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Basic Hydraulic

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Hydraulic Fluid Check Valve
Least Resistance Relief Valve
Pascal’s Law Pressure Differential Relief
Application Principles Conditioners
JIC Open vs Closed
Pumps Hydraulic Valve JIC
Axial Piston Pump Hydraulic Cylinder Principles
Gear Pump Cylinder Leakage Test
Motors Build With JIC’s
Reservoirs
Lines and Connections
Liquids Have no Shape of their own

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Liquids are
Practically Incompressible

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Liquids under pressure follow
what path?

Path of least Resistance

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Path of Least Resistance

10 lbs

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Imperial

Pascal’s Law Metric

■ Pressure Exerted on a Confined Fluid is


Transmitted Undiminished in All
Directions and Acts With Equal Force
on Equal Areas and at Right Angles to
Them.

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This slide illustrates one of the basic principles of hydraulics;
LIQUIDS TRANSMIT APPLIED PRESSURE EQUALLY IN ALL
DIRECTIONS.
BUILDS:
1. When a 1 lb (.45kg) force is applied to this handle and the area of the
piston is 1sq in (.65cm2), with the confined fluid, what PSI (kpa)
pressure will be produced? (1psi (6.9kpa))
Note that this pressure is exerted in every direction.
2. With a 10 sq in (6.5cm2) piston, how much weight will this system
lift? This principle is what allows us to multiple our work efforts.
With 1 lb (.45kg) of down pressure, we are able to lift 10 lbs (4.5kg).
Pressure is caused by a resistance to flow, in this case the 10 lb
(4.5kg) weight. Point out that resistance to flow is what causes
pressure. In this example, if there were a 100 lb (45kg) weight on the
right side (in place of the 10 lb (4.5kg) weight), how much pressure
would be required to lift it. (10 PSI (69kpa)).
IMPERIAL
--Hydraulics is a means of power transmission
--Oil is the most commonly used medium because it serves as a lubricant
and is practically non-compressible (it will compress approximately 1/2
of a 1 percent per 1000 PSI).
--Weight of oil varies with viscosity, but averages between 55 to 55 lbs
per cubic foot. (at 100 degrees F).
NOTE: A cubic foot of oil is 1728 Cu.In (12x12x12). A gallon is 231
Cu.In., so a Cubic Foot of oil is equivalent to 7.48 Gallons.
--A liquid is pushed, NOT DRAWN, into a pump. Atmospheric pressure
equals 14.7 PSI at sea level.
--Oil takes the course (path) of least resistance.
FORMULAS;
1. H.P. = GPM x Pressure x .000583 -or- H.P. = GPM x PSI / 1714
2. One H.P. = 33000 ft./lbs. per minute (33000 lbs raised 1 ft in 1 minute)
One H.P. = 746 Watts, One H.P. = 42.4 BTU per minute
3. Required Area of a transmission line;
Area = GPM x .3208 / velocity (ft./sec) -or- Velocity (ft./sec) = GPM / 3.117 x Area
Pascal’s Law, named after Blaise Pascal (French 1623-1662)
METRIC
--Hydraulics is a means of transmitting power.
--Oil is the most commonly used medium because it serves as a lubricant
and is practically non-compressible (it will compress approximately 1/2
of 1 percent per 690 kpa).
--Weight of oil varies with viscosity, but averages between 23 to 25 kg
per cubic foot. (at 100 degrees F).
NOTE: A cubic foot of oil is 1728 Cu.In (12x12x12). A gallon is 231
Cu.In., so a Cubic Foot of oil is equivalent to 7.48 Gallons.
--Liquid is pushed (by Atmospheric Pressure), NOT DRAWN, into a
pump. Atmospheric pressure equals 14.7 PSI at sea level.
--Oil takes the path (line) of least resistance.
FORMULAS;
1. H.P. = GPM x Pressure x .000583 -or- H.P. = GPM x PSI / 1714
2. One H.P. = 33000 ft./lbs. per minute (33000 lbs raised 1 ft in 1 minute)
One H.P. = 746 Watts, One H.P. = 42.4 BTU per minute
3. Required Area of a transmission line;
Area = GPM x .3208 / velocity (ft./sec) -or- Velocity (ft./sec) = GPM / 3.117 x Area
Pascal’s Law, named after Blaise Pascal (French 1623-1662)
Application Principles
1 lb (.45kg)
Force 10 lbs (4.5kg)

10 sq in
(6.5cm2)
1 sq in Piston Area
(.65cm2)
Piston Area

1 psi
(6.9kpa)
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THE TWO MAIN TYPES OF PUMPS:

1. With a positive displacement pump, with each revolution, a specific


amount of fluid is pumped somewhere.

