepared for network
expansions
57 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Dynamic Simulations for Higher Visibility
Static simulations
Snapshot
Static
Moving randomly or
along roads with
random speed
Ray-tracing propagation
model with vector map
Ray-tracing
propagation model
with vector map
Realistic Nokia
algorithms; also future
algorithms
Simplified and limited
algorithms, e.g no power
control
No traffic model
Realistic traffic model;
projection of traffic
growth
Moving in three
dimensions
Current software
versions in use
Statistics collected from
snapshots
Statistics collected
over time period from
detailed call
simulations
Traffic is low in
network launch
Statistics collected
from network
management
system
Multipath
propagation
Algorithms
Traffic
Performance
analysing
Propagation
Mobility
Dynamic simulations
Movie
Real network
Reality
58 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Optimisation Example
Initial network plan consisted of total 59 cells, of which 24 were
in micro layer and 35 were in macro layer
In the first optimisation round antenna tilts and bearings were
tuned in macro cells
The sites were already optimised for GSM
Number of served users increased
outdoor users about 2.5%
indoor users about 2.6%
mixed case about 3.1%
Change of other to own cell interference i (average)
outdoor: from 0.43 to 0.44
indoor: from 0.47 to 0.43
mixed: from 0.43 to 0.44

59 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Macro: Little i in the beginning
60 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Macro: Little i after Optimisation
61 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Macro layer

Outdoor

Indoor
mixed
optimised
users change
2206
2079
2211
+14%
+11%
+13%

users
1931
1872
1943
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Capacity increase after Optimisation
Total number of users is 2500 both in macro and micro layers
Indoor case means that 14 dB attenuation has been used
compared to outdoor
Mixed case means that 30 % mobiles are inside
Increase is more than 10 % as shown below
Biggest outage reason is the max achieved Node B power
1689
1755
1713
+12%
+11%
+13%
1486
1559
1485
Micro layer
optimised
users change users
62 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Problem
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Optimisation Principles
Overlapping of cells,
no clear dominance
Cell sizes do not match
to user distribution
No coverage
Problem
indicator
in Planning
Tool
- High i
- Low capacity
- High soft handover
overhead
- Outage due to BTS
power or uplink load
- Other cell do not
collect traffic
- Outage due to UE power
- Outage due to DL link
power
Problem
indicator
in network
- High noise rise while
low throughput in UL
- High soft handover
overhead
- Blocking in some cells
- Other cells do not
collect traffic
- Dropped calls
- Bad quality
- Low bit rates for packets
Solutions
- Antenna downtilt
- De-Splitting => 2 cells
- Remove sites
- SHO parameters?
- Antenna tilting
- CPICH adjustment
- More sites
- Higher link power in DL
Under
stand
Detect
Solve
Results?? - 10-20% higher capacity
- 10-20% higher capacity
- Cells collect traffic
more equally
Check
Avoid unnecessary
overlapping
Put cells close to users
Make sure there is
coverage
3 Golden
rules
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Agenda Day 2
Radio Resource Management
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
RAN Sharing
Multilayer Planning
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
- Objectives -
At the end of this module you will be able to...
Name all Nokia Node Bs with their
maximum configuration
Explain the signal flow through a Node B
Locate the Node B units in a cabinet
Describe different HW configuration
possibilities for a Node B
List all antenna system components
65 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Overview
Nokia UltraSite
WCDMA BTS
Optima Compact
Outdoor
Nokia UltraSite
WCDMA BTS
Supreme
Indoor Outdoor
Nokia UltraSite
WCDMA BTS
Optima
Indoor
Complete Nokia WCDMA BTS Family for every need
Nokia UltraSite
TM
WCDMA BTS for all indoor and outdoor environments
Nokia MetroSite
TM
WCDMA BTS for "siteless" installations
Triple-mode Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS for joint GSM and WCDMA networks
Nokia
MetroSite
WCDMA
BTS
Indoor Outdoor
Triple-mode
Nokia UltraSite
EDGE BTS
66 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
UltraSite Optima Compact
Small high capacity WCDMA BTS with integrated battery back-up
freedom in single cabinet configurations
6 WCDMA carriers and IBBU OR 12 WCDMA carriers
3 or even 6 sector configurations supported with single cabinet
3 sectors with IBBU OR 6 sectors
Widest service area
excellent RF performance
output power 10/20/40 W
optimized for Nokia Smart Radio Concept
2+2+2 with SRC UL/DL supported with one cabinet without
IBBU
Single cabinet solution for quick roof-top installations
unobtrusive in roof-top installations due to low cabinet height
cabinet height 1300 mm
minimum floor space when battery back-up is needed
footprint less than 1m
2
(790 x 1200 mm)
outdoor cabinet
Outdoor
1300 x 1200 x 790
mm
-33C ... +50 C
IP55
67 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
UltraSite Optima Compact with RF Extension
68 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
UltraSite Optima Compact with IBBU Extension
Rectifiers: 3 x BATA 3.9 kW
DC
Power Distribution Unit
(PDU)
Common Control Unit
(CCUA)
LTE space: 3 x HU
Batteries: 90 Ah (@ 48 V
DC)
69 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
UltraSite Optima Indoor
Widest service area
excellent RF performance
output power 10/20/40 W
cost optimized solution for network roll-out
Highest possible capacity for every bandwidth
designed to fully occupy 10 MHz band
2+2+2 supported with 1 cabinet

