Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 122

Unit 4 : MULTIPLEXING AND

MULTIPLE - ACCESS
TECHNIQUES
1
Unit 4 : MULTIPLEXING AND
MULTIPLE - ACCESS TECHNIQUES
Syllabus Content (16HRS)
4.1 Explain multiplexing necessity & Types and multiple
access -1 Hr
4.2 Explain FDM, and TDM With diagram -1 Hr
4.3 FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy & Applications of
FDM -1 Hr
4.4 & 4.5 Calculate the number of signals that can be
transmitted in a Given channel using FDM and TDM
techniques. - 2 Hr

2
Unit 4 : MULTIPLEXING AND
MULTIPLE - ACCESS TECHNIQUES
4.6 TDM Digital Hierarchy Types of TDM - 1 Hr
4.7 Explain Statistical Time Division Multiplexing- 1
Hr
4.8 Explain the types of Multiple Access - FDMA,
TDMA -1 Hr
4.9 Describe the principle of spread-spectrum
communication -1 Hr
4.10 4.11 And distinguish between frequency
hopping & Direct-sequence system- 2Hr

3
Unit 4 : MULTIPLEXING AND
MULTIPLE - ACCESS TECHNIQUES
4.12 Explain CDMA -1 Hr
4.13 Compare the three major types of
Multiplexing -1 Hr
4.14 Compare the three major types of Multiple
access- 1 Hr
4.15 Explain synchronous Transmission and
Framing -1 Hr
4.16 Discuss the advantages of synchronous
communication -1 Hr


4
4.1 Explain multiplexing necessity &
Types and multiple access
5
Necessity of Multiplexing

It has been observed that most of the individual
data-communicating devices typically require
modest data rate. But, communication media
usually have much higher bandwidth. For
example, we can use coaxial cable, optical fiber,
microwave which has several mega bytes of
bandwidth and as a consequence the
communication media provide you much higher
bandwidth. On the other hand individual users
have lesser data to send.
6
Necessity of Multiplexing
And as a consequence, two communicating
stations do not utilize the full capacity of a data
link.
Another observation is that higher the data rate
the most cost effective is the transmission
facility. For example if the data rate is small then
the cost per byte or per kilo byte is more and if
the capacity is large say several Gigabytes then
the cost per byte or cost per kilo byte is much
less.
7
Necessity of Multiplexing
So, based on this observation it has been found
that we can use a technique known as
multiplexing.
Multiplexing is used in situations where the
transmitting media is having higher bandwidth,
but the signals have lower bandwidth. Hence
there is a possibility of sending number of
signals simultaneously over the same
transmitting media.


8
Necessity of Multiplexing
Essentially we are trying to share the channel
capacity or bandwidth of a particular media by
several signals by several users. That means we have
to utilize the channel capacity fully.
Multiplexing can be used to achieve following goals
To send a large number of signals simultaneously.
To reduce the cost of transmission
To make effective use of the available bandwidth
9
Types of Multiplexing
Multiplexing may be defined as a technique which
allows many users to share a common
communication channel simultaneously.
TYPES OF MULTIPLEXING
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Wave length Division Multiplexing
Time Division Multiplexing
i) Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
ii) Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexing or
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
10
Multiple access
Multiple Access: - Multiple Access is the method
in which a transmission medium is access by
different users by sharing the resources of the
medium. A transmission channel could be
wireless or wired channel. User can shares the
bandwidth, time or power capacity of these
channels transmitting the signals trough them.
Types of Multiple Access: - FDMA,TDMA,CDMA

