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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Neutron Porosity
Schlumberger 1999
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Lithology and Porosity
The next major step in the procedure is lithology
identification. Lithology data gives information
on porosity and other parameters.

Lithology of a formation can be:


Simple


Dirty


Complex




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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Lithology and Porosity Tools
All tools react to lithology - usually in conjunction
with the porosity.

Major lithology tools are:

Neutron - reacts to fluid and matrix.

Density - reacts to matrix and fluid.

Sonic - reacts to a mixture of matrix and fluid,
complicated by seeing only primary
porosity.

NGT - identifies shale types and special minerals.

CMR - magnetic resonance reacts to the porosity
with a small element if lithology.


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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Early Neutron Tools
The first neutron tools used a chemical neutron
source and employed a single detector which
measured the Gamma Rays of capture

They were non-directional.

The units of measurement were API units where
1000 API units were calibrated to read 19% in a
water-filled limestone.

The tool was badly affected by the borehole
environment.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Neutron Tools
The second generation tool was the Sidewall
Neutron Porosity (SNP).
This was an epithermal device mounted on a pad.

The current tool is the Compensated Neutron
Tool (CNT).

The latest tool is the Accelerator Porosity Sonde
(APS), using an electronic source for the neutrons
and measuring in the epithermal region.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Hydrogen Index
Hydrogen Index is the quantity of hydrogen per
unit volume.

Fresh water is defined as having a Hydrogen
Index of 1.
Hence oil has a Hydrogen Index which is slightly
less than that of water.

The Hydrogen Index of gas is a much smaller
than that of water.

In a formation, it is generally the fluids that
contain hydrogen.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Detectors
Two neutron detectors are used to produce a
ratio eliminating some of the borehole effects
experienced by single detectors.
The count rate for each detector is inversely
proportional to porosity with high porosity giving
low count rates.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Ratio to Porosity Transform
The count rates are first corrected for the dead
time of the detectors (when the detector is not
available to receive counts).

The count rates are calibrated with the master
calibration.

A ratio of these is then taken.

The ratio is translated into porosity using a
transform. (This is a combination of theoretical
and experimental work).

The current field output for the thermal neutron
porosity is called TNPH.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Borehole Effects
The logs have to be corrected for the borehole
environment:

Borehole size.

Mud cake.

Borehole salinity.

Mud weight.


Temperature.

Pressure.

Formation salinity.
Stand-off.

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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Hole Size Correction
Necessary because the tools algorithm from ratio
to porosity is built to "fit" a 77/8" hole.
Larger holes cause the tool to see more mud
(100% porosity) around the borehole, hence the
tool reads too high in larger hole sizes.

The chart is entered with the porosity;



Go down to hole size.
Follow trend lines to 7 7/8".
Read of A|.

A correction is made automatically in open hole
using caliper measurements from the combined
density tool.
It can be made using the bit size if a caliper is not
available.
The correction can be large.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Mud Cake Correction
The mud cake absorbs neutrons before they can
enter or leave the formation.
mud cake = stand-off with porosity <100%.
The larger the mud cake, the larger the
correction.
It is a small correction but one that is rarely ever
applied because the mud cake cannot be easily
measured.





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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Borehole Salinity Correction
This arises due to Chlorine.
The more Chlorine present, the more neutrons
absorbed in the borehole. ==> decrease
count rate.
The largest effect is seen in salt-saturated muds.






Go down to the borehole salinity.
Follow trend lines to zero.
Read A|.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Mud Weight Correction
The extra material in heavier muds means there
is less hydrogen, hence more neutrons reach the
formation.
It also changes if the mud is full of barite.

In this case the amount of material needed to
achieve the same mud weight is less, hence the
correction is less.





Select normal or barite mud.
Enter with porosity.
Go down to mud weight.
Follow lines to 8 lb/gal.
Read A|.
The correction is quite small.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Formation Temperature
Correction
The correction is large and depends on the
porosity.
This is a dual effect:

The expansion of the water reduces the quantity
of Hydrogen seen by the tool.
Change in the borehole fluid capture cross-
section.