Fits to every site
minimized site requirements due to compact size
indoor cabinet 1100 x 600 x 600 mm (H x W x D)
cabinet for indoor installations
Indoor
1100 x 600 x 600 mm
-5C ... +50 C
IP20
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
UltraSite Supreme
High-capacity multimedia BTS
supports 6 sectored solutions
up to 12 WCDMA carriers per cabinet
cabinet chaining for extreme configurations
chaining of 4 cabinets supported
optimal for operators with 15 MHz band or more
1 cabinet supports up to 4+4+4 with 20W
configurations
Widest service area
excellent RF performance
output power 10/20/40 W
full support for Nokia Smart Radio Concept
2+2+2 with SRC UL/DL supported with one cabinet
Minimized footprint
smallest foot print per WCDMA carrier
indoor cabinet footprint 600 x 600 mm for 12 WCDMA
carriers
outdoor cabinet footprint 770 x 790 mm for 12 WCDMA
carriers
cabinets for indoor and outdoor installations
Outdoor
1940 x 770 x 790
mm
-33C ... +50 C
IP55
Indoor
1800 x 600 x 600 mm
-5C ... +50 C
IP20
71 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
MetroSite WCDMA
"Siteless" WCDMA BTS appropriate for many different applications
cost-effective road-side coverage
in-fill coverage
indoor services
targeted coverage and capacity for hot spots
multi-layer networks
Revolutionary all-in-one solution
smallest 2 carrier WCDMA BTS
everything integrated in a single cabinet
base station, integrated transmission, integrated antenna and
short-term mains failure protection
common cabinet for indoor and outdoor installations
Macro BTS RF performance in micro BTS size
as good RX sensitivity as in Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS
output power 8 W
996 x 270 x 392 mm
-33C ... +50 C
IP55
72 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Configurations
1+1+1, 8W
2+2+2, 4W
BTS capacity
max. 10 Mbit/s per cabinet
Other features
6 GSM/EDGE TRXs and
WCDMA carriers or 12
GSM/EDGE TRXs in single
cabinet
tri- sectored solutions
2-port uplink diversity as standard
AC or DC power feed
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
UltraSite EDGE/WCDMA
Outdoor
1940 x 770 x 750 mm
-33C ... +50 C
IP55
Indoor
1800 x 600 x 570 mm
-5C ... +50 C
IP20
1 Wideband Transceiver unit (WTR)
2 Wideband Power Amplifier unit (WMP)
3 Wideband Input Combiner unit (WIC)
4 Wideband Antenna Filter unit (WAF)
5 Wideband Suming and Multiplexing unit (WSM)
6 Wideband Application Manager unit (WAM)
7 Wideband Signal Processor unit (WSP)
8 Wideband Power Supply unit (WPS)
9 Wideband System Clock unit (WSC)
10 ATM Multiplexer unit (AXU)
11 Interface unit (IFU)
12 Wideband Fan Module (WFA)
13 Transmission unit (VXxx)
14 Bias Tee unit (BPxx)
KEY:
8
5
6 7
1
2
9
2
2
1
1
11
12
14
10
3 1
3
4 4 4
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Unit Positions in UltraSite Supreme
WAF (6pcs)
Antenna Filter
WEA (1pc)
External Alarm
Unit
WPA (6pcs)
Power Amplifier
WIC
(3pcs)
Input
Combiner
WTR (6pcs)
Transmitter &
Receiver
WSC
(2pcs)
System
Clock
AXU (1pc)
ATM Cross-connect
Unit
IFU (5pcs)
Interface
Unit
WPS
(3pcs)
Power Suppy
WAM (6pcs)
Application
Manager
WSM (3pcs)
Summing &
Multiplexing
WSP
(18pcs)
Signal
Processor
74 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Optima and Optima Compact Configurations
Optima
Configuration
Number of
cabinets
Output power
per carrier
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.1
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.2
WPA version
1 carrier omni 1 20W 384 768 20W
3 sector 1
carrier (1+1+1)
1 20W 384 768 20W
2+2+2 1 20W 384 768 40W
2+2+2 1 10W 384 768 20W
Optima
Compact
Configuration
Number of
cabinets
Output power
per carrier
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.1
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.2
WPA version
1 carrier omni 1 20W 384 768 20W
1+1+1 1 20W 384 768 20W
1+1+1+1+1+1 1 20W 384 768 20W
2+2+2 1 20W 384 768 20/40W
4+4+4* 1 20W 384 768 40W
2+2+2+2+2+2* 1 20W 384 768 40W
*Available in Release 2
75 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Supreme and Triple-Mode Configurations
Supreme
Configuration
Number of
cabinets
Output power
per carrier
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.1
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.2
WPA version
1 carrier omni 1 20W 576 1152 20W
1+1+1 1 20W 576 1152 20W
1+1+1 1 40W 576 1152 20/40W
1+1+1+1+1+1 1 20W 576 1152 20W
2+2+2 1 20W 576 1152 20/40W
4+4+4* 1 20W 576 1152 40W
2+2+2+2+2+2* 1 20W 576 1152 40W
4+4+4+4+4+4* 2 20W 1152 2304 40W
Triple- Mode
Configuration
Number of
cabinets
Output power
per carrier
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.1
Max. HW channel
capacity / HW Rel.2
1 + 1 + 1 1 8 W 160 320
2 + 2 + 2* 1 4 W 160 320
*Available in Release 2
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Signal Flow
WPA
WSM W
S
P
W
S
P
W
S
P
WAM
AXU IFU
Iub
WIC
WAF
WTR
to WTR of 2. carrier
RF BB
from WTR of 2.
carrier
Tx
Rx
Bi-directional
Tx/Rx
Rx Div
from/to WTR of 2.
carrier
from/to adj.
WSM
from/to adj.
WSM
from/to 2./3. WAM
WSC
CLK
CLK to WSM/
WTR
CLK from/to other
cabinet(s)
Interface Unit
Termination point for
transmission
ATM Cross Connect
ATM Switching from/to
other BS/RNC
System Clock
Baseband reference
clocks. Synchronises
with Iub
Application Manager
ATM termination point
Contol functions for BS
Summing & Muliplexing
Summing Tx-Samples
from WSP. Distributing
Rx-Samples from WTR to
all WSP
Signal Processor
RAKE Receiver, (De-)
Spreading, Channel
coding, ...

