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1

TUTORIAL I

DEVICE PHYSICS, CHARGE TRANSPORT,
APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING IN ORGANIC
ELECTRONICS

Nir Tessler
Devin Mackenzie

March 28, 2005 1:30 5:00 PM


2
MRS SPRING 2005 TUTORIAL I

DEVICE PHYSICS, CHARGE TRANSPORT,
APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING IN ORGANIC
ELECTRONICS

PART 1

DEVICE PHYSICS and CHARGE TRANSPORT

Nir Tessler
EE Dept. Technion
www.ee.technion.ac.il/nir

3
Organic Semiconductors
1. Semiconductor

2. High band gap

3. Low mobility

4. Molecular
You are holding ~60 slides but we will look together only at part of
them. Watch for the slide number
Nir Tessler, EE Dept. Technion
www.ee.technion.ac.il/nir
4
If the band-gap
is high Insulator
E
Fi
E
F
E
Fi
E
C
E
V
E
F
=E
Fi
Intrinsic N-type P-type
E
F
E
FM
Metal
Reminder
5
Semiconductor
6
Semiconductor
Metal
Metal
E
FM
E
0
- Vacuum level
s
u
M
u
E
F
E
C
E
V
u
= work function
The (average) energy required to
extract an electron.
Isolated Material
(not in equilibrium)
0 B C M
E u = u
The energy required to lift an
electron from the metal to the
semiconductor
7
Semiconductor
Metal
E
FM
E
0
s
u
M
u
E
F
E
C
E
V
Making contact
(creating equilibrium)
Is there any electronic interaction?
8
Semiconductor
Metal
Making contact

E
F
E
V
E
C
E
0
E
FM
Charging a capacitor to a voltage of: ( )
M s
V A = u u
AV
9
What assumptions did we use?
0
+Q
-Q
a. There exist equilibrium between M and SC Fermi level is continuous.


b. The metal is an infinite reservoir (attaching the SC is a small perturbation)


c. The potential is continuous (no dipoles )
10
Semiconductor
Metal
Metal
E
FM
E
0
- Vacuum level
s
u
M
u
E
F
E
C
E
V
Isolated Materials
What will occur after making contact?
Will the semiconductor become metallic?
Will the entire volume be chemically reduced?
11
Metal
E
FM
E
0

s
u
M
u
E
F
E
C
E
V
Isolated Material
(no equilibrium)
Metal
E
FM
E
F
E
C
E
V
Connected
(equilibrium)
ultra-thin
Ultra-thin ~ nm scale
12
Metal
E
FM
E
F
E
C
E
V
Ultra-thin
Metal
E
FM
E
F
E
C
E
V
Interface dipole
Since the ultra-thin region is negligible in size it is not drawn:
Conclusion: the metal workfunction can not be above
(below) the conduction (valence) band.
13
5.2
5.2
3.5
2.7
What will happen after making contact
5.2-3.5=1.7
14
E
X
E
C
Barrier
Ec
Thermionic Emission
Basic Assumptions:
1. Emission from A to B does not depend on emission from B to A but
only on the concentration in A and B respectively (there doesnt
have to be equilibrium across the interface).
2. The charge density in the metal is fixed (infinite reservoir)
* 2 / kT q
M S
J A T e
A

=
Current
15
In Low mobility semiconductors (organics) the emission rates from metal
to organic and back are much larger then the current flowing in the
device:
1. There is equilibrium at the contact interface
2. The thermionic emission process is not important but for ensuring
equilibrium.
What may change the above?
What may slow the emission across the interface?
The presence of a thin insulating layer will make the crossing from the metal to
the organic (tunneling) very slow and it will become the rate limiting factor (i.e.
break the equilibrium).
22
Now the charges are in
How do they move?
23
Molecular Localization
Conjugated segments States
Charge conduction non coherent hopping
x
24
What are the important factors?
1. Energy difference

2. Distance

3. Similarity of the Molecular structures
1. What is the statistics of
energy-distribution?

2. What is the statistics of
distance-distribution?

3. Is it important to note that
we are dealing with
molecular SC? Do we
need to use the concept of
polaron?
25
Detailed Equilibrium
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
i j ij j i ji
f E f E f E f E u u
(
= (