Enter with porosity at the top.
Go down to hole temperature.
Follow trend lines to 75F.
Read A|.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Pressure Correction
The effect is caused by the compression of the
fluids downhole.
In standard water-based muds the effect is small.







Select oil-based or water-based mud.
Enter with porosity at the top.
Go down to hole pressure.
Follow trend lines to zero.
Read A|.

In oil-based muds the correction is large.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Formation/Salinity Correction
There are two factors affecting the neutron
measurement in the formation:

The chlorine in the formation water.
The rock matrix capture cross-section.

The simplest method is to assume that the matrix
is clean and that the matrix 'E' known.
This leaves salinity (mud filtrate) as the only
"variable".

The complete solution is to measure the total
formation 'E' and use this to compute the
correction.
The correction can be large but is not applied in
the field because the lithology is unknown, hence
the 'E' unknown.
It is taken into account in the interpretation
phase.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Stand off Correction
Any space between the tool and the borehole wall
is seen as 100% porosity.
The value of the correction depends on the hole
size:
Larger holes = more correction
Stand-off is rarely measured. One method is to
use the SA curve recorded with a PCD.

The chart is entered with the porosity at the top;

Go to the nearest hole size.
Go down to the stand-off value, e.g. 0.5".
Follow the lines to zero.
Read the A| (always negative).
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Standoff Correction Chart
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Thermal Neutron Parameters
Vertical resolution:
Standard (TNPH) 24"
Enhanced 12"

Depth of investigation 9"-12"

Readings in zero porosity:

Limestone (0%) 0
Sandstone (0%) -2.00
Dolomite (0%) 1.00
Anhydrite -2.00
Salt -3.00

Typical Readings

Shale 30-45
Coal 50+
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Thermal Neutron
Interpretation/Uses
The tool measures hydrogen index.

Its prime use is to measure porosity.

Combined with the bulk density, it gives the best
possible answer for lithology and porosity
interpretation.


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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Thermal Neutron in Cased Hole
The CNT can be run in cased hole for the
porosity.

In addition to the standard corrections some
others are needed to take into account the extra
elements of casing and cement.

The standard conditions are:

83/4" borehole diameter.
Casing thickness 0.304".
Cement thickness 1.62".
Fresh water in the borehole / formation.
No stand-off.
75F.
Atmospheric pressure.
Tool eccentred in the hole.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Corrections in Cased Hole
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Bulk Density Measurement
Schlumberger 1999
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Gamma Ray Physics -density -1
The Density Tools use a chemical gamma ray
source and two or three gamma ray detectors.

The number of gamma rays returning to the
detector depends on the number of electrons
present, the electron density, e.
The electron density can be related to the bulk
density of the minerals by a simple equation.

e = ( 2Z/A )

Where Z is the number
of electrons per atom
and A is the atomic
weight.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Gamma Ray Physics -density 2
The assumption made in the interpretation is
that:
Z/A = 0.5

This is very close for most elements commonly
encountered, except hydrogen which has
little effect on the measurement. Therefore e =

Element Z/A
H 0.9921
C 0.4996
O 0.5
Na 0.4785
Mg 0.4934
Al 0.4819
Si 0.4984
S 0.4989
Cl 0.4794
K 0.4860
Ca 0.499
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Calibration
The tool measured density, b, has been
experimentally related to the electron density;

b = 1.0704 e - 0.1883

The tool needs to be calibrated in a known
condition.
This condition is fresh water and limestone,
densities, 1.00 and 2.71 respectively.

The bulk density versus the electron density
equation fits for all the common minerals with a
few exceptions:
Salt - true density 2.165
density tool value 2.03

Sylvite - true density 1.984
density tool value 1.862
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Spine and Ribs
The spine represents the line of increasing
formation density on the plot of the long spacing
count rate versus short spacing count rate.

