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Material Handling System

Saad Ali
S.M.Saad Bin Muzaffar
Material Handling refers to the total managements of all materials
& process involved in the entire manufacturing procedure. This
includes sourcing, Delivering, movement, protection & storage of

Material Handling is the movement & storage materials at the
lowest possible cost through the use of proper methods and
equipments. Getting the right part to the right place involves a tight
synchronization of work cells.

Material handling plays a vital part in all type of industry towards
increase the productivity, reduce the in-process cost and safety
procedure at the work place.
Improving your material handling system fuels a
stunning return on your investments. It makes
more sense that almost anything you can do

John Wagner
Role of Material Handling in
Unloading the incoming material from vehicles
Moving the unloaded material to the assigned
storage place
Lifting the material from its storage place during
order picking
Moving the material for inspection and packing
Loading the packages, boxes or cartons on to the
Material Handling Systems
Manual System
Mechanized System
Semi-automatic System
Automatic System
Manual System
Manual material handling is the moving of objects unaided by
mechanical devices. Manual material handling include
activities like pushing, pulling, carrying, lifting, and lowering.

The limitations are:
o Low Volume.
o Slow speed.
o Distance.
o Physical characteristics of the product.

Mechanized System

The prime consideration before going in for mechanized material handling
systems is the layout of the warehouse.

The layout may create obstacles for the free movement of equipments
and the goods.

Mechanized system bringing the speed and reliability in material

Mechanized system enhances the system productivity.

The criteria for choosing a machine in the warehouse should be:
o Improving space utilization.
o Reducing the time for material movement.
o Speeding up the overall material flow.
o Reducing the material damages during material handling.
o Should be safe for human beings to operate.
Mechanized System
Wheeled Trolley

The wheeled trolley are efficient for handling small volumes over a
short distance.

The two-wheeled hand trolley is simplest and versatile.

The four-wheeled hand-held trolley is called a platform truck.

They are capable of moving light loads.

For higher volumes and longer distances , use of powered trolleys are
Mechanized System
Forklift Truck

Forklift trucks are the work horse of the warehouse.

Used for movement of unit loads such as pallets, containers and slide

They are also reliable and relatively easy to operate.
Mechanized System

Conveyors are used where continuous flow of material is required over
a long distance.
The excel at straight transportation because they eliminate re-
handling before and after each function.
They are also used in sorting and merging operations.

The most common usage are:
o Baggage handling at airports.
o Coal handling at thermal power stations.
o Iron ore handling at integrated steel plants.

There are different types of conveyor system in use, depending on the
application and product to be handled.

The most common types are as follows:
o Wheel conveyor

o Roller conveyor

o Belt conveyor

o Chain conveyor
Mechanized System
Overhead Cranes

These cranes are used for moving very heavy items over a short
Such as:
o Steel plates.
o Bars.
o Coils.
o Machinery components.

These are used where large heavy items or containers have to be
moved in and out of the warehouse.
Mechanized System
Pneumatic Tube
Pneumatic tube systems are used for movement of granular and
powdered material over a short distance.
These systems are quite common in the cement and fertilizer plants
where the material in powdered form is moved to the storage silos
using the Pneumatic flow.
The air pressure of 7 kg/cm2 is normally used for transporting the
material which carries the powder in the direction of the flow.
This system is used for storage and retrieval of the material.
For bulk transfer, these systems are cost effective and reliable.
Semi-automatic System
In semi-automatic system all mechanized handling equipments may be
used but the specific handling requirement for a particular warehouse
operation may be performed automatically.
The semi-automatic warehouse is a mixture of mechanized and automatic
handling equipments.

The following are various types of automated equipments in semi-
automatic warehouse system:

o Sorting Device
Semi-automatic System
o Robotics

o Automatic Guided vehicle
Automatic System
The automated material systems are custom built and attract heavy
The advantages are speed and accuracy, which enhance the productivity
of the system.
The system is connected to the computer for programming the equipment
operations, material pick-up route, packing and loading instructions.

Material Storage System
The ultimate goal of any material storage system is to have ease in
material placement and retrieval, ensuring space efficiency and
minimum time in tracking, tracing and pickup.

The inventory manager can built storage space with higher storage
density so as to have higher warehouse occupancy.

Proper selection of storage system can result in effective use of
warehouse space and efficiency.

Investment in proper development of facilities and equipment using
modern techniques will pay back handsomely in terms of labour,
time and money.
Unit Load Storage
The unit load is constructed by bringing together a number of individual
items of identical configuration so as to built up a large load which ensures
convenience during storage and transportation.

The most commonly practised method is to build load on the raised
platform . This platform is called Pallet.

The other method is to construct a platform to fit the load . This is called
Storage Principles
The storage system in warehouse has important bearings on the total
cost and success of warehousing operations.
A well designed storage system is a compromise between maximum
utilization of the available space and need for easy and quick access to
the stored goods.

The following rules are followed for designing an effective storage
o Minimize the travel distance.
o Maximize the utilization of available space.
o Provide easy and quick access to the stored goods.
o Facilitate easy tracking of the material.
o Provide security against fire, damage and theft.
o Prevent contamination and deterioration of the goods.
Product Characteristics
The product with contamination risk require such storage facility which
will isolate them from other product group.

The product with uniformly in shape and size may be stored in stacks or
put in the enclosure while odd-shaped products may require open space.

Shelf Life
The storage designed on first-in-first-out (FIFO) consideration.

Product variety
The system needs to segregate the products for ease in identification
during Storage and retrieval.

Storage Design Benefits
Proper planning of the storage system helps in improving the efficiency of
the entire logistics system . This helps in speedy movement of goods
across the supply chain which results in improving system productivity.

Space Economics

Enhance Throughput

Ease in Material Location and Tracking

Security, Safety and Housekeeping
Storage Methods
Block Storage
Stacking is done on the floor or on the wooden platform. However, block
stacking has limitations on the stack height due to following reasons:

Load bearing capability of the package ( box, carton, container) at the bottom of the

Sensitivity of the product insight the pack to load.

Ease in loading and unloading.
Storage Methods
Racking System
Racks are used for storage of items longer in length, small containers,
boxes and pallets etc.
The stationary rack structure is built by getting support from wall and
roof of the warehouse building.
The drive-in racks closed at one end are suitable for last-in-first-out
(LIFO) inventory technique while racks which are open at both ends
may be used for FIFO technique.

Storage Methods
Shelving System

Shelving systems are in use for non-palletized or non-uniform type of

Shelving is the most flexible and cost effective storage structure
which is available in modular configuration to suit storage volumes
and product configurations.
Storage Methods

Pallets are specially designed platforms for storage of goods with a
view of moving the whole load by forklift whenever it is required.
Storage Methods
Containers are most commonly used in manufacturing plants for in-
process material handling applications.
They are quite popular in engineering industry because they help to
increase productivity, space utilization and facilitate fast material
Different types in use are as follows:
o Welded Wire
o Corrugated Metal

o Plastic Containers
Bulk Storage-Silos