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PETE 625

Well Control
Lesson 1
Introduction
Contents
Introduction to course
Basic Concepts
Liquid Hydrostatics
Multimedia Lesson 2. Well Control
Network Places - juvkam-wold2 multimedia Lesson 2
Read: Watson, Chap. 1
3
Catalog Description
PETE 625. Well Control. (3.0). Credit 3.
Theory of pressure control in drilling
operations and during well kicks;
abnormal pressure detection and fracture
gradient determination; casing setting
depth selection and advanced casing
design; theory supplemented on well
control simulators.
Prerequisite: PETE 411
4
Textbook
Advanced Well Control, by David
Watson, Terry Brittenham and Preston
Moore. SPE Textbook Series, 2003

Class Notes and Homework
Assignments can be found at:

http//pumpjack.tamu.edu/~schubert

5
References Well Control

Kicks and Blowout Control, by Neal Adams and Larry Kuhlman. 2
nd

Editions. PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK, 1994.

Blowout Prevention, by W.C. Goins, Jr. and Riley Sheffield. Practical
Drilling Technology, Volume 1, 2
nd
Edition. Gulf Publishing
Company, Houston, 1983.

Advanced Blowout and Well Control, by Robert D. Grace. Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston, 1994.

IADC Deepwater Well Control Guidelines, Published by the
International Association of Drilling Contractors, Houston, TX, 1998.

Guide to Blowout Prevention, WCS Well Control School, Harvey,
LA, 2000.
6
References - General
Applied Drilling Engineering, by Adam T. Bourgoyne
Jr., Martin E. Chenevert, Keith K. Millheim and F.S.
Young Jr., Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson,
TX, 1991.

Drilling Engineering, A complete Well Planning
Approach, by Neal Adams and Tommie Carrier.
PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK, 1985

Practical Well Planning and Drilling Manual, by Steve
Devereux. PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK,
1998.

7
Grading
Homework 20%
Quiz A 20%
Quiz B 20%
Project 20%
Quiz C 20%

See Next Slide for Details
8
Important Dates (tentative)
QUIZ A - Week of October 11

QUIZ B - Week of November 29

Project Presentations: Week of
November 29

Quiz C - When ever WCS simulator is
complete
9
Your Instructor
Name: Jerome J. Schubert

Office: 501K Richardson

Phone: 862-1195

e-mail: jschubert@tamu.edu

Office Hours: TR 10:00 11:30 am
10
Schedule
Week 1 Introduction, Gas Behavior,
Fluid Hydrostactics (Ch. 1)
Weeks 2&3 Pore Pressure (Ch. 2)
Weeks 4&5 Fracture Pressure (Ch. 3)
Week 6 SPE ATCE - Houston
Weeks 7&8 Kick Detection
and Control Methods (Ch. 4)
Week 9 Well Control Complications,
Special Applications (Ch. 5&6)
11
Schedule contd
Week 10 Well Control Equipment (Ch. 7)
Week 11 Offshore Operations (Ch. 8)
Week 12 Snubbing & Stripping (Ch. 9)
Week 13 Blowout Control (Ch. 10)
Week 14 Casing Seat Selection (Ch. 11)
Circ. Press. Losses (Appendix A)
Surge & Swab Press. (Appendix B)
Week 15 Project Presentations
12
Definitions
What is a Kick?
An unscheduled entry of formation fluids
into the wellbore of sufficient quantity to
require shutting in the well

What is a Blowout?
Loss of control of a kick
13
Why does a kick occur?
Pressure in the wellbore is less than the
pressure in the formation

Permeability of the formation is great
enough to allow flow

A fluid that can flow is present in the
formation
14
How do we prevent kicks?
We must maintain the pressure in the
wellbore greater than formation pressure
But,
We must not allow the pressure in the
wellbore to exceed the fracture pressure
This is done by controlling the HSP of the
drilling fluid, and isolating weak
formations with casing
HSP = HydroStatic Pressure
15
Hydrostatic Pressure, HSP
HSP = 0.052 * MW * TVD

HSP = Hydrostatic Pressure, psi
MW = Mud Weight (density), ppg
TVD = Total Vertical Depth, ft
16
HSP
TVD
10 ppg mud
HSP = HSP = HSP
17
Problem # 1
Derive the HSP equation

Calculate the HSP for each of the
following:

10,000 ft of 12.0 ppg mud
12,000 ft of 10.5 ppg mud
15,000 ft of 15.0 ppg mud
18
Solution to Problem # 1
Consider a column of fluid:
Cross-sectional area = 1 sq.ft.
Height = TVD ft
Density = MW
Weight of the fluid = Vol * Density
= 1 * 1 * TVD ft
3
* 62.4 lb/ ft
3
* MW ppg/8.33
= 62.4 / 8.33 * MW * TVD
19
Solution, cont.
This weight is equally distributed over
an area of 1 sq.ft. or 144 sq.in.