( )
exp
j i
ij
ji
kT
c c
u
u
| |

| =
|
\ .
( ) ( ) ( )
, 1 1 exp /
i i
f E E kT q q
(
= +

( )
( )
( )
exp /
1
j i j i
ij j i
t
E E kT E E
E E
else
u u

e >

( )
( )
( )
0
exp /
exp
1
j i j i
ij
E E kT E E
else
u u

e >

ij
R
Anderson:
E
i
E
j
26
Molecular Nature of the Envelope
Function
( )
( )
( )
exp /
1
j i j i
ij j i
t
E E kT E E
E E
else
u u

e >

The polaron picture:


27
-2000
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
1 10
4
1.2 10
4
-40 -20 0 20 40
E
Q
Elastic energy:
2
elast
E BQ =
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Equilibrium
Stretched
Squeezed
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
2
elast
E BQ =
Simplistic approach
Q is a molecular
configuration coordinate
28
Q
0
E
0spring
E=E
0
+B(Q-Q
0
)
2
Elastic Energy (spring)
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
E
Q
Configuration coordinates
30
Q
0
E
0spring
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
E
Q
A
A*
A
Q
A*
E
0
t
= E
0spring
+
mgQ
0
E
0
= E
0
t
+
BAQ
2
-
mgAQ
31
2 2
2
2
2
n
e
E n
m L
t
=
2 2
2
3
2
2
n
e
dE n dL F dL
m L
t
(
=
(

L L + dL
Stretch mode
E
n
E
n
+dE
n
For small variations in the size of the molecule the electron phonon
contribution to the energy of the electron is linear with the
displacement of the molecular coordinates.

For t-conjugated the atomic displacement is ~0.1A and F=2-3eV/A.

The general formalism:
E
e-ph
=-AQ
The electronic equivalent
32
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
E
Q
Linear electron-phonon interaction:
e ph
E AQ

=
0
2
0
elast e ph
E E E E
E E BQ AQ

= + +
= +
2
2
2
min min
2 2 4
b
A A A
E BQ AQ B A
B B B
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .
b
E
min
Q
The system was stabilized by AE through electron-phonon interaction
Polaron binding energy
0
E
Q
c
=
c
{ }
0 0_ 0_ 0_
;
elast e e n
E E E E E = +
0 elast e ph
E E E E

= + +
0 elast
E E E = +
34
( ) ( )
2
exp exp
2 2 8
j i j i
b
i j i j
b
E
R
kT kT kTE
c c c c
u

| |

| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
\ .
Accounts for
difference between
the equilibrium
energies
If initial and final energies are different:
(In disordered materials E
0_e
is not identical for the two molecules)
35
A
qW
kT
phonon
R e P v

=
Average
attempt frequency
Activation of the
molecular conformation
Probability of
electron to move
(tunnel) between
two molecules that
are in their best
conformation
Requires the presence of phonons.
Or the occupation of the relevant phonons should be significant
36
Bosons:
1 1
( )
1 1
Bose Einstein
E h
kT kT
f E
e e
v

= =

What will happen if T<T
phonon
/2 ?
1 1
( )
1 1
effective phonon
effective
h T
kT T
f h
e e
v
v =

The relevance to our average attempt frequency:
The molecules will not reach the best conformation that
was accessible at higher (room) temperature
New activation energy

New attempt frequency
Typical temperature at which
the transport mechanism
changes is 150-200k
37
Sites-Energy Statistics
(the most popular ones)
Gaussian DOS
Exponential DOS
Completely ignore the issue
38
What is the statistical Energy-
Distribution?
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 0
exp
t
N
g
kT kT
c
| |
=
|
\ .
2
0
exp
2 2
V
N
g
c c
t o o
(
| |
=
(
|

\ . (

Gaussian
Exponential
39
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
The two look very different
BUT a single
experiment (typically)
samples only a small
region of the DOS
40
Power Law
T
0
=450k o=5.5kT
M. Vissenberg and M. Matters, "Theory of
the field-effect mobility in amorphous
organic transistors," Physical Review B,
vol. 57, pp. 12964-12967, 1998
Y. Roichman, Y. Preezant, and N. Tessler,
"Analysis and modeling of organic devices,"
Physica Status Solidi a-Applied Research, vol.
201, pp. 1246-1262, 2004
Charge Mobility & Charge Density
0 0
exp
t
N
g
kT kT
c
| |
=
|
\ .
2
0
exp
2 2
V
N
g
c c
t o o
(
| |
=
(
|

\ . (

0
1
T
T
n
| |

|
\ .