11
4.2 Explain FDM, and TDM With diagram

12
Frequency Division Multiplexing
13
In frequency division multiplexing, the available bandwidth
of a single physical medium is subdivided into several
independent frequency channels. Independent message
signals are translated into different frequency bands using
modulation techniques, which are combined by a linear
summing circuit in the multiplexer, to a composite signal.
The resulting signal is then transmitted along the single
channel by electromagnetic means as shown in figure.
Frequency Division Multiplexing
14
The carriers used to modulate the individual message signals are
called sub-carriers, shown as f1, f2, , fn in above Fig.
Frequency Division Multiplexing
15
Frequency Division Multiplexing
At the receiving end the signal is applied to a
bank of band-pass filters, which separates
individual frequency channels. The band pass
filter outputs are then demodulated and
distributed to different output channels as
shown in above Fig.(FDM Demultiplexing
process)
16
Frequency Division Multiplexing
17
If the channels are very close to one other, it leads to
inter-channel cross talk. Channels must be separated
by strips of unused bandwidth to prevent inter-channel
cross talk. These unused channels between each
successive channel are known as guard bands as
shown in Fig.
Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDM can be used with analog signals. A number of signals
carried simultaneously on the same communication channel
by allocating to each signal a different frequency band.
FDM are commonly used in radio broadcasts and TV
networks.
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is conceptually same
as the FDM, except that the multiplexing and demultiplexing
involves light signals transmitted through fiber-optic channels.
WDM is a process in which different sources of information
(channels) are propagated down an optical fiber on different
wavelengths where the different wavelengths do not interfere
with each other.




18
Time Division Multiplexing
In frequency division multiplexing, all signals
operate at the same time with different
frequencies, but in Time-division multiplexing all
signals operate with same frequency at different
times.
This is a base band transmission system, where
an electronic commutator sequentially samples
all data source and combines them to form a
composite base band signal.
19
Time Division Multiplexing
Now this composite base band signal travels
through the media and is being demultiplexed
into appropriate independent message signals
by the corresponding commutator at the
receiving end.
The incoming data from each source are briefly
buffered. Each buffer is typically one bit or one
character in length.
20
Time Division Multiplexing
The buffers are scanned sequentially to form a
composite data stream.
The scan operation is sufficiently rapid so that
each buffer is emptied before more data can
arrive.
The composite signal can be transmitted directly
or through a modem
The multiplexing operation is shown in Fig.
21
Time Division Multiplexing
22
As shown in the Figure the composite signal has some
dead space between the successive sampled pulses,
which is essential to prevent inter-channel cross talks.
Time Division Multiplexing
Along with the sampled pulses, one
synchronizing pulse is sent in each cycle. These
data pulses along with the control information
form a frame.
Each of these frames contain a cycle of time
slots and in each frame, one or more slots are
dedicated to each data source.
The maximum bandwidth (data rate) of a TDM
system should be at least equal to the same
data rate of the sources.

23
Time Division Multiplexing
TDM is called synchronous mainly because
each time slot is preassigned to a fixed source.
The time slots are transmitted irrespective of
whether the sources have any data to send or
not. Hence, for the sake of simplicity of
implementation, channel capacity is wasted.
Both multiplexing and demultiplexing
operation for synchronous TDM are shown in
figure below.
24
Time Division Multiplexing
25
Time Division Multiplexing
TDM (also known as synchronous time
division multiplexing)-TDM can be used with
digital signals or analog signals carrying digital
data. In TDM, data from various sources are
carried in respective frames. Each frame
consists of a set of time slots, and each source
is assigned a time slot per frame.


26
4.3.FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy &
Applications of FDM
27
FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy
For better utilization of the infrastructure,
analog signals are multiplexed to provide lines
of higher bandwidth.
FDM is used to combine many lines into fewer
lines in a hierarchical manner. The hierarchical
system used by AT&T comprises of groups,
super groups, master groups and jumbo
groups.
28
FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy

29
FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy
In FDM AT&T analog hierarchy,12 voice
channels (each of 4KHz ) are multiplexed onto
a higher bandwidth line to form a group. A group
has 48KHz(12X4KHz) of bandwidth and
supports 12 voice channels.
At the next level, five such groups can be
multiplexed to form a Supergroup. A super group
has bandwidth of 240 KHz (5X48KHz) and
supports 60 voice channels.
30
FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy
At the next level, 10 supergroups are
multiplexed to create a master group. A master
group must have 240MHz of bandwidth, but
need of guard bands between the supergroups
increases the necessary bandwidth to 2.52MHz.
A master group supports up to 600 voice
channels.
31
FDM AT&T ANALOG Hierarchy
Finally, six master groups can be combined into
a jumbo group. A jumbo group must have
15.12MHz of bandwidth, but it is increased to
16.984MHz to allow for guard bands between
the master. A jumbo group supports up to 3600
voice channels.