2. The non-positive pump can rotate all day and not necessarily cause
fluid to flow.

Thus the positive displacement pump is used in applications that


require higher pressures and the non-positive displacement pumps are
used in applications that require high volumes (flow rates).
Pump Types
■ Positive Displacement
-With each revolution a specific
amount is pumped somewhere
– Low Volume, High Pressure
■ Non Positive (IE: Water Pump)
– High Volume, Low Pressure

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JIC Symbols

■ Joint Industry Council

■ Symbolic Drawings used in Schematics


to Represent Components.

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J I C Symbols
Joint Industrial Council
2139 Wisconsin Ave, NW
Washington, DC 20007
This organization was founded in 1965. JIC standards replaced those
written by the Joint Industrial Conference (mostly auto manufacturing)
BUILDS
1. Circle, the major components in a JIC schematic are circles. For a
pump with start with a circle.
2. Then we add an arrow head. The arrow pointing out of the circle
signifies the direction of the fluid flow. OUT, indicating a pump
3. Continue to build showing two arrows heads, meaning this pump is
capable of pumping oil in two directions
4. The arrow signifies that this pump is capable of varying the amount of
flow, so it is a variable displacement pump.
Pumps (JIC Symbols)
■ Constant
Displacement
Single Direction Arrow
Showing
Oil Flow
OUT
■ Bi-Directional,
Variable
Displacement

Pumps convert mechanical power into hydraulic force 16


“Heavy Duty” applications that require variable displacement
bi-directional pumps, typically use axial piston pumps.

POINT OUT THE:

1. Rotating group
2. Swash plate
3. Pistons
Axial Piston Pump
■ Neutral Position Pressure Oil
Vertical Swashplate Each Piston

Piston

Engine Shaft Pumps


Piston

Piston

Swash Rotating Group


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Plate Typically 9 Pistons
SWASHPLATE ANGLE, FORWARD POSITION:

1. As the hydro linkage is slowly moved forward (swashplate angle


changes) the vehicle starts to move forward.
2. The movement of the swashplate controls the direction of the motor
rotation.
3. When the swashplate is moved further forward (swashplate angle
increases), the piston assemblies start to travel further, generating
more flow, more oil is being pumped and the speed of the
vehicle is increased.
4. Flow rate is determined by length and frequency of strokes.
When full swashplate travel is reached (maximum swashplate
angle), the maximum volume of oil is being discharged from the
pump, then the speed of the motors are at maximum.
Axial Piston Pump
■ Forward Position
Angled Swashplate

Charge Oil

Pressure

Rotating Group
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Typically 9 Pistons
Axial Piston Pump
■ Reverse Position
Angled Swashplate

Pressure

Charge

Rotating Group
21
Typically 9 Pistons
Before going back into JIC symbols, lets show another very popular
type of pump or motor.

1. What clues might we have to determine whether this device is a


pump or a motor?
NOTE: Typically, a pump will have a larger INLET opening.

2. If this were a Pump and with the pump turning in the direction
illustrated by the arrows, which side is the inlet and which side is
the outlet?

Build shows inlet and outlet.


Gear Pump
or Motor

In Out

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BUILDS:

1. Circle; as mentioned some of the major components in the hydraulic


schematic are shown as circles.

2. Add an arrow head, but note how this arrow head differs from the
pump shown earlier .. it points “IN”.

3. Second circle with arrowhead.


This arrowhead comes down from the top.
Does this signify any difference? (NO).

4. Second arrowhead.
What type of motor is this? (bi-directional)

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Motors (JIC Symbols)
◆ Single Direction ◆ Bi-Directional

Arrow Showing
Oil Flow IN

Motors converts hydraulic force into mechanical power 25


Reservoirs

1. Vented 2. Pressurized

3. Return Above 4. Return Below


Fluid Level Fluid Level
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Lines and Connections

or
Working Line (Main)
Crossing Lines

Pilot Control Line

Drain Line Connecting Lines

Flexible Line
Flow Direction
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Check Valve

Checked Flow Free Flow

Spring Assisted
Pilot Operated

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Relief Valves

Protects the Pump and Lines


from excessive pressure

Returns fluid back to the reservoir

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Relief Valve

Supply Return to
Reservoir

Pilot supply
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Pressure Differential Valve

Supply

Senses the DIFFERENCE in Pressure


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Manual On/Off Valve

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Fluid Conditioners

Filter
Oil Cooler 33
Filters
Internal Filter
Bypass Valve
(Optional)

■ Micron
■ 1 Millionth
of a Meter or
1 Thousandth
of a Millimeter 34
Types of Hydraulic Systems
Open Center

Closed Center

The control valve that regulates the flow from the pump
determines if system is open or closed.