For low enough density:


0 F
E kT
(N
t
=10
20
cm
-3
-> n<5x10
18
)

=0.73-1.17 exp
1.65 kT kT
o o
k
| |

|

\ .
n
k

For high enough density:
10
kT
V
n N
o

>
(o=5kT, N
t
=10
20
cm
-3
-> n>1x10
15
)

42
h h h h h
n
dx
d
D E n J =

dx
dn
D E n
h
h h h
=
dV
dn
n
D
Edx
dn
n
D
h
h
h
h
h
h h
1 1

= =
Current continuity Eq.
In the absence of external force (J=0)
Derivation of the Generalized Einstein Relation
f
h
h
h h
dE
dn
n
D
1

=
Equilibrium conditions
(existence of a Fermi level + constant temperature)
Generalized
Einstein-Relation
(Ashcroft, solid state physics)
43
1
2
3
4
5
10
14
10
15
10
16
10
17
10
18
10
19
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
o=5kT
o=4kT
(A)
o=7kT
E
n
h
a
n
c
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

E
i
n
s
t
e
i
n

R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

T
0
=400k
T
0
=500k
T
0
=600k
Relative Charge Density
0 0
exp
t
N
g
kT kT
c
| |
=
|
\ .
2
0
exp
2 2
V
N
g
c c
t o o
(
| |
=
(
|

\ . (

Generalized Einstein Relation
Y. Roichman and N. Tessler, "Generalized Einstein
relation for disordered semiconductors - Implications
for device performance," Applied Physics Letters, vol.
80, pp. 1948-1950, 2002
Charge Diffusion
& Charge Density
44
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
30 40 50 60 70 80
o=7
o=4
o=5
E
n
h
a
n
c
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

E
i
n
s
t
e
i
n

R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
1/kT
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
30 40 50 60 70 80
o=5
T
0
=400
T
0
=500
T
0
=600
Calc for DOS Filling at RT = 0.01
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
30 40 50 60 70 80
o=7
o=4
o=5
E
n
h
a
n
c
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

E
i
n
s
t
e
i
n

R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
1/kT
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
30 40 50 60 70 80
o=5
T
0
=400
T
0
=500
T
0
=600
Calc for DOS Filling at RT = 0.01
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
30 40 50 60 70 80
o=5
T
0
=400
T
0
=500
T
0
=600
Calc for DOS Filling at RT = 0.01
0
exp 1
qV
J J
nkT
(
| |
=
| (
\ .

0
exp 1
qV
J J
kT q
(
| |
=
( |
\ .

Or:
Diode
o=4kT T
0
=450k
45
Extracting Mobility
Analysis of LEDs

Analysis of FETs

The disorder parameter o is an established important feature
Can we extract it?
46
LEDs
2
0
exp 2.25
E
c E
kT
o

=

(
| |
=
( `
|
\ .
(


)
Gaussian DOS at low density limit
H. Bassler, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), vol. 175, pp. 15-56, 1993
2
3
9
8
SCL
V
J
d
c =
2
0
1 3
( )
2
d
V
P P x dx
d ed
c
| |
= =
|
\ .
}
( )
2
3
4
d
V
P
ed
c
| |
=
|
\ .
Average Density
Density at the exit contact
Need a formalism that accounts for both electric field and density
47
W
L
Vg
Si
SiO
2
W
L
Vg
Conductor
Insulator
t - conjugated
Source Drain
W
L
Vg
Si
SiO
2
W
L
Vg
Conductor
Insulator
Source
Drain
t - conjugated
y
x
z
CIt-FET
48
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
a
.
u
.
)