Transmitter & Receiver
Modulation/Demodulation,
Tx power control, Rx
power measurements
Input Combiner
2-way combiner & 2-
way devider
Antenna Filter
Filters, amplifies and
devides the Rx-signal

Power Amplifier
Linear amplification of 1
to 4 carriers
77 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WAF
WPA
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WSM
W
S
P
W
S
P
W
S
P
W
A
M
WAF
WPA
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WSM
W
S
P
W
S
P
W
S
P
W
A
M
WAF
WPA
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WSM
W
S
P
W
S
P
W
S
P
W
A
M
AXU IFU
Iub
WIC
WIC
WIC
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
1+1+1 (20/carrier) without SRC
RF section will
change for
SRC
configurations
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Uplink SRC 1 Carrier 20W
Carrier 1
WAF
WPA
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WAF
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WIC
Rx Main
Rx Div3
Rx Div2
Rx Div1
Ant1
Ant2
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Uplink & Downlink SRC 1 Carrier, 20W/Branch
Carrier 1
WAF
WPA
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WAF
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
WIC
Rx Main
Rx Div3
Rx Div2
Rx Div1
Ant1
Ant2
WPA
Tx1
Tx2
80 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Uplink & Downlink SRC 2 Carriers, 20W/Branch
Carrier 1
Carrier 2
Carrier 1
Carrier 2
WAF
WAF
WIC
Tx
Rx
Rx
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
Txsum
Tx
Rx
Rx
Tx
Rx
Rx
WTR
Txsum
WPA
WPA
Note:
Requires Release 2
Units
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Upgrade Path
roll-out phase
1 carrier/BTS
50 Erl/carrier
1st carrier
1+1+1
20 W
50 Erl
R
O
C
Add
LPA
2+2+2
2x20 W
100 Erl
2 carriers/BTS
20W/carrier
50 Erl/carrier
Increased
power
R
O
C
2+2+2
6x10 W
240 Erl
2 carriers/sect
10W/carrier
40 Erl/carrier
2 carriers/
sector
C
E
C
2+2+2
6x20 W
300 Erl
2 carriers/sect
20W/carrier
50 Erl/carrier
2 carriers/
sector
C
E
C
Add
1 LPA
2+2+2
2x10 W
80 Erl
2 carriers/BTS
10W/carrier
40 Erl/carrier
2nd carrier
R
O
C
1+1+1
3x20 W
150 Erl
1 carrier/sect
20W/carrier
50 Erl/carrier
1 carrier/sector
C
E
C
Add
3 TRXs
Add
3 TRXs
Add
LPA
Add
3 LPAs
1+1+1
40 W
60 Erl
1 carrier/BTS
40W/carrier
60 Erl/carrier
Increased
power
R
O
C
Add
1 LPA
82 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
2+2+2
2 x 20W
336Erl
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Nokia SRC Capacity Growth Path
4-way diversity for maximum cell coverage
downlink diversity for enhanced capacity
6 TRXs or
3 dual- TRXs
3 LPAs
40 Erl/carrier
without SRC
50 Erl/carrier
+3 dB
coverage
gain
- 20%
capacity
4-way UL div
3 dual- TRXs
6 LPAs
70 Erl/carrier
+75%
capacity
gain
DL diversity
6 dual- TRXs
6 LPAs
56 Erl/carrier
+60%
capacity
gain
2nd carrier
1+1+1
20W
120Erl
1+1+1
20W
150Erl
1+1+1
2 x 20W
210Erl
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Antenna System - Overview
The WCDMA UltraSite Antenna System contains the
follwing components
Antennas
WCDMA Masthead Amplifiers (MHA)
Bias-T, supplies WCDMA MHA with DC power through
feeder cable, provides lightning protection (can also be used
w/o MHA)
EMP Protector, lightning protection, only needed if no Bias-
T is used
Diplexers, combining/dividing two bands such as WCDMA
and GSM to a common feeder line
Triplexers, combining/dividing three bands such as WCDMA
GSM1800 and GSM900 to a common feeder line
Feeder and Jumper cables, Grounding kits

84 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Antenna System WCDMA Panels
WCDMA Broadband Antennas
Antenna Type Dimensions
Weight
(kg)
Frequency Range
(MHz)
Gain
(dBi)
Beam
Width
Downtilt
CS72761.01 XPol F-Panel 342/155/69 mm 2.0 1710-2170 12.5 65 2
CS72761.02 XPol F-Panel 1302/155/69 mm 6.0 1710-2170 18.5 65 2
CS72761.05 Xpol F-Panel 1302/155/69 mm 7.5 1710-2170 17 88 0..8
CS72761.07 XPol F-Panel 1942/155/69 mm 10.0 1710-2170 19.5 65 0..6
CS72761.08 XPol F-Panel 1302/155/69 mm 7.5 1710-2170 18 65 0..8
CS72761.09 XPol F-Panel 662/155/69 mm 3.5 1710-2170 15.5 65 0..10
WCDMA Narrowbeam Antennas
Antenna Type Dimensions
Weight
(kg)
Frequency Range
(MHz)
Gain
(dBi)
Beam
Width
Downtilt
CS727762.01 XPol F-Panel 1302/299/69 mm 12.0 1900-2170 21 30 0..8
WCDMA Dual Broadband Antennas(WCDMA/GSM1800 or SRC)
Antenna Type Dimensions
Weight
(kg)
Frequency Range
(MHz)
Gain
(dBi)
Beam
Width
Downtilt
CS72764.01 XXPol F-Panel 1302/299/69 mm 12.0 1710-2170 18.5/18.5 65/65 0..8/0..8
CS72764.02 XXPol F-Panel 1302/299/69 mm 12.0 1710-2170 17/17 85/85 0..8/0..8
WCDMA Omni Antennas
Antenna Type Dimensions
Weight
(kg)
Frequency Range
(MHz)
Gain
(dBi)
Beam
Width
Downtilt
CS727760 Omni 1570/148/112 mm 5.0 1920-2170 11 360 --
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Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Antenna System - Mast Head Amplifier
-119 dBm / 200 kHz
-37 dBm / 200 kHz
ANT port in-band 5 dBm
out-of-band 20 dBm
BTS port avg 46 dBm in-band
peak 62 dBm in-band
65 dB
71 dB
65 dB
200 - 300 mA
100 msec
UMTS RX, 1920-1980
Alarm Setting Conditions
Alarm current range
Switch time
Critical Input RX filter rejections
Critical TX filter rejections
UMTS TX, 2110-2170
GSM1800, 1805-1880
Passive Intermodulation Products
PIM level in TX band
PIM level in RX band
Rated Power at Ports
+/- 0.5 dB room
+/- 0.9 dB all temps
Insertion Loss 0.6 dB
Response, other freqs
0 dB within 20 MHz of
passband
3rd-order intercept 10 dBm
1dB compression -5 dBm
Noise Figure 2 dB
RX band 16 dB
TX band 18 dB
Group delay distortion 20 ns over 5 MHZ
7.0 - 8.6V, UltraSite/MetroSite
11 - 13 V , CoSited BTS
Nominal current 190 mA
Max. current 350 mA
Insertion Loss 3 dB
Return Loss 12 dB
Voltage
Return Loss, ANT and BTS ports
MHA Input Dynamic Range
Bypass Mode
Nominal gain of 12 dB
Gain, RX band
Ripple
DC Power supplied
Technical Data Sheet:
86 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
GSM 900 BTS
GSM 1800 BTS
WCDMA BTS
Insertion Loss,
Port - Common
Isolation, port to
port
Return Loss, any
port
GSM RX band
GSM 120 W avg 1.44 kW peak
UMTS 55 W avg 2.15 kW peak
-116 dBm
Rated Power at Ports
Passive Intermodulation
RF Performance
0.3 dB
50 dB
>18 dB
Unit types
Nokia Triplexer Unit
Nokia GSM 900 / WCDMA Diplexer Unit
Nokia GSM 1800 / WCDMA Diplexer Unit
Selectable DC pass function in each unit
Technical Data Sheet:
Nokia Triplexer
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Antenna System - Diplexers / Triplexers
87 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Antenna System Bias-T
Function
Provides DC power for MHA
through feeder line
Lightning protection
Features
Fault monitoring of MHA and
Antenna line
Fowards alarms to WAF
Low insertion loss (<0.3dB)
Can be installed on mast or in any
WCDMA UltraSite cabinet
Insertion loss 0.3 dB
Return loss 18 dB
Rated power 55 W avg, 2.2 kW peak
7 dB nominal
+/- 2 dB tolerance
no alarm: 0 V, 50 mA max
alarmed : 3.3V, 0 mA
Response time 0.5 sec
Alarm indicates:
no RF power, high VSWR (no
DC power implied)
Voltage drop 0.5 V
Rated power 7.5 - 9.1V, 350 mA max
DC supply via: RJ-45 from BTS
Ins loss @ 1 MHz 3 dB
DC and Signal
RF Performance
Alarm Signal
VSWR alarm
threshold
Logic
88 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Antenna System - Feeders
Feeder Type
Diameter
(inch)
Weight
(kg/m)
Attenuation
@2170MHz (dB/100m)
Single Repeated
CS72251 1/2 0.35 80 160 11.9
CS72252 7/8 0.55 120 250 6.52
CS72254 1 5/8 1.45 250 500 4.05
Min. Bending
Radius (mm)
89 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
Upgrades to Current GSM Antennas
Current :
space
diversity
Upgrade :
space +
polarization
diversity
Current :
polarization
diversity
Upgrade:
2 x polarization
diversity within
one radome
1
3
0
0