Do not confuse Hydraulics with the “Closed Loop” of the


Power Train. (Hydro)

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Hydraulic Valve JIC
Closed
Open
Center
Center
Hydraulics
Flow in Neutral

Trapped Oil

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OPEN CENTER VALVE:

1. Hydraulic flow continually moves through the system.

2. The hydraulic pump is constantly pumping fluid.

3. The control valve is open to return in neutral to allow


the fluid to circulate.
Hydraulic Valve JIC

Extend 38
Hydraulic Valve JIC

Retract 39
Hydraulic Valve JIC

Neutral Again 40
Let’s examine what happens when a cylinder is extended. Pressure oil is
routed to the piston end. Oil from the rod end is allowed to return to the
reservoir.
Lift Cylinder
■ Extend

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When cylinders “leak down” over a period of time, it is commonly
believed that the cylinder piston “packings” (O-ring seals) are the cause
of the problem.

This IS NOT TRUE!! So where does the hydraulic oil go?


Lift Cylinder
■ Leak Down
■ Where Does
the Oil Go??

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This illustration goes beyond the practical but makes the point. Because
of the volume of oil trapped in the cylinder, the rod CANNOT retract
any further unless the trapped oil is allowed to escape somewhere. In
this case and always with cylinders that leak down by retracting, the
control valve is leaking allowing the oil out of the cylinder.

Remember, this rule applies only when the cylinder rod retracts (oil
leaking from the piston end to the rod end and out through the control
valve). Oil can leak from the rod side to the piston side (allowing the
rod to extend) because the rod side with less volume of oil can leak into
the piston side with a greater area.
Lift Cylinder
■ Is it Possible for
This Rod to Retract
Even With
the Piston
Removed??

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Cylinder Hose Failures
■ Effects On Line
Pressure When a 15000 lbs
of Down
Cylinder Piston Force
Packing is
Leaking 1.5” Diameter Rod
.75 x .75 x 3.1416 = 1.77 sq.in.
Results in 8475 PSI

3” Diameter Piston
1.5 x 1.5 x 3.1416 = 7.07 sq.in.
Results in 2122 PSI
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To test a cylinder for internal leakage (past the piston seals), remove the
cylinder pin from the rod (what ever the cylinder works on will have to
be supported). Either extend or retract the rod completely. Then remove
the oil line closest to the cylinder’s internal piston. Connect a hydraulic
hose to the cylinder where the line was removed. Place the other end of
the hydraulic hose in a clean bucket. Pressurize the opposite side of the
cylinder with hydraulic oil. Measure leakage into the bucket. If
excessive leakage is observed into the bucket, replace cylinder piston
seals.

NOTE: On some systems, such as the John Deere light weight fairway
mowers, the line returning the lift valve will need to be capped to
prevent return oil from flowing out the line.
Hydraulic Cylinder
Leakage Test

Depending on the
System, You May
Have to Cap This Line
To Prevent Return
Oil From Leaking Out

Retract 49
JIC Symbols

Would This Hydraulic


PM
Drive System Work?

Yes, In one direction


Common Common
Reservoir Reservoir

Hydraulic Drive Does NOT


Provide Dynamic Braking

■ Build the System

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JIC Symbols

PM

Hill Simulation

■ Closed Loop Hydrostatic Transmission


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JIC Symbols

PM

Hill Simulation

■ Closed Loop Hydrostatic Transmission


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JIC Symbols Oil Filter

Inlet
Check
PM

Common
Reservoir Inlet
Check Common
Reservoir

■ Build the System


Oil Cooler
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Both the Oil Cooler Bypass and Oil Filter Bypass are “Differential Relief
Valves” which have the capability of comparing pressures on the inlet
side and the pressure on the outlet side;
On the 3365 WARM, these reliefs open:
1. Oil cooler bypass will open with a differential of 80-130 PSI
2. Filter bypass will open with a differential of 20-30 PSI

Leak off lines are NOT shown, but are required to provide;
1. Lubrication
2. Cooling
3. Cleaning
JIC Symbols Oil Filter

Oil Cooler
Bypass
Valve

PM

Charge
Relief
Valve

Filter
Bypass
Valve

■ Build the System


Oil Cooler
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This slide shows normal oil flow;
1. Hydro turns providing oil flow to motors.
2. Motors turn, some oil is lost to case drain
3. Charge pump provides oil flow through;
Cooler
Filter
Inlet Check Valves
JIC Symbols Oil Filter

Oil Cooler
Bypass
Valve

PM

Charge
Relief
Valve

Filter
Bypass
Valve

■ Hydrostatic
Oil Cooler
Transmission
Components 57

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