o=4kT
o=7kT
Charge Density & Electric Field Dependence
(Gaussian DOS)
The exponential prefactor depends on o as well as Charge Density
Y. Roichman, Y. Preezant, N. Tessler, Phys. Stat. Sol. 2004
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
0 200 400 600 800
(Electric Field)
0.5
2x10
14
10
15
4x10
16
10
18
10
19
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
0 200 400 600 800
10
14
7x10
16
10
18
10
19
(Electric Field)
0.5
51
Extracting Mobility - FETs
( )
2
2
DS
DS ins GS T DS ins DS
GS GS
V W W
I C V V V C V
V V L L


| |
(
c c
| |
= +
|
( |
|
c c
\ .

\ .
But 100% is not always critical
10
-11
10
-10
10
-9
10
-8
10
-7
0
5 10
-6
1 10
-5
1.5 10
-5
2 10
-5
2.5 10
-5
3 10
-5
0 5 10 15 20 25
Gate Voltage
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2
V
-
1
s
-
1
)
10
-11
10
-10
10
-9
10
-8
10
-7
0
5 10
-6
1 10
-5
1.5 10
-5
2 10
-5
2.5 10
-5
3 10
-5
0 5 10 15 20 25
Gate Voltage
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2
V
-
1
s
-
1
)
0 10
0
2 10
-10
4 10
-10
6 10
-10
8 10
-10
1 10
-9
1.2 10
-9
1.4 10
-9
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

V
c
c

Gate Voltage
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

D
e
r
i
v
a
t
i
v
e
0 10
0
2 10
-10
4 10
-10
6 10
-10
8 10
-10
1 10
-9
1.2 10
-9
1.4 10
-9
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

V
c
c

Gate Voltage
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

D
e
r
i
v
a
t
i
v
e
0 10
0
2 10
-10
4 10
-10
6 10
-10
8 10
-10
1 10
-9
1.2 10
-9
1.4 10
-9
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

V
c
c

Gate Voltage
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

D
e
r
i
v
a
t
i
v
e
52
( ) ( ) ( )
s g GS T
n x C q V V v x = (

( ) ( )
( )
DS s
dv x
I Wqn x x
dx


=
( ) ( )
( )
0 0
L L
DS s
dv x
I dx Wqn x x dx
dx


=
} }
( ) ( )
( )
0
L
DS g GS T
dv x
W
I C V V v x x dx
L dx
= (
}
| |
( )
| |
( )
_
0
_
0
GS T
GS T
DS
GS T
V
DS Lin g GS T
V V
DS Sat g GS T
V V v
V V v
W
I C V V v dv
L
W
I C V V v dv
L

}
}
Deriving the expressions for charge density dependent mobility
53
| |
( )
| |
( )
_
0
_
0
GS T
GS T
DS
GS T
V
DS Lin g GS T
V V
DS Sat g GS T
V V v
V V v
W
I C V V v dv
L
W
I C V V v dv
L

}
}
( ) | |
0
N
n
GS T n GS T
n
V V v V V v
=
=

( ) ( )
2 2
_
0
2
N
n n
n
DS Lin g GS T GD T
n
W
I C V V V V
L n
+ +
=
(
=

+

( )
2
_
0
2
N
n
n
DS sat g GS T
n
W
I C V V
L n
+
=
=
+

By making the best fit one finds:


1. Density dependent mobility
2. Threshold voltage (+-)
This procedure does NOT
assume a given DOS
Shape
(i.e. general procedure)
54
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
0.1 1 10
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2
v
-
1
s
-
1
)
|V
G
-V
T
-V(y)|
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2
S
o
u
r
c
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
n
A
)
Gate-Source Bias (V)
-1
-2
-4
-8
-1
-2
-4
-8
-3
2
( )
k
G T
y V V V
2k=0.850.1
=0.73-1.17 exp
1.65 kT kT
o o
k
| |

|

\ .
o 5kT=130meV
V
DS
V
DS
55
Einstein relation is larger then 1 and
depends on the charge density
Accounting for it:

1. Charge Density can not
exceed the DOS

2. Channel depth does not
go below 1-2 monolayer
To evaluate charge density:
transfer Vg to density in cm
-2
and then to cm
-3
It is too fundamental to be ignored!
kT kT q
Simple to implement
V
G
-V
T
( ) N q
1 q
10
15
10
16
10
17
10
18
10
19
10
20
10
21
0.1
1
10
100
0 5 10 15 20
C
h
a
r
g
e

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
c
m
-
3
)
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

D
e
p
t
h


(
n
m
)
V
G
-V
T
( ) N q
1 q
10
15
10
16
10
17
10
18
10
19
10
20
10
21
0.1
1
10
100
0 5 10 15 20
C
h
a
r
g
e

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
c
m
-
3
)
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

D
e
p
t
h


(
n
m
)
10
15
10
16
10
17
10
18
10
19
10
20
10
21
0.1
1
10
100
0 5 10 15 20
C
h
a
r
g
e

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
c
m
-
3
)
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

D
e
p
t
h


(
n
m
)
56
E
C
E
V
E
F
E
C
E
V
Intrinsic
Gate
Voltage
Threshold Voltage
57
E
C
E
V
E
F
E
C
E
V
Intrinsic
E
F
V
G

Gate
Voltage
Linear
Threshold Voltage
58
E
C
E
V
E
F
E
C
E
V
Intrinsic
E
F
V
G

Gate
Voltage
Linear
Sub-
Threshold
Threshold Voltage disordered material
59
Models for Contact injection:
[1] V. I. Arkhipov, E. V. Emelianova, Y. H. Tak, and H. Bassler, "Charge injection into light-emitting
diodes: Theory and experiment," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 84, pp. 848-856, 1998.
[2] V. I. Arkhipov, U. Wolf, and H. Bassler, "Current injection from metal to disordered hopping
system. II. Comparison between analytic theory and simulation," Phys. Rev. B, vol. 59, pp.
7514-7520, 1999
[3] M. A. Baldo and S. R. Forrest, "Interface-limited injection in amorphous organic
semiconductors - art. no. 085201," Physical Review B, vol. 6408, pp. 5201-+, 2001.
[4] M. A. Baldo, Z. G. Soos, and S. R. Forrest, "Local order in amorphous organic molecular thin f
ilms," Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 347, pp. 297-303, 2001
[5] Y. Preezant and N. Tessler, "Self-consistent analysis of the contact phenomena in low-
mobility semiconductors," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, pp. 2059- 2064, 2003.
[6] Y. Preezant, Y. Roichman, and N. Tessler, "Amorphous Organic Devices - Degenerate
Semiconductors," J. Phys. Cond. Matt., vol. 14, pp. 99139924, 2002.
[7] Y. Roichman, Y. Preezant, and N. Tessler, "Analysis and modeling of organic devices," Physica
Status Solidi a-Applied Research, vol. 201, pp. 1246-1262, 2004
[8] J. C. Scott and G. G. Malliaras, "Charge injection and recombination at the metal-organic
interface," Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 299, pp. 115-119, 1999.
[9] T. van Woudenbergh, P. W. M. Blom, M. Vissenberg, and J. N. Huiberts, "Temperature
dependence of the charge injection in poly-dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene," Applied Physics
Letters, vol. 79, pp. 1697-1699, 2001
[10] J. H. Werner and H. H. Guttler, "Barrier Inhomogeneities at Schottky Contacts," Journal of Applied
Physics, vol. 69, pp. 1522-1533, 1991