m
m

150 mm 150 mm
Space diversity improves
performance 0.5..1.0 dB
compared to single
radome.
The gain of 2.5 dB
assumes single radome. 260 mm
90 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
SRC Antenna Solutions
2 pcs X-pol
antennas per
sector up to 3
m apart form
each other
2 pcs X-pol
antennas per
sector installed
next to each
others
One SRC
antenna per
sector. The
number of
antennas does
not increase.
91 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Agenda Day 2
Radio Resource Management
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
RAN Sharing
Multilayer Planning
92 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
- Objectives -
At the end of this module you will be able to...
Describe what can cause interference in
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Describe the different antenna system
sharing solutions
Describe the meaning of coupling loss and
isolation criteria in shared antennas
List the aspects having influence to the
overall network quality
Explain the impact of site & antenna
location to the network quality
93 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Co-Siting Example: UltraSite & Citytalk

Base Station Equipment:
Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Suppreme with 6 Carriers,
Nokia Citytalk BTS with 6 TRXs.
Transmission Equipment:
Nokia FlexiHopper Microwave Radio
Separate Antennalines and Shared
Antennas:
3 pcs GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol antennas 65 deg
Optional: Mast Head Amplifiers for one or both networks
Nokia UltraSite Support:
7.8 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
up to 180 Ah battery capacity
Backup time 1 hour
Site Environmental Data:
Footprint (Width mm x Depth mm)
Indoor: 1800 mm x 620 mm
Outdoor: 2310 mm x 1110mm
Weight: Indoor 1030 kg, Outdoor 1290 kg
GSM 2+2+2
WCDMA 2+2+2
(10 W)
GSM
2+2+2
Site Space for 3 cabinets
94 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Co-Siting Example: UltraSite & Citytalk

95 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Base Station Equipment:
2 pcs Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme with 12 carriers in each,
Citytalk GSM BTS with 6 TRXs.
Transmission Equipment:
Nokia UltraHopper Microwave Radio
Separate Antennalines and Shared Antennas:
3 pcs GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol 65 deg/33 deg,
3 pcs WCDMA X-pol 33 deg antennas
Optional: Mast Head Amplifiers for one or both networks
UltraSite Support:
14.3 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
up to 180 Ah battery capacity
Backup time 1 hour
Site Environmental Data:
Footprint (Width mm x Depth mm)
Indoor: 2400 mm x 620 mm
Outdoor: 3080 mm x 1110mm
Weight: Indoor 1320 kg, Outdoor 1650 kg
GSM 2+2+2
W 4+4+4+4+4+4
(10 W)
GSM
2+2+2
Site Space for 4 cabinets

WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Co-Siting Example: UltraSite & Citytalk

96 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Interference from Other System
GSM spurious emissions and intermodulation results of GSM
1800 interfere WCDMA receiver sensitivity
WCDMA spurious emissions interfere GSM receiver sensitivity
GSM transmitter blocks WCDMA receiver
WCDMA transmitter blocks GSM receiver

GSM
1800 UL
GSM
1800 DL
1710-1785
MHz
1805-1880
MHz
UMTS
UL
UMTS
DL
1920-1980
MHz
2110-2170
MHz
40
MHz


97 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-108
-107.5
-107
-106.5
-106
-105.5
Antenna Isolation (dB)
N
o
i
s
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)

NEW spec: -96 dBm / 0.1 MHz
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Interference from Other System
Two main reasons to isolate GSM and WCDMA
Blocking
Sensitivity

1
More information: TS 25.104 and GSM 05.05
GSM1800 BTS can have up to -
96 dBm / 0.1 MHz = -80 dBm / 4
MHz (relation to 3,84 Mchips)
spurious emissions at the
antenna connector
1

Thermal noise floor of the
WCDMA band is -108 dBm => in
theory -108 dBm - (-80 dBm) = 28
dB isolation needed between
GSM1800 and WCDMA