Therefore,
Pressure = Weight / area
= 62.4 MW * TVD/(8.33*144)
HSP = 0.052 * MW * TVD
W
F = PA
20
Solution, cont.
HSP = 0.052 * MW * TVD

HSP
1
= 0.052 * 12 * 10,000 = 6,240 psi

HSP
2
= 0.052 * 10.5 * 12,000 = 6,552 psi

HSP
3
= 0.052 * 15.0 * 15,000 = 11,700 psi
21
Terminology
Pressure
Pressure gradient
Formation pressure
(Pore)
Overburden
pressure
Fracture pressure
Pump pressure
(system pressure
loss)
SPP, KRP, Slow
circulating pressure,
kill rate pressure
Surge & swab
pressure
SIDPP & SICP
BHP

22
U-Tube Concept
HSP = 5,200 psi
5,600
5,600
5,600
400
400 600 600
HSP =
5,200 psi
Mud HSP
=4,800 psi
Mud HSP
=4,800 psi
Influx HSP
=200 psi
Influx HSP
=200 psi
23
More Terminology
Capacity of:
casing
hole
drillpipe
Annular capacity
Displacement of:
Drillpipe
Drill collars
Rig Pumps
Duplex pump
Triplex pump
KWM, kill weight mud
Fluid Weight up
24
Problem # 2
Calculate the mud gradient
for 15.0 ppg mud

G
15
= 0.052 * MW = 0.052 * 15
= 0.780 psi/ft

Calculate the HSP of 15,000
of 15 ppg mud

HSP = 0.780 * 15,000 = 11,700 psi
25
Problem # 3
The top 6,000 ft in a wellbore is filled
with fresh water, the next 8,000 with 11
ppg mud, and the bottom 16,000 ft is
filled with 16 ppg mud.

(i) What is the BHP?
(ii) What is the pressure 1/2 way to bottom?
(iii) Plot the mud density vs. depth
(iv) Plot the mud gradient vs. depth
(v) Plot the pressure vs. depth
26
Problem # 3 solution
(i) BHP = 0.052 * [(8.33 * 6,000)
+ (11 * 8,000) + (16 * 16,000)]
= 20,487 psi

(ii) Pressure 1/2 way down (at 15,000 ft)
= 0.052 * [(8.33 * 6,000)
+ (11 * 8,000) + (16 * 1,000)]
= 8,007 psi
27
Problem # 3 solution
(iii) Plot MW
vs. Depth
D
e
p
t
h

0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
Mud Density, ppg
0 5 10 15 20
8.33

11.0


16.0
28
Problem # 3 solution
(iv) Plot mud
gradient vs.
Depth

Depth Gradient
ft psi/ft
0-6,000 0.433
6,000-14,000 0.572
14,000-TD 0.832
D
e
p
t
h

0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
Mud Gradient, psi/ft
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9
0.433

0.572


0.832
29
Problem # 3 solution
(iv) Plot HSP vs.
Depth

ft psi
@ 6,000 2,599
@14,000 7,175
@ 30,000 20,487
D
e
p
t
h

0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
Mud Pressure, kpsi
8 5 10 15 20

2,599 psi
7,175 psi
20,487 psi
30
Addition of Weight Material
The amount of barite
required to raise the
density of one barrel
of mud from MW
1
to
MW
2
, ppg

lbs Barite, of gal 1 of Wt. 35.4
lbs Barite, of bbl 1 of Wt. 1,490
ppg Density, Mud New MW
ppg Density, Mud Old MW
lb/bbl Required, Barite W
where
2
1
B



2
1 2
B
MW 35.4
MW MW 1,490
W

31
Problem # 4, Derive Barite Eq.
Consider one bbl of mud of density, MW
1
,
add W
B
lbs of barite to increase the mud
density to MW
2
.

Wt, lb Vol, bbl

Old Mud 42 * MW
1
1
Barite W
B
(W
B
lbs / 1,490 lb/bbl)

Mixture W
B
+ 42 MW
1
1 + (W
B
/ 1,490)

Density of Mixture = total weight / total volume
32
Problem # 4
New Density = Weight / Volume
MW
2
= (W
B
+42 MW
1
lbs) / {[1+(W
B
/1,490)bbl]*42 gal/bbl}
42 MW
2
[1+(W
B
/1,490)] = W
B
+42 MW
1
lbs
W
B

[(MW
2
/ 35.4) -1] = 42 MW
1
42 MW
2

W
B
(MW
2
- 35.4) = (42 * 35.4) * (MW
1
- MW
2
)


2
1 2
B
MW 35.4
MW MW 1,490
W

33
Stopping an Influx
1. Increase Pressure at Surface

2. Increase Annular Friction

3. Increase Mud Weight
34
Stopping an Influx
Pressure
D
e
p
t
h

Mud Hydrostatic
Pressure
35
Stopping an Influx Soln.1
Pressure
D
e
p
t
h

Mud
Hydrostatic
Pressure
36
Stopping an Influx Soln.2
Pressure
D
e
p
t
h

Mud
Hydrostatic
Pressure
37
Stopping an Influx Soln.3
Pressure
D
e
p
t
h

Mud
Hydrostatic
Pressure