32
Applications of FDM
FDM are commonly used in radio broadcasts Cable
TV and TV networks.
The cable TV providers give one cable, one coaxial
cable to the premise connected to the TV. That one
coaxial cable apparently is carrying a number of
channels, may be hundreds of channels these days.
What is done once again is that, all the frequencies,
which can travel down this cable, are broken into a
number of logical channels and each channel is
dedicated to one particular station .That is how we
carry multiple video channels on a single cable.

33
4.4. & 4.5. Calculate the number of
signals that can be transmitted in a
given channel using FDM and TDM
techniques.
34
Number of signals that can be transmitted
in a given channel using TDM techniques
-T1 system
Let us consider TDM-PCM T1 system developed
by Bell Telephone laboratory for transmitting
telephone signals by high speed digital
transmission link.
The T1 system multiplexes 24 voice channels
onto a single line using TDM techniques. Each
voice signal is sampled at 8KHz that is sampled
every 125 S (i.e.; sampling interval=1/8KHZ= 125
S )


35
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
TDM techniques-T1 system
These samples are then converted to serial
digital words by Analog to Digital converter and
then transmitted one after another sequentially.
Each sample is an 8 bit word where 7 bits of
magnitude and 1 bit of supervisory purposes.
As there are 8 bits/Channel(sample) and since
24 channels are multiplexed total number of bits
can be given as,
Total number of bits= 24X8=192 bits
36
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
TDM techniques-T1 system
One additional bit is then added to this train of
pulses for maintaining synchronization between
transmitter and receiver. Hence this pulse is
known as Synchronizing pulse and it is also
known as Framing bit. Framing bit is added at
the beginning of each frame. Thus one frame
has a total of 193 bits.
Total number of bits/ frame = 193 ,
Sampling rate=8KHz ,
then the actual data rate = 1.544Mbps(193X8)
37
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
TDM techniques-T1 telephone system
38
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
TDM techniques
Q. Calculate the maximum number of messages, each
of bandwidth 4KHz which can be transmitted using
binary PCM-TDM system with 256 quantum levels and
pulse allocation width of 0.625 S. ?
Ans:- With 256 quantization levels used, the number of
pulses used in one group ,P, is given by
P=log
2
(No. of levels)=log
2
(256) =8
each pulse has a pulse duration of 0.625 S.
Time for each pulse group = (0.625 S)8 =5 S.
Message bandwidth =4KHz, then sampling frequency (using
Nyquist criteria) = 2X4KHz=8KHz.
39
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
TDM techniques
Sampling interval(time period between two samples)
= 1/sampling frequency = 1/8KHz = 1/(8x10
3
) =125 S.
Hence total number of message can be transmitted
= 125 S/5 S= 25.
Here each code group is using 8 pulse, actually 7
pulses are used for coding and the 8
th
one is reserved
for synchronization. Similarly out of 25 message which
could be transmitted, one is used signalling and frame
synchronization.
40
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
FDM techniques
Q. Five channels, each with a 100-kHz bandwidth, are
to be multiplexed together. What is the minimum
bandwidth of the link if there is a need for a guard band
of 10 kHz between the channels to prevent interference?
Ans:- For five channels, we need at least four guard
bands. This means that the required bandwidth is at
least
=(5 100) + (4 10) = 540 kHz,
as shown in Figure below
41
Number of signals that can be
transmitted in a given channel using
FDM techniques