60
Transport models
[1] W. D. Gill, "Drift mobilities in amorphous charge-transfer complexes of trinitrofluorenone and poly-n- vinylcarbazole,"
J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. 5033, 1972.
[2] M. Van der Auweraer, F. C. Deschryver, P. M. Borsenberger, and H. Bassler, "Disorder in Charge-Transport in
Doped Polymers," Advanced Materials, vol. 6, pp. 199-213, 1994.
[3] R. Richert, L. Pautmeier, and H. Bassler, "Diffusion and drift of charge-carriers in a random potential - deviation
from einstein law," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 63, pp. 547-550, 1989.
[4] V. I. Arkhipov, P. Heremans, E. V. Emelianova, G. J. Adriaenssens, and H. Bassler, "Weak-field carrier hopping in
disordered organic semiconductors: the effects of deep traps and partly filled density-of-states distribution,"
Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, vol. 14, pp. 9899-9911, 2002.
[5] M. Vissenberg and M. Matters, "Theory of the field-effect mobility in amorphous organic transistors," Physical
Review B, vol. 57, pp. 12964-12967, 1998.
[6] D. Monroe, "Hopping in Exponential Band Tails," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 54, pp. 146-149, 1985.
[7] H. Scher, M. F. Shlesinger, and J. T. Bendler, "TIME-SCALE INVARIANCE IN TRANSPORT AND RELAXATION,"
Physics Today, vol. 44, pp. 26-34, 1991.
[8] H. Scher and E. M. Montroll, "Anomalous transit-time dispersion in amorphous solids," Phys. Rev. B, vol. 12, pp.
24552477, 1975.
[9] E. M. Horsche, D. Haarer, and H. Scher, "Transition from dispersive to nondispersive transport: Photoconduction
of polyvinylcarbazole," Phys. Rev. B, vol. 35, pp. 1273-1280, 1987.
[10] Y. Roichman, Y. Preezant, and N. Tessler, "Analysis and modeling of organic devices," Physica Status Solidi a-
Applied Research, vol. 201, pp. 1246-1262, 2004.
[11] Y. Roichman and N. Tessler, "Generalized Einstein relation for disordered semiconductors - Implications for
device performance," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 80, pp. 1948-1950, 2002.
[12] Y. N. Gartstein and E. M. Conwell, "High-Field Hopping Mobility in Molecular-Systems with Spatially Correlated
Energetic Disorder," Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 245, pp. 351-358, 1995.
[13] H. C. F. Martens, P. W. M. Blom, and H. F. M. Schoo, "Comparative study of hole transport in poly(p- phenylene
vinylene) derivatives," Physical Review B, vol. 61, pp. 7489-7493, 2000
[14] S. V. Rakhmanova and E. M. Conwell, "Electric-field dependence of mobility in conjugated polymer films," Applied
Physics Letters, vol. 76, pp. 3822-3824, 2000
[15] R. A. Marcus, "Chemical + Electrochemical Electron-Transfer Theory," Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, vol.
15, pp. 155-&, 1964.
[16] R. A. Marcus, "Theory of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer .5. Comparison and Properties
of Electrochemical and Chemical Rate Constants," Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 67, pp. 853- &, 1963.
[17] D. Emin, "Small polarons," Phys. Today, vol. 35, pp. 34-40, 1982

61
Transport in FETs

[1] S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices. New York: Wiley, 1981.
[2] A. A. Muhammad, A. Dodabalapur, and M. R. Pinto, "A two-dimensional simulation of organic transistors," IEEE
trans. elect. dev., vol. 44, pp. 1332-1337, 1997.
[3] G. Horowitz, P. Lang, M. Mottaghi, and H. Aubin, "Extracting parameters from the current-voltage
characteristics of field-effect transistors," Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 14, pp. 1069-1074, 2004.
[4] G. Horowitz, M. E. Hajlaoui, and R. Hajlaoui, "Temperature and gate voltage dependence of hole mobility in
polycrystalline oligothiophene thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, pp. 4456-4463, 2000.
[5] Y. Roichman and N. Tessler, "Structures of polymer field-effect transistor: Experimental and numerical
analyses," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 80, pp. 151-153, 2002.
[6] Y. Roichman, Y. Preezant, and N. Tessler, "Analysis and modeling of organic devices," Physica Status Solidi a-
Applied Research, vol. 201, pp. 1246-1262, 2004.
[7] S. Shaked, S. Tal, Y. Roichman, A. Razin, S. Xiao, Y. Eichen, and N. Tessler, "Charge density and film
morphology dependence of charge mobility in polymer field-effect transistors," Advanced Materials, vol. 15, pp.
913-+, 2003.
[8] N. Tessler and Y. Roichman, "Two-dimensional simulation of polymer field-effect transistor," Applied Physics
Letters, vol. 79, pp. 2987-2989, 2001.
[9] L. Burgi, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, "Formation of the accumulation layer in polymer field-effect
transistors," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, pp. 1482-1484, 2003.
[10] L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, "Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,"
Applied Physics Letters, vol. 80, pp. 2913-2915, 2002.
[11] S. Scheinert and G. Paasch, "Fabrication and analysis of polymer field-effect transistors," Physica Status Solidi
a-Applied Research, vol. 201, pp. 1263-1301, 2004.
[12] E. J. Meijer, C. Tanase, P. W. M. Blom, E. van Veenendaal, B. H. Huisman, D. M. de Leeuw, and T. M.
Klapwijk, "Switch-on voltage in disordered organic field-effect transistors," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 80, pp.
3838-3840, 2002.
[13] C. Tanase, E. J. Meijer, P. W. M. Blom, and D. M. de Leeuw, "Unification of the hole transport in polymeric
field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes," Physical Review Letters, vol. 91, pp. 216601, 2003.
[14] G. Paasch and S. Scheinert, "Scaling organic transistors: materials and design," Materials Science-Poland, vol.
22, pp. 423-434, 2004