The presence of mud cake causes a deviation
from the line in a predictable manner. Thus a
correction can be made to obtain the true density.
.
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Mud cake
wi th barite
Mud cake
wi thout
barite
Increasing
Mud cake
Thi ckness
Increasing
Mud cake
Thi ckness
A
B
C
L
o
n
g

S
p
a
c
i
n
g

C
o
u
n
t

R
a
t
e
Short spacing Count Rate
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Spine and Ribs
Example:
The correct reading is at point A.
An increasing mud cake thickness moves
the point to B or C depending on whether
there is heavy material (barite) in the mud
or not.

.
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Mud cake
wi th barite
Mud cake
wi thout
barite
Increasing
Mud cake
Thi ckness
Increasing
Mud cake
Thi ckness
A
B
C
L
o
n
g

S
p
a
c
i
n
g

C
o
u
n
t

R
a
t
e
Short spacing Count Rate
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Density Outputs

The outputs are:
RHOZ/RHOB (b), the corrected bulk density.
DRHO (A), the correction that has been
applied to b (LDT only).

RHOZ/RHOB is the main output;

DRHO is a quality control curve (LDT only).
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Borehole Effects
The LDT is a pad tool with collimated source and
detectors. It experiences little or no
environmental effect.

In large holes, the curvature of the pad versus
that of the hole causes a minor error that needs to
be corrected.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Borehole Effects
Hole rugosity may affect the measurement.

The source and detectors "see" different
formations/borehole.

The effect is an erratic and incorrect log.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Alpha Processing
As the density tool also uses two detectors it can
be Alpha processed in exactly the same way as the
CNT.

The resulting log shows a great improvement
over the standard output.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Density Parameters
Vertical resolution:

Standard 18"
Enhanced 6"

Depth of investigation 6"-9"

Readings in:

Limestone (0pu) 2.71
Sandstone (0pu) 2.65
Dolomite (0pu) 2.85
Anhydrite 2.98
Salt 2.03
Shale 2.2-2.7
Coal 1.5

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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Interpretation/Uses
The density tool is extremely useful as it has high
accuracy and exhibits small borehole effects.

Major uses include:
Porosity.

Lithology (in combination with the
neutron tool).

Mechanical properties (in combination
with the sonic tool).

Acoustic properties (in combination with
the sonic tool).

Gas identification (in combination with the
neutron tool).
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Density Porosity
There are two inputs into the porosity equation:
the matrix density and the fluid density.

The fluid density is that of the mud filtrate.
1
ma f b
f ma
b ma
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Scaling/Porosity
The density tool is usually run with the neutron.
To aid quicklook interpretation they are run on
"compatible scales".
This means that the scales are set such that for a
given lithology the curves overlay.
The standard scale is the "limestone compatible" where
the neutron porosity scale is:
To fit this the density log has to have its zero limestone point (2.7
g/cc) on the same position as the neutron porosity zero and the
range of the scale has to fit the neutrons 60 porosity units hence the
scale is:
Changing to a sandstone compatible scale would put the zero
sandstone density, 2.65, over the neutron porosity zero to give:
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Pef Physics
The Photoelectric effect occurs when the incident
gamma ray is completely absorbed by the
electron.




It is a low energy effect hence the Photoelectric
Absorption index, Pe, is measured using
the lowest energy window of the tool.

Pe is related directly to Z, the number of
electrons per atom, hence fixed for each element.

Pe = ( Z/A )3.6

Its units are barns/electron.
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Pef Theory
Pe can be easily computed for any lithology by
summing the elemental contributions.

Measurement is virtually porosity and fluid
independent.

Major use is Lithology identification.
Another way of using it is express it in volumetric
terms as:

U = Pee

This is called the Volumetric photoelectric
absorption index.
This parameter can then be used in a formula for
computing the components of the reservoir.

U = |Uf + (1 - |) Uma
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Pef Parameters
Vertical resolution:

Standard 4"

Readings in:

Limestone 5.08
Sandstone 1.81
Dolomite 3.14
Shale 1.8-6
Anhydrite 5.05
Salt 4.65
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Crossplot Porosity Calculations
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Interpretation Challenge
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
Gas Zone Calculations
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Neutron Porosity Measurement
N/D Response on LS Matrix