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SDH Theory (Fibcom)

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SDH Theory
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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What is SDH?
SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
It is a transport network
synchronous
fully standardized
with high bandwidth
for synchronous and asynchronous signals
for future broadband signals and new services
with standardized network management capabilities
with traffic protection
with a flexible multiplexing structure
direct access to tributaries
cross-connections without demultiplexing

SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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Digital Transmission System
Regenerator
recreates the signal.
Multiplexer (MUX)
Multiplexer combines data from
several lines and transmits it
over a higher-capacity data link.
No signal
60 km
R
60 km
Regenerator
MUX MUX
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM)
Part of the traffic is terminated.
Part of the traffic goes transparently
through.
Multiplexer Naming Conventions
TM
m/n
aggregate
ADM
m/n
aggregate
aggregate
tributaries
Terminal Multiplexer (TM)
All traffic is terminated here.
m: aggregate level
n: lowest tributary level
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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No traffic is terminated.
Cross-connection matrix
connects tributary
signals of one aggregate
to another aggregate.
Digital Cross-connect (DXC m/n)
PDH
MUX
PDH
MUX
PDH
MUX
PDH
MUX
DDF
SDH
Cross-Connect
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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PDH Bit Rates & HIERARCHY
Hierarchy level USA Europe
0 64 kbit/s T0 64 kbit/s E0
1 1.544 Mbit/s T1 (24x) 2.048 Mbit/s E1 (32x)
2 6.312 Mbit/s DS-2 (4x) 8.448 Mbit/s E2 (4x)
3 44.736 Mbit/s DS-3 (7x) 34.368 Mbit/s E3 (4x)
4 139.264 Mbit/s E4 (4x)
E1
E0
E2
E3
E4
plesiochronous
plesiochronous
plesiochronous
synchronous
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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SDH Bit Rates & HIERARCHY
SONET
(ANSI)
SDH
(ITU-T)
Data rate
(Mbps)
STS-1 51.84
STS-3 STM-1 155.52
STS-9 466.56
STS-12 STM-4 622.08
STS-18 933.12
STS-24 1244.16
STS-36 1866.24
STS-48 STM-16 2488.32
STM-64 9953.28
STM1
STM4
STM16
STM64
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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PDH vs. SDH Add & Drop Function
ADM
STM-1
STM-1
Six TMs needed
to drop E1
One ADM is
enough to drop E1.
TM TM
TM TM
TM TM
E3
E3
E3
E2
E2
E1
E1
E1
E4 E4
E1 (2.048 kbit/s)
E2
2/1 2/1
3/2
3/2
4/3 4/3
PDH
SDH
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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STM-1 Frame
2430 bytes/frame 8 bit/byte 8000 frame/s = 155.52 Mbit/s
transmitted from top to bottom and left to right
AU-4 pointers
MSOH
Payload
VC-4 (HO-VC)
RSOH
9

r
o
w
s

(
b
y
t
e
s
)
9
5
261
270 columns (bytes)
3
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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155.520 Mbit/s serial signal
9 BYTES + 261 BYTES = 270 BYTES 270 BYTES x 9 = 2430 BYTES

2430 BYTES/FRAME x 8 BITS/BYTE x 8000 FRAMES/SEC = 155.520 Mbit/s
125us
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2 4 3 0 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s 2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
O v e r h e a d p a y l o a d
F F F F
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
2 6 1 b y t e s 9 b y t e s
STM -1 Frame
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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Pointer processing
Multiplexing
Aligning
Mapping
SDH Multiplexing Structure (ETSI)
VC-4 STM-N
N
3
1
3
7
139 264 kbit/s
44 736 kbit/s
34 368 kbit/s
6312 kbit/s
2048 kbit/s

1544 kbit/s
AUG
AU-4
TUG-3
TUG-2
TU-3
TU-2
TU-12
VC-2
VC-3
VC-12
VC-11
C-4
C-3
C-2
C-12
C-11
1
C-n Container-n
1
C Container
VC Virtual Container
TU Tributary Unit
TUG Tributary Unit Group
AU Administrator Unit
AUG Administrator Unit Group
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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PDH over SDH
2 Mbit/s plesiochronous stream
Justification bytes
C12
Path Overhead
VC12
Container
POH
TU Pointer
TU12
Virtual Container
Container (C)
basic payload unit
Virtual Container (VC)
C + POH (path overhead)
Tributary Unit (TU)
VC + pointer
The pointer indicates the
start of the VC and allows
dynamic alignment of the
VC within the TU frame.
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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Multiplexing of AU into STM-N
AUG
AUG
AUG
AUG
STM-4
SOH
AU-4
AU-4
AU-4
AU-4
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No. of Columns used for Tributary Unit
TU11 TU12 TU2 TU3
3 4 12 86
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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KLM Coordinates
AU-4 pointers
MSOH
Payload
VC-4 (HO-VC)
RSOH
V
C
-
4

P
O
H
VC-12
VC-12
K
L
TU12-1 TU12-2 TU12-3
TUG3-1 TUG3-2 TUG3-3
TUG2-6
TUG2-7
TUG2-5
TUG2-4
TUG2-3
TUG2-1
TUG2-2
TUG-3 number (values 1-3)
TUG-2 number (values 1-7)
TU-12 number (values 1-3)
KLM: 271 KLM: 152 KLM: 300
VC-3
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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Termination of Sections
Path
Multiplexing Sections Multiplexing Sections
Regenerator Sections
TM TM
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Regenerates the optical signal.