62
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
0.1 1 10
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2
v
-
1
s
-
1
)
|V
G
-V
T
-V(y)|
-1
-2
-4
-8
-3
2
( )
G T
y P V V V
=0.73-1.17 exp
1.65 kT kT
o o
k
| |

|

\ .
2k=0.850.1
o5kT=130meV
V
DS
k
P
Our Model (for low field limit):
In FETs:
It is very important to measure
down to very low charge density
AND not force a single power law
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
0.1 1 10
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2
v
-
1
s
-
1
)
|V
G
-V
T
-V(y)|
0.85 --> o=5kT
0.4 --> o=3.3kT
63
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
E

Q*
A system that is made of two identical molecules
As the molecules are identical it will be symmetric (charge on 1 is
equivalent to charge on 2)
W
a
A B A B
Reactants
Products
(Room Temperature)
64
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
E

Q
A system that is made of two identical molecules
At low temperature the probability to acquire enough energy to
bring the two molecules to the top of the barrier is VERY low.
In this case the electron may be exchanged at non-ideal
configuration of the atoms or in other words there would be
tunneling in the atoms configuration (atoms tunnel!).
W
a
A B A B
Would the electron transfer rate still follow exp(-qWa/kT)
(Low Temperature)
65
( )
transit
Channel
t
L W Q
time
e Ch
I

= =
arg #
DS
DS
transit
V
L
L
V
L
E
L
v
L
t

2
= = = =
( )
T G T G ins channel
V V V V C Q > = ;
( )
( )
DS T G ins
DS
T G ins
V V V C
L
W
I
V
L
L W V V C
I
=

=

2
( )
1
(

= =
T G ins
DS
DS
ON
V V C
L
W
I
V
R
G
S
D
Trans-Resistor = Transistor
Assumed channel depth is
negligible compared to insulator
thickness so that C=C
OX
(and V
DS

is small).
Assumed is constant
66
( )
DS T G ox DS
V V V C
L
W
I =
( )
1
(

= =
T G ox
DS
DS
ON
V V C
L
W
I
V
R
G
S
D
B
I
DS
V
DS
Vg
1
>V
T
Vg
2
>Vg
1
Vg
3
>Vg
2
Vg
4
>Vg
3
Trans-Resistor = Transistor
67
0V 0V
0V
0V - 3V
- 1.5V
0V - 5V 0V - 7V
Region with no charge where all voltage
beyond V
G
drops upon.
- 5V - 5V
- 5V
(a)
(b)
(c) (d)
- 5V
Gate
Source Drain
y
x
- 2.5V - 2.5V
68
( )
(

=
2
2
D
D T ox DS
V
V V Vg C
L
W
I
( )
T D
V Vg V < < 0
( ) | |
2
2
T ox DS
V Vg C
L
W
I =
( )
D T
V V Vg <
I
DS
V
DS
Vg>V
T
T D
V Vg V =
Ranges
Saturation