42
4.6 TDM Digital Hierarchy Types of TDM
43
TDM Digital Hierarchy
Telephone companies implemented TDM
through a hierarchy of digital signal called DS
service. The figure shows TDM digital hierarchy.
A DS-0 service is a single digital channel of
64Kbps.
DS-1 is a 1.5444Mbps service. It can be used to
multiplexed 24DS-0 channels.1.544Mbps is 24
times 64 Kbps plus 8 Kbps of overhead.
44
TDM Digital Hierarchy
45
TDM Digital Hierarchy
DS-2 is a 6.312 Mbps service. It can be used to
multiplexed 4 DS-1 channels(or 96 DS-0
channels). 6.312Mbps is 96 times 64 Kbps plus 168
Kbps of overhead.
DS-3 is a 44.376 Mbps service. It can be used to
multiplexed 7 DS-2 channels(or 28 DS-1 channels
or 672 DS-0 channel ). 6.312Mbps is 672 times 64
Kbps plus 1.368 Mbps of overhead.


46
TDM Digital Hierarchy
DS-4 is a 274.176 Mbps service. It can be used to
multiplexed 6 DS-3 channels(or 42 DS-2 channels
or168 DS-1 channel or 4032 DS-0 channel ).
274.176 Mbps is 4032 times 64 Kbps plus 16.128
Mbps of overhead.
DS-0 , DS-1 etc are the names of service. To
implement these services telephone companies
use T-lines(T1 to T4). The capacities of T-lines
precisely match to data rates of DS lines.(see
table below)


47
TDM Digital Hierarchy
48
Types of TDM
Time Division Multiplexing can be classified as

i) Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing

ii) Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexing or
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
49
Types of TDM
Synchronous TDM is called synchronous mainly
because each time slot is preassigned to a fixed
source. The time slots are transmitted
irrespective of whether the sources have any
data to send or not. Hence, for the sake of
simplicity of implementation, channel capacity is
wasted.
50
4.7. Statistical TDM
51
Statistical TDM
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing :- One
drawback of the synchronous TDM approach, as
discussed earlier, is that many of the time slot in
the frame are wasted. It is because, if a
particular terminal has no data to transmit at
particular instant of time, an empty time slot will
be transmitted. An efficient alternative to this
synchronous TDM is statistical TDM, This is also
called asynchronous TDM or Intelligent TDM.
52
Statistical TDM
It dynamically allocates the time slots on
demand to separate input channels, thus saving
the channel capacity.
In statistical multiplexing, the number of slots in
each frame is less than the number of input
lines. The multiplexer check each input lines in
round robin fashion and it allocates a slot for
input lines , if the line has data to send;
otherwise it skips the line and check the next
line.


53
Statistical TDM
In case of statistical TDM, the data in each slot
must have an address part, which identifies the
source of data. Since data arrive from and are
distributed to I/O lines unpredictably, address
information is required to assure proper delivery.
This leads to more overhead per slot. Relative
addressing can be used to reduce overheads.
In case of statistical TDM there is no need of
synchronization bit at frame level.


54
Statistical TDM
In case of synchronous TDM synchronization
and preassigned relationship between input and
output serve as an address. In this case there is
a need of synchronization bit or framing bit.
The figure shows comparison between
synchronous TDM and statistical TDM
55
TDM slot comparison


56

4.8.Multiple Access
FDMA, TDMA
57
Multiple Access
FDMA, TDMA
Multiple Access: - Multiple Access is the method
in which a transmission medium is acess by
different users by sharing the resources of the
medium. A transmission channel could be
wireless or wired channel. User can shares the
bandwidth, time or power capacity of these
channels transmitting the signals trough them.
FDMA:- Frequency division multiple access
assigns an unique frequency band to each
users.


58
Frequency division multiple access
These channels are assigned on demand to
users who request service. During the period of
communication or call, no other user can share
the same channel
The Bandwidth of the FDM channels are
relatively narrow. That is FDMA uses a narrow
band channels and its inter-symbol interference
is low.
FDMA is a continuous transmission scheme,
such that synchronous bit or framing bits are not
required.

