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THE MECHANICS OF

SPEECH
THE ORGANS OF SPEECH
Endowed with the gift of speech, man has been
made special by his/her Creator. Unlike the lower form
of animals, he/she alone has been given the
mechanism that makes possible his/her capacity for
articulated speech.
a. The lungs
b. The trachea
c. The diaphragm
d. The abdominal and rib muscles

1. The Respiratory or Breathing Parts
FUNCTIONS OF THE SPEECH ORGANS

Breathing involves two processes: inhalation and exhalation.
When we inhale, we breathe in air to fill our lungs. This is the first
organ necessary for speech. When we exhale, we expel air no
longer needed by the body. Playing an important role in inhalation
process is the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the ribs from
the abdomen. It pressures the lungs and forces air up through the
windpipe, a tube that is called the trachea. These respiratory
muscles serve as the motor that starts the voice machine to work.

THE RESPIRATORY PARTS
1. The Phonating or Vocalizing Parts
a. The larynx
b. The vocal chords
c. The laryngeal muscles
The air forced out from the lungs by the pressure of
muscles in the abdomen finds its way through the windpipe,
or trachea and into the larynx which houses the voice box.
This sets the vocal chords, the second most important
organ, at the tip of the larynx, to vibration sending upward
sound waves, which produce rather unpleasant muffled
sounds.

VOCALIZING PARTS
a. The mouth
b. The jaw
c. The uvula
d. The nasal cavity

3. The Resonating Parts
Weak sounds issuing from the vocal chords are altered,
amplified and made fuller and richer by the three cavities
which are the oral cavity, the nasal cavity, and the pharyngeal
cavity. Different kinds of sound can be produced in these
sounding boards by the modification of the size and shape of
the mouth.

RESONATING PARTS
The articulators

a. The tongue
b. The lower lip
c. The jaw




The points of articulation
a. The upper lip
b. The upper teeth
c. The alveolar ridge or
teethridge
d. The palate (hard and soft)
e. The uvula

4. The Articulatory Parts
In the mouth, the articulators or its lower parts in conjunction
with the fixed points of articulation, which are the upper parts, make
the sounds precise and distinct. With these organs coming into play,
speech sounds are made understandable.

The chief articulators are the tongue, the lower lip, and the jaw.
The points of articulation are the upper lip, the upper teeth, the
alveolar ridge, the hard palate, the velum or the soft palate and the
uvula.




ARTICULATORY PARTS
The tongue, a flexible organ consisting of muscles, glands
and connective tissues is the most versatile of all the
articulators. It has three sections: the tip or apex, the blade
and the root. The blade has three parts: front, center and
back. It is the most flexible because it can move in any
direction in the mouth.

PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS
The sounds of speech are produced by the air or
breath as it is forced out from the lungs and then
modified by the vocal organs.

FOUR STAGES OF SOUND PRODUCTION
The first stage is the physiological process of
respiration. It involves inhalation, the taking of fresh
air and exhalation, he expulsion of used air.

1. RESPIRATION
This out-going air sends the breath stream through the
windpipe called the trachea and proceeds through the larynx
just behind the adams apple in the neck. It is in the sound
production room where phonation takes place. The surge of
air sets the vocal chords to vibration sending sound waves
upward transforming air into vocal sounds.

2. PHONATION
The vocal sounds produced through phonation are weak.
They get modifies and amplified in the resonating chambers:
the pharynx, the nose, and the mouth. These cavities are like
sound boxes or sounding boards of musical instruments.


3. RESONATION

With the use of articulators coming in contact with the fixed
points of articulation, vocal sounds are changed into speech
sounds, syllables and words. It is in this articulation stage
where speech is made recognizable and intelligible.

4. ARTICULATION
1. RESPIRATION
2. PHONATION
3. RESONATION
4. ARTICULATION
lungs, trachea, diaphragm, abdominal and rib muscles
Larynx, vocal chords & larengeal muscles
Mouth, jaw, uvula & nasal cavity
Articulators- tongue, lower lip, & jaw

Points of articulation upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar
ridge, palate(hard & soft), & uvula
PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS

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