Terminates RSOH.
REG
STM-N STM-N
Regenerator
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Terminal Multiplexer
TM
STM-N
or
PDH
STM-M
Terminates RSOH and MSOH.
May terminate HOP and LOP overhead.
Multiplexes/maps tributary signals.
Includes timing and management functions.
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STM-N or PDH
STM-M STM-M
ADM
Add/drop Multiplexer
Terminates RSOH and MSOH.
May terminate HOP and LOP overhead.
Includes connection function between the two aggregates.
Multiplexes/maps tributary signals.
Includes a connection function for allocation of TUs within
the STM frame.
Includes timing and management functions.
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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Cross-connect
Terminates RSOH and MSOH.
Includes connection function between the aggregates.
Can have tributary ports, for which it may terminate HOP
and LOP overhead.
Includes timing and management functions.
STM-N or PDH
STM-M STM-M DXC
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STM-16
STM-4
STM-1
STM-16
STM-4
STM-1
SDXC 4/1
Example of Cross-connect (XC)
16 x
4 x
1 x
16 x
4 x
1 x
SDH
multiplexer
AUG
VC-4
34 (45) Mbit/s 2(1.5) Mbit/s
VC-12 VC-3
HO
XC
LO
XC
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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SDH Overhead
Overheads carry information for monitoring, maintaining
and controlling the operation of network.
Overhead types
POH for end-to-end monitoring of payload signal (VC-12, VC-3
and VC-4)
Block errors, far end alarms, trace and payload type
SOH is used for monitoring of signal between SDH equipment.
RSOH: block errors, trace
MSOH: block errors, synchronization, and far-end alarms
P
O
H
RSOH
MSOH
POINTER
9 260
270
3
5
9
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
RSOH 1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 NU1 NU2
RSOH 2 B1 R1 R2 E1 R3 U1 F1 NU3 NU4
RSOH 3 D1 R4 R5 D2 R6 U2 D3 U3 U4
PTR 4 H1 Y1 Y2 H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3
MSOH 5 B2 B2 B2 K1 U5 U6 K2 U7 U8
MSOH 6 D4 U9 U10 D5 U11 U12 D6 U13 U14
MSOH 7 D7 U15 U16 D8 U17 U18 D9 U19 U20
MSOH 8 D10 U21 U22 D11 U23 U24 D12 U25 U26
MSOH 9 S1 Z12 Z13 Z21 Z22 M1 E2 NU5 NU6
RSOH
A1, A2 framing patterns (F6H), (28H)
J0 regenerator section Trail Trace Identifier (TTI)
B1 BIP-8 parity byte
E1 RS orderwire channel (service telephone)
F1 user (network operator) data channel
D1, D2, D3 regenerator section Data Communication Channel (DCCR)
NU1, NU2, NU3, NU4 bytes reserved for national use
R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 media specific bytes (e.g. radio link)
U1, U2, U3, U4 bytes with no defined use
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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MSOH
B2 BIP-24 parity bytes
K1, K2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel,
D4 to D12 multiplex section Data Communication Channel (DCCM)
S1 synchronization status
M1 Remote Error Indication (REI)
E2 MS orderwire channel (service telephone)
NU5, NU6 bytes reserved for national use
U5 to U26 bytes with no defined use
Z12, Z13, Z21, Z22 bytes with no defined use
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
RSOH 1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 NU1 NU2
RSOH 2 B1 R1 R2 E1 R3 U1 F1 NU3 NU4
RSOH 3 D1 R4 R5 D2 R6 U2 D3 U3 U4
PTR 4 H1 Y1 Y2 H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3
MSOH 5 B2 B2 B2 K1 U5 U6 K2 U7 U8
MSOH 6 D4 U9 U10 D5 U11 U12 D6 U13 U14
MSOH 7 D7 U15 U16 D8 U17 U18 D9 U19 U20
MSOH 8 D10 U21 U22 D11 U23 U24 D12 U25 U26
MSOH 9 S1 Z12 Z13 Z21 Z22 M1 E2 NU5 NU6
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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VC-4 POH
POH
J 1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
J1 Trail Trace Identifier
B3 Parity BIP-8
C2 Signal label (C2), used for payload type identification
G1 Path status
F2 Network operator (user) channel
H4 Multiframe indicator, a sequence indicating TU-multiframe
phase (position of VC-12)
F3 Network operator (user) channel
K3 Automatic Protection Switching
N1 Tandem Connection Monitoring TCM, optional use in
multioperator environments
SDH Theory (Fibcom)


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