59
Frequency division multiple access
FDMA systems have higher cell site system cost
as compared to TDMA system. This is because
of FDMA system uses different carrier signaling
for different channel, use of more band pass
filters and also use of duplexers.
Advantages:- Simplest method that could be
implemented with conventional telephony.
(AMPS)
Disadvantages:-Inter modulation Distortion. Loss
of bandwidth due to guard band.


60
Time division multiple access
TDMA:- Time division multiple access technique
allows different users to share a transmission
medium using different time slots for
transmission that is in TDMA bandwidth is time
share. This method is suitable for digital signal.
Here time is divided into frames of equal
duration.
61
Time division multiple access
TDMA frame is the period during which each
user gets a chance to transmit data at least
once. Each user occupies a cyclic repeating time
slot, so a channel may be thought of a particular
time slot that reoccurs in every frame.TDM
system transmit data in a buffer and burst
method. The transmission of any users is non
continuous.




62
Time division multiple access
TDMA shares a single carrier frequency for
different users where each user makes use of
non overlapping time slots.
The no. of time slots per frame depends upon
available bandwidth and modulation technique
used.
Data transmission for users of TDMA system is
non continuous but occurs in a buffer and burst
method. This result in low battery consumption
and also hands off process is much simpler.




63
Time division multiple access
TDMA uses different time slots for transmission
and reception, thus duplexer are not required.
Even if FDD is used, a switch is required to
switch between transmitter and receiver using
TDMA.
TDMA has an advantage in that it is possible to
allocate different number of time slots per frame
to different users.




64

4.9.Principle of spread-spectrum
communication
65
Spread-spectrum
Spread spectrum is a modulation and
multiplexing technique that distributes a signals
and its side bands over a very wide band width.
This is also known as wideband modulation.
Spread spectrum multiple access uses signals
which have a transmission bandwidth much
greater than the minimum required bandwidth.
A pseudo-noise(PN) sequence converts
narrowband signal to wideband noise like
signals before transmission.

66
Spread-spectrum
Spread spectrum multiple access is not very
bandwidth efficient when used by single user.
However, since many user can share the same
spread spectrum bandwidth without interfering
with one another, spread specrum systems
become bandwidth efficient in a multiple user
environment.
Spread spectrum multiple access Provides
immunity to all multiple interference and robust
multiple access capability


67
Spread-spectrum
Spread spectrum is a means of transmission in
which the signal occupies a bandwidth in excess
of the minimum necessary to send the
information; the band spread is accomplished by
means of a PN code which is independent of the
data, and a synchronized reception with the
code at the receiver is used for de-spreading
and subsequent data recovery.
68

4.10 & 4.11. Distinguish between frequency
hopping & Direct-sequence system-
69
Frequency hopping & Direct-
sequence system-
There are two main types of SSMA :

Frequency hopped multiple access(FHMA)

Direct sequence multiple access(DSMA)
70
Frequency Hopping
Frequency hopping multiple access is a digital
multiple access system in which carrier
frequency of individual users are varied in a
pseudorandom fashions (predetermined
sequence) within in a wide band channel.
It causes the carrier to hop from frequency to
frequency over a wide band according to a
sequence defined by the PN code.
Frequency hopped signal changes channel at
rapid intervals.



71
Frequency Hopping
Provides a level of security when a large number
of channels are used.
FHMA allows multiple user to simultaneously
occupy the same spectrum at the same time is
shown in figure below



72
Frequency Hopping

73
Frequency Hopping
In a FH transmitter:
The digital data is broken into uniform sized
bursts which are transmitted on different carrier
frequencies.
The instantaneous bandwidth of any one
transmission burst is much smaller than the
total spread bandwidth.




74
Frequency Hopping
The pseudorandom change of the carrier
frequencies of the user randomizes the
occupancy of a specific channel at any
given time.
In FH receiver:
A locally generated PN code is used to
synchronize the receivers instantaneous
frequency with that of the transmitter.

75
Frequency Hopping
At any given point in time, a frequency
hopped signal only occupies a single, relatively
narrow channel.
FHMA systems often employ energy efficient
constant envelope modulation.
Linearity is not an issue, and the power of
multiple users at the receiver does not
degrade FHMA performance.


76
Direct sequence Spread Spectrum
In Direct sequence spread spectrum the serial
binary data is mixed with a higher frequency
pseudorandom binary code at a faster rate
and result is used to phase modulated carrier.
Direct sequence multiple access is also called
CDMA.
77
Distinguish between frequency
hopping & Direct-sequence
system
Parameters DS FH
Bandwidth PN sequence clock rate
or chip rate
The tuning range of
frequencies
Synchronization Very critical Less critical
Spectrum Very wide narrow
Near-far problem More likely to occur Less likely to occur
78
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
FHSS :In FHSS systems, the two modulation
processes are as follows:
The original message modulates the carrier,
thus generating a narrow band signal.
The frequency of the carrier is periodically
modified (hopped) following a specific
spreading code.(In FHSS systems, the
spreading code is a list of frequencies to be
used for the carrier signal).


79
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
The amount of time spent on each hop is
known as dwell time.
Redundancy is achieved in FHSS systems by
the possibility to execute re-transmissions on
frequencies (hops) not affected by noise.
DSSS:- In DSSS systems, the two modulation
processes are as follows
80
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
The original message is modulated by the
spreading code. In DSSS systems, the
spreading code is a sequence of bits (known
as chips), and the first modulation step is a
XOR operation executed between the message
and the spreading code (process known as
"chipping"). The result of the first modulation
step is that a "0" bit of message is converted
into a chip sequence representing the "0" bit.
81
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
"1" bit of message is converted into another
chip sequence, representing the "1" bit.
Instead of transmitting the original message
bit, a chip sequence representing the bit will
be transmitted.
The sequences representing the message bits
modulate the carrier signal.


82
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
Redundancy is achieved in DSSS systems by
the presence of the message bit on each chip
of the spreading code. Even if some of the
chips of the spreading code are affected by
noise, the receiver may recognize the
sequence and take a correct decision
regarding the received message bit.


83
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
Noise and Interference Immunity
The issue: Capacity of the system to operate
without errors when other radio signals are
present in the same band.
FHSS systems operate with SNR (Signal to
Noise Ratio) of about 18 dB.
DSSS systems, because of the more effective
modulation technique used (PSK), can operate
with SNR as low as 12 dB.

84
Distinguish between frequency hopping
& Direct-sequence system
Near / Far problem
The issue: The problems generated in DSSS
systems by transmitters located close to
receivers of other systems are known as Near /
Far problems. The interfering signals described
above may be generated for example by the
transmitter of one system (System A) located
close to the receiver of a different system
(system B).
85
4.12 Explain CDMA -1 Hr



86
CDMA
CDMA:-Code division multiple access is a
technique in which user can use entire
bandwidth all the time. This is achieved by
combining the data with a PN code (Pseudo
Noise) at higher rate than the data rate. Thus
using available spectrum fully since PN
modulation spreads the signal spectrum. This is
also known as Spread Spectrum multiple
access.
87
CDMA
The spreading signal is a pseudo-noise code
sequence that has a chip rate which is orders of
magnitudes greater than the data rate of the
message.
All users in CDMA system, use the same carrier
frequency and may transmit simultaneously.
In CDMA, the narrowband message signal is
multiplied by a very large bandwidth signal
called the spreading signal.
88
CDMA
Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword
which is approximately orthogonal to all other
code words.
The receiver performs a time correlation
operation to detect only the specific desired
codeword.
The near-far problem
when many mobile users share the same
channel, the strongest received mobile signal
will capture the demodulator at a base station
89
CDMA
In CDMA, stronger received signal levels raise the noise
floors at the base station demodulators for the weaker
signals, thereby decreasing the probability that weaker
signals will be received.
Solution: power control
Power control is provided by each base station in a
cellular system and assures that each mobile within the
base station coverage area provides the same signal
level to the base station receiver. This solves the
problem of a near by subscriber over powering the base
station
90
CDMA