98 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Harmonic distortion
Harmonic distortion can be a problem in the case of co-siting of
GSM900 and WCDMA.
GSM900 DL frequencies are 935 - 960 MHz and second
harmonics may fall into the WCDMA TDD band and into the
lower end of the FDD band.
GSM900
935 - 960 MHz
WCDMA
TDD
WCDMA FDD
1920 - 1980
...
2
nd
harmonics
f
GSM
= 950 - 960 MHz
1900 -1920
MHz
2nd harmonics
can be filtered
out at the output
of GSM900
BTS.
f
99 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
IM Distortion from GSM1800 DL to WCDMA UL
WCDMA
DL
WCDMA
UL
GSM1800
DL
GSM1800
UL
1710 - 1785 MHz 1805 - 1880 MHz 1920 - 1980 MHz 2110 - 2170 MHz 40 MHz
f
1
f
2

f
IM3

f
IM3
= 2f
2
- f
1

GSM1800 IM3 (3 means
third order) products are
hitting into the WCDMA
FDD UL RX band if
1862.6 f
2
1879.8 MHz
1805.2 f
1
1839.6 MHz
X dBc
For active elements IM
products levels are higher
than IM products produced
by passive components
Typical IM3 suppression
values for power amplifiers
are -30 -50 dBc
depending on frequency
spacing and offset
Typical values for passive
elements are
-100 -160 dBc
100 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA
GSM BTS
Horizontal separation between
antennas
By proper antenna placement 50dB
isolation reachable
No deterioration in performance if
GSM BTS compliant with -96dBm
WCDMA BS
101 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA
GSM BTS
Nokia's diplexer/triplexer combines
GSM/WCDMA to one feeder cable
Diplexer/Triplexer isolation > 50dB
No deterioration in performance if
GSM BTS compliant with -96dBm
WCDMA BS
Multiband Antenna
Nokia Diplexer/ Triplexer
102 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA
GSM BTS
Multipanel Antenna in use
Antenna isolation >30dB
General GSM requirements
fulfilled if GSM BTS compliant
with -96dBm
WCDMA BS
Multiband Antenna
103 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA
Non-compliant GSM BTS
Worst case scenario
>30dB isolation
assumption
GSM BTS spurious
emissions comply "old
spec." -30dBm

WCDMA BS
Multiband Antenna
Addiotional filter needed
104 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Separate Antenna Lines
Without Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers
GSM BTS WCDMA BTS
With Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers
WCDMA BTS
Nokia MHAs
for GSM
Nokia MHAs for
WCDMA
GSM BTS
Nokia Bias-Ts NokiaBias-Ts
Antennas
for GSM
Antennas
for WCDMA
Typical Requirement for Minimum Coupling Loss between GSM and WCDMA antennas:
Nokia equipment 30 dB
Other 50 dB
105 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Shared Antenna Lines with Separate Antennas
Without Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers With Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers
GSM BTS WCDMA BTS
GSM Antenna WCDMA Antenna
Nokia GSM / WCDMA
Diplexer Units
GSM Antenna WCDMA Antenna
GSM BTS WCDMA BTS
Nokia Bias-Ts
Nokia Outdoor
Bias-Ts
Separate DC feed
for new Nokia MHAs
Nokia GSM/WCDMA
Diplexer Units with
Selectable DC pass
Nokia MHAs for GSM
Nokia WCDMA MHAs
Typical Isolation Requirement for diplexers used with:
Nokia equipment 30 dB
Other 50 dB
106 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Shared Antenna Lines with Shared Antennas
GSM BTS WCDMA BTS
GSM/WCDMA Dual Band
X-polarized antenna with
2 antenna connectors
(1800/WCDMA wideband element
or
built in diplexer function)
GSM/WCDMA
Diplexer Units inside
GSM BTS cabinet
Without Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers
GSM BTS
WCDMA BTS
Nokia
Bias-Ts
Nokia
Outdo
or
Bias-
Ts
Separate DC feed
for new Nokia MHAs
Nokia GSM/WCDMA
Diplexer Units with
Selectable DC pass
GSM/WCDMA Dual Band
X-polarized antenna with
4 antenna connectors
(Separate Elements for both
Systems))
With Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers
107 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Antenna Isolation Measurement Example:
Horizontal
Antenna A
(fixed)
GSM1800
Antenna B
UMTS
horizontal
separation
distance
Front View
direction of radiation
2000mm
1000mm
400mm
Side View
650mm
Figure 5. Sketch of measurement configuration
108 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Antenna Isolation Measurement Example:
Horizontal
GSM1800 65 deg to UMTS 65 deg
Horizontal co-polar measurements
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
0
.
0
0
1
.
0
0
2
.
0
0
3
.
0
0
4
.
0
0
5
.
0
0
6
.
0
0
7
.
0
0
8
.
0
0
9
.
0
0
1
.
.
.
Distance (m)
I
s
o
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
d
B
)
1900MHz
1950MHz
1980MHz
50dB marker
109 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Antenna isolation measurements II: Vertical
Figure 11. Sketch of measurement configuration
10m
Antenna B
UMTS
Antenna A
GSM1800
(fixed)
110 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Antenna isolation measurements II: Vertical
Noise Floor
GSM1800 115 deg to UMTS 65 deg
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
0
.
0
0
0
.
2
5
0
.
5
0
0
.
7
5
1
.
0
0
1
.
2
5
1
.
5
0
Distance (m)
I
s
o
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
d
B
)
1900MHz
1950MHz
1980MHz
Noise Floor
111 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Planning Rules in Co-siting
Isolation requirement
With Nokia equipment 30 dB
Without Nokia equipment 50 dB
GSM- WCDMA co-siting is possible if antenna isolation
requirement is fulfilled
By proper antenna placement
minimum Horizontal distance (~0.3 m)
minimum Vertical distance (0.25 m)
Di- or triplexer is needed in case feeder and antenna is
shared between different systems
Tighter filtering is needed in Antenna line of Non-compliant
GSM BTS to avoid the TX power interference to WCDMA
Rx
Careful frequency planning in GSM won't cause interference
to WCDMA

112 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment
Assessment means the evaluation existing 2G sites & antenna
system and possible interference situation for 2G/3G Co-siting
Design
Civil
Works
Imp Integrate.
N
e
t
w
o
r
k