CDMA has a soft capacity. Increasing the number of
users in a CDMA system raises the noise floor in a
linear manner.
Multipath fading may be substantially reduced, because
the signal is spread over a large bandwidth
91

4.13 Compare the three major types of
Multiplexing
92
TDM Vs FDM
Time Division Multiplexing
1.It is a technique for transmitting several massages on
one channel by dividing time domain slots. One slot for
each massage.
2. It requires commutator at the transmitting end and a
distributor, working in perfect synchronization with
commutator at the receiving end.
3. perfect synchronization b/w transmitter and receiver is
required.
4. crosstalk problem is not severe in TDM .
5. It is usually preferred for digital signal transmission.
6. It does not require very complex circuitry
93
TDM Vs FDM
In FDM technique to transmit several messages on one
channel, message signals are distributed in frequency
spectrum such that they do not overlap.
FDM requires modulator, filters and demodulators.
Synchronization b/w transmitter and receiver is not
required.
FDM suffers from crosstalk problem due to imperfect
bandpass filter.
It is usually pre ferred for analog signal transmission.
It requires complex circuitry at transmitter and reciver.


94
FDM Vs WDM
Wave-division multiplexing (WDM) is
conceptually the same as FDM, except that
the multiplexing and demultiplexing involves
light signals transmitted through fiber-optics
channels. The idea is same that is combining
different frequency signals. However, the
difference is that the frequencies are very
high.
95
4.14 Compare the three major types of
Multiple access

96
Comparison of FDMA, TDMA,
CDMA
Feature FDMA TDMA CDMA
High carrier
frequency stability
Required Not necessary Not necessary
Timing/synchroni
zation
Not required Required Required
Near-far problem No No Yes,power control
tech.
Variable
transmission rate
Difficult Easy Easy
Fading mitigation Equalizer not
needed
Equalizer may be
needed
RAKE receiver
possible
Power monitoring Difficult Easy Easy
Zone size Any size Any size Large size difficult
97
4.15 Explain synchronous Transmission
and Framing


98
Synchronous Transmission
and Framing
Synchronous Transmission:- In Synchronous
Transmission start and stop bits are not used.
Characters are sent in groups called blocks and special
synchronization characters (pre-determined group of
bits) are also can be send along with the blocks to
achieved the synchronization between transmitter and
receiver.
Synchronous Transmission is used in high speed data
transmission e.g.; Ethernet ,token Ring.
Synchronous Transmission is more efficient and but
expensive to implement.


99
Synchronous Transmission
and Framing
To ensure that the receiver correctly reads the incoming
bits, i.e., knows the incoming bit boundaries to interpret a
1 and a 0, a known bit pattern is used between the
frames.
The receiver looks for the anticipated bit and starts
counting bits till the end of the frame.
Then it starts over again with the reception of another
known bit.
These bits (or bit patterns) are called synchronization
bit(s) or Farming bits (end of a frame)
They are part of the overhead of transmission.



100
Framing bits
101
4.16 Discuss the advantages of
synchronous communication -
102
Advantages of synchronous
communication
Synchronous Transmission is used in high speed data
transmission e.g.; Ethernet ,token Ring.
Synchronous Transmission is more efficient, that is
overhead is less in compare to Asynchronous
Transmission.
It can also perform error detection as transmitter and
receiver are synchronized with each other.
103
QUIZ
In FDM hierarchy total no of channels in
Master group are
a) 12
b) 600
c) 60
d) 100


104
QUIZ
In synchronous TDM time slot are ---------
a) plenty
b) wasted
c) utilized fully
d) none

105
QUIZ
Asynchronous TDM time slots are ------
a) plenty
b) wasted
c) utilized fully
d) none

106
QUIZ
10 In North american hierarchy no of
channels the basic group contains ---
a) 12
b) 24
c) 30
d) 50

107
QUIZ
A multiplexing technique where time slots
are allocated on demand basis