A
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

Network Planning & Site Acquisition
113 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment - Network Quality
Network Implementation Quality
Equipment Quality
Network
Planning
Quality
Requested Network Quality
as guaranteed KPI values =
Equipment Quality +
Network Implementation Quality +
Network Planning Quality
Network Quality does NOT
depend only from network planning
114 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
0 500 1000 1500
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
DL throughput in kbps
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

p
r
o
p
a
g
a
t
i
o
n

l
o
s
s

(
d
B
)
128 kbps
i = 0.2
i = 0.2
i = 0.4
i = 0.4
i = 0.6
i = 0.6
i = 0.8
i = 0.8
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment - Dominance & little i
BTS TX power 43 dBm
MS TX power 21 dBm
E
c
/I
o
-16.5 dB
BTS E
b
/N
o
1.5
MS E
b
/N
o
5.5
Other to own cell
interference ratio i
0.2, 0.4, 0.6,
0.8
Orthogonality 0.6
Channel profile ITU Vehicular
A, 3 km/h
MS speed 3 km/h
MS/BTS NF 8 dB / 4 dB
Antenna gain 16 dBi
Doubling of the "little i" will cause
throughput to decrease to 70% of the
original value
A B C D
D
C
B
A
115 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment - Question

Which one of the sites is suitable for 3G ?
116 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment - Answer
Low other to own cell interference can
be achieved by planning clear
dominance areas:
The cell coverage (and overlap) must be
properly controlled. The cell should
cover only what it is supposed to cover
Low(er) antenna heights and down tilt of
the antennas
Use buildings and other environmental
structures to isolate cells coverage
Use indoor solutions to take advantage of
the building penetration loss
Avoid sites "seeing" the buildings in
horizon especially over the water or
otherwise open area (due to huge
interference)
> 3 km
< 300 m
117 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment - Impact of tilting
Too high visibility
across the network
Has low capacity due to
huge inter-cell
interference and SHO
overhead
Cell A - uphill gradient Cell B - downhill gradient
relatively
limited
catchment area
significantly
greater catchment
area
The obvious solution is to
increase the antenna downtilt
to restrict the cell footprint to
a more reasonable area
Connnected to
over 15 neighbours
!
118 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Network Assessment - Check List
(1) Make sure
there is coverage
Dropped calls
Bad quality
Low bit rates
(2) Avoid unnecessary
overlapping of cells
Not clear dominance area
High inter-cell interference
Low capacity
(3) Locate cells
close to users
Users at the cell edge
high inter-cell interference
high soft handover overhead
Do not use this site
1. Use Antenna tilting
2. Put Antennas lower
3. Do not use the site
Basic rules
Problem indication
if rule is not applied
Solutions
(4) Make cell sizes
match user distribution
Blocking in some cells,
others do not collect traffic
1. Use Antenna tilting
2. Do not use the Site
1. Use Different site
2. Use Antenna tilting
119 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Co-siting Optimisation Example
WCDMA 1900 Network
Identified places for optimisation
Urban area: high other-cell interference
Rural area: a few sites collecting a lot of interference
Optimisation approaches
Antenna down tilting
Antenna lowering

120 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Co-siting Optimisation Example - Rural Area
27 sites, 49 cells
Omni, 2-sector and 3-sector
sites
Varying antenna heights
Area 15 km x 15 km
On average 8 km
2
per site
Terrain: hilly with waters
121 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Co-siting Optimisation Example - Urban Area
16 sites, 48 cells
All 3-sector sites
similar height
Area 10 km x 12 km
On average 7 km
2
per site
Terrain: flat without waters
122 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
5 Degree Downtilt Everywhere - Capacity
Down tilting everywhere improved capacity in urban area by
13%, but reduced slightly capacity in the rural area
The urban area benefited from down tilting because of high
overlapping of the cells before optimisation (=high i)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

U
s
e
r
s
Rural Urban
Optimization Effect
Before Optim
After Optim
123 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
5 Degree Downtilt Everywhere - Coverage
Coverage probability got lower in urban area after downtilting
Optimisation 2 branch Rx diversity
Rural
Outdoor coverage
Indoor coverage
(+20 dB loss)
Speech 12.2 kbps 95% 89% 40% 37%
Data 64 kbps 85% 77% 22% 22%
Data 144 kbps 78% 68% 15% 16%
Urban
Speech 12.2 kbps 99.9% 99.9% 74% 61%
Data 64 kbps 99.8% 98.6% 46% 38%
Data 144 kbps 99.1% 96.2% 33% 29%
Coverage %
reduced after
downtilting
before after before after
before after before after
124 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Optimisation Affects Neighbouring Sites
Those sites which
suffered are close to the
optimised sites
Also the surrounding
sites should be
considered in the
optimisation
performance
decreased
optimised
site
125 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Little i After Optimisation Urban Area
After optimisation the little i is more uniform in all cells, i.e. the
performance of the worst cells has clearly improved
Average little i 1.3 0.78
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
#

o
f

c
e
l
l
s
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
i
Urban Area Distb'n Other to Own (i) (Tilted)
Other to Own (i)
20 W
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
#

o
f

c
e
l
l
s
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
i
Urban Area Distb'n Other to Own (i) (Initial)
Other to Own (i)
20 W
126 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
#

o
f

c
e
l
l
s
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
MSs
Urban Area Distribution of Mobiles(Tilted)
usersper cell
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Number of Users After Optimisation Urban Area
After optimisation the number of users per cell is more uniform in
all cells, i.e. the performance of the worst cells has clearly
improved
Average number of users 36 41 (i.e. capacity increase ~13%)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
#

o
f

c
e
l
l
s
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
MSs
Urban Area Distribution of Mobiles(Initial)
usersper cell
Worst
cells
clearly
improved
127 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
Soft Handover Overhead After Optimisation
Soft handover overhead is reduced after optimisation in urban
area since the cell overlapping (=little i) is reduced
Soft handover probability reduced 30% 26%
Soft handover overhead reduced 39% 33%
Soft Hand-Off Overhead and Probability (Original)
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
SHOProb. Sof t(+er)HOverhead SHOverhead AreaProb%
Rural
Urban
Soft Hand-Off Overhead and Probability (Optim)
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
SHOProb. Sof t(+er)HOverhead SHOverhead AreaProb%
Rural
Urban
128 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Agenda Day 2
Radio Resource Management
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
RAN Sharing
Multilayer Planning
129 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
RAN Sharing
- Objectives -
At the end of this module you will be able to...
Explain the meaning of RAN sharing and
its key benefits
Explain what network elements are
possible to be shared in RAN
Describe the most important network
planning issues to be taken into account in
RAN sharing
130 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
RAN Sharing
Overview
Network sharing, i.e. one network operator provides the entire network
for certain area's with the other acting as a MVNO (Mobile Virtual
Network Operator).
No impact on the radio network dimensioning
Geographical network sharing, i.e. one operator south, one north
No impact on the radio network dimensioning
Site sharing, i.e. sharing new or existing sites including antennas, site
support systems and potentially transmission
No impact on the radio network dimensioning
RAN sharing (Multioperator RAN), i.e. sharing the entire RAN in a
specific area where the amount of traffic is predicted to be low, so that it
does not make economically sense to build independent networks

131 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
RAN Sharing
From Site Sharing to RAN Sharing
Scope of sharing:
RNC
Site environment
BTS Equipment space (cabinet)
SiteSupportSystem
Transmission
Antenna and feeders (optional)
Cost savings in
Civil works
Equipment (feeders, antennas,
BBU)
Annual rents
Site acquisition( hunting,
permissions etc)
Operational costs
Transmission (and transmission
management)

Sharing of RNCs and BTSs:
Initial coverage with low service
demand
Low-traffic areas
Places with limited BTS sites, e.g.
subways
Fewer sites with larger
configurations when
Environmental impact counts

Up to 4 operators with own:
Core networks
Services
Network Management System
Dedicated RAN from any vendor in
non-shared areas

132 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
3) dedicated BTS for each operator
2) cabinet and BB shared
dedicated WAF,WPA, WTR
1) cabinet, BB, WAF, WPA shared
dedicated WTR
Reqired: Frequencies within 20MHz band!
RAN Sharing
Concept
Shared BTS
Operator 2
CS CN
Operator 1
PS CN Shared RNC
Frequency 2
Frequency 1
Operator 1
CS CN
Operator 2
PS CN
OSS of
one operator
or Multi-RAN OSS
MNC1
MNC2
MNC2
MNC1
133 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
1. Sharing whole BTS including WPA:
NOTE: Frequencies need
to be within 20 MHz band
TX
RX
RX
WTR
TX
RX
RX
ANT1/1
ANT2/1
WAF
D
P
X
WPA
28/50 W
Operator specific
WTR
Common Antennasystem
WAF and WPA
2. Cabinet and BB shared:
Common Antennasystem
(feeders, antennas, MHAs)
ANT1/1
ANT2/1
D
P
X
TX
RX
RX
WTR
WAF
D
P
X
TX
RX
RX
WTR
WPA
28/50 W
WPA
28/50 W
Operator specific
WTR, WPA and
WAF
- no frequency restriction
- higher outputpower per carrier
- with Rel.2 units up to 4+4+4/20W
per carrier

RAN Sharing
Concept
134 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
RAN Sharing
How Operators can work with shared RAN ?
Each Operator has own
PLMN -id
Carrier Frequency
RRM parameters & traffic Monitoring
Neighbour cell lists (own Inter-System HO decisions)

Operators may add independently BTS where they
want to provide better coverage or more capacity
Due to own Frequencies and PLMN-id.
Operator specific cell is possible
Mobile Stations (MS) can show appropriate operator logo
Global roaming easy
No extra support features from MSs needed,
works with 3GPP R99 WCDMA MSs
Needs SW-update to Nokia WCDMA RAN

135 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Agenda Day 2
Radio Resource Management
Pre-Launch Optimisation
Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family
WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting
RAN Sharing
Multilayer Planning
136 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
- Objectives -
At the end of this module you will be able to...
Explain the meaning of WCDMA/GSM
interworking
Explain the reasons for multilayer usage
and how it is done
Describe the 3G network evolution from
cell layer point of view
Explain when compressed mode is
needed and what drawback it has
Explain on what criteria cell-reselection
and handover strategies are based on
137 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Interworking in RAN 1.5
Interworking means Handover functionality between GSM and WCDMA or
between WCDMA carriers
Handover from GSM to WCDMA or from WCDMA to GSM is inter-
system hard handover
Handover between WCDMA carriers is inter-frequency hard handover
(intra-BTS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC handover)
Interworking is possible also in idle mode when making cell re-selection



Handover reasons are mainly based on
coverage in WCDMA and load in GSM
Compressed mode is used in WCDMA for
inter-frequency or inter-system neighbour
measurements before handover decision
Service downgrade/upgrade might be needed
during inter-system handover



138 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Handover Types in RAN 1.5
2G HLR/AUC
MSC/VLR
2G

3G MSC

UMTS RAN
MSC/VLR
3G
UMTS RAN
E-interface
GSM BSS
A-interface
Iu (cs)-interface
UMTS RAN
Intersystem,
Intra-MSC,
Intra-PLMN
Intrasystem,
Inter-MSC,
Intra-PLMN
GSM BSS
Operator 1
Operator 2
2G MSC/VLR
Intrasystem,
Inter-MSC,
Inter-PLMN
UMTS RAN
Intrasystem,
Intra-MSC,
Intra-PLMN
Intersystem,
Inter-MSC,
Inter-PLMN
GSM BSS
3G HLR/AUC
MGW
MGW
3G HLR/AUC
139 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Introduction
Multilayer Network means
the use of microcellular
network to give more
capacity needed in traffic hot
spots
Macro layer is mainly used
for coverage and fast moving
mobiles
Micro layer is used to
provide capacity for traffic
hot spots
Typically different
frequencies are used for
different layers
Other layers frequency
can be reused in some
cases
140 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Capacity in Macro vs. Micro Environments
Packet data throughput, calculated with CDMA capacity
formulas
Assumptions
Results
Downlink capacity is more sensitive to the environment
because of orthogonal codes (other cell interference affects
more downlink)
Micro cells provide a higher capacity due to less multipath
Macro cell Micro cell
Downlink
orthogonality
0.6 0.95
Other-to-own cell
interference ratio i
0.65 0.2
Uplink E
b
/N
0
1.5 dB 1.5 dB
Uplink loading 60% 60%
Downlink E
b
/N
0
5.5 dB 8.0 dB
Downlink loading 80% 80%
Micro cell:
higher orthogonality
Micro: higher
isolation between cells
Macro cell Micro cell
Uplink 1040 kbps 1430 kbps
Downlink 660 kbps 1440 kbps
These figures without
transmit diversity
141 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Multilayer Antennas
The general rule is that microcellular antenna placement provides better
(very high) capacity but lower coverage
The key question is : When this should be done?

The capacity is high because the cells are well isolated and the DL is quite
orthogonal
The coverage is low because the very same buildings that isolate the cells
from each other also isolate the mobiles from the Node B in larger cells
The factors affecting the decision include at least
Traffic density
Max required bitrate in the UL direction
Inter-cell interference with different antenna positions
Propagation loss with different antenna positions
Site acquisition costs
Etc.

142 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Solution 1
Most simple usage of two carriers.
In an area which is covered by a
continuous cell layer and the capacity
requirement exceeds the available
capacity the most simple solution is to
add a second carrier to the cells, co-
located with the first carrier.
This process can be continued further
to additional carriers.
Compressed mode raises the
interference.
The traffic between the carriers could
be balanced by directed RRC
connection setup in the call setup
phase and by inter-frequency
handovers.
WCDMA f
1,
f
2
WCDMA f
1,
f
2
WCDMA f
1 ,
f
2
143 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Solution 2
Micro cell layer in the middle of surrounding
macro cells using the same carrier as the
macro cells.
This way of mixing different cell types is fully
applicable but it requires that clear dominance
areas for micro and macro layers.
This is a microcell solutions for covering holes
In long run going to smaller cell sizes cannot be
avoided in hot-spot areas, and a micro cellular
solution has the benefit that inter-cell
interference is minimised, leading to increasing
cell throughput and user bit-rates.

WCDMA f
1
W f
1
W f
1
WCDMA f
1
W f
1
144 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Solution 3
Different frequencies are used for
different layers (Hierachical Cell
Structure HCS)
From the network planning point of
view this solution is easier to deploy
than the previous since overlapping is
possible.
The macro layer can collect traffic
from micro layer's dominance area
whereas in solution 2 macro cells and
micro cells collect traffic within their
own dominance areas.
This is the microcell solutions for
capacity reasons

WCDMA f
1
WCDMA f
1
W f
2
W f
2
W f
2
W f
2
145 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
In addition to solution 3 the
GSM/GPRS macrolayer is added to
HCS
Dual mode UEs can change to
GSM/GPRS where no WCDMA
coverage exists, this enables to
provide seamless 3G services without
seamless WCDMA coverage
Allows traffic balancing between
GSM/GRPS and WCDMA
Compressed mode raises the
interference. BSIC decoding is time
consuming
This is the solution if WCDMA/GSM
interworking is required

Multilayer Planning
Solution 4
GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS
WCDMA f
1
WCDMA f
1
W f
2
W f
2
W f
2
W f
2
146 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
RAN1.5 Handover functionality
GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS
WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA
GSM/GPRS
W W W W
Load reason IS-HO
from GSM(BSS10.5)
Coverage reason IF-HO
GSM handover
Based on RSSI measurements of all cells in neighbour list
Controlled by HO algorithms in BSC
WCDMA soft handover
Based on pilot Ec/No measurements of all cells in neighbour lists on the
same frequency
Mobile Evaluated handover (MEHO) controlled by SHO parameters
WCDMA IF & IS handover
Based on measurement results in serving cell
Coverage (CPICH RSCP or CPICH Ec/No)
UL DCH quality,UL DCH Power, DL DPCH power
Network evaluated handover (NEHO) controlled by IF and IS HO
parameters
Coverage reason IS-HO
147 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
WCDMA Compressed Mode
Compressed mode is the method to create idle periods (=gap) in the
transmission in order to perform Inter-Frequency or Inter-System
measurements during the gap







Because same data amount is sent during shorter time it has the following
affect to the cell
Reduced UL coverage
Reduces DL capacity
Reduced Quality



Normal frame
Compressed
mode
Normal frame
Measurement gap
148 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Cell Re-selection between layers
Cell selection & re-selection can be done

without HCS operation
with HCS operation
Normally cell re-selection is done to cell having better coverage, but with
HCS operation the cell re-selection is also possible to the weaker cell or to
the GSM (in case they have higher priority)
Both quality and level should be good enough in the neighbour cell before
cell re-selection
Neighbour cells with different priorities could be prioritised by using offset
during penalty time
Cells having same priorities (or HCS not used) are ranked and cell re-
selection is done to the best cell
Traffic balancing with directed RRC connection setup is possible in
WCDMA
149 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Usage of Hierarchical Cells
Use HCS parameters => mobile camps to micro cell
whenever it is available
HCS parameters not supported in dedicated mode
f1 f1 f1
f2
f2 f1 f1
Hot spot
area
Start call in micro cell
because of HCS priorities
Coverage reason handover
from micro to macro
f2 f2 f2
Macro
Micros
Fast moving MSs-
feature can also
be used to push
UE to Macro Layer
to avoid frequent
cell re-selection
150 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Fast Moving Mobiles in Micro Cells
Fast moving mobiles can be handed over from micro frequency
to macro frequency
High mobility is detected based on the frequency of active set
updates
WCDMA macro f1
Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2
X
Fast moving mobile Too frequent active set updates
within micro frequency initiate
inter-frequency handover to
macro frequency
151 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Cell Re-selection Rules
During cell re-selection it is possible to camp on GSM or
WCDMA depening how parameters are set in serving and
neighbouring cell
Camping on GSM is recommended:
Continious GSM coverage
3G ->2G handover amount is reduced or it is not at all
supported
Camping on WCDMA is recommended:
Continious 3G coverage, utilize fully 3G network
For dual mode Mobiles
2G ->3G handover is not supported
Initial Nokia implementation strategy is to push all dual
mode MS to WCDMA
152 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
Multilayer Planning
Inter-System Handover Rules
5 Handover Triggering reasons is possible from WCDMA
CPICH Ec/No, CPICH RSCP, UL quality & Power, DL Power
GSM neighbours are measured only in Compressed mode, not
all the time
UE needs more power for neighbour measurements during
compressed mode -> measurements should start early enough
BSIC decoding time need to be taken into account; the ISHO
procedure could take more time in case many GSM
neighbours are measured as neighbours
Handover from GSM to WCDMA is done only if GSM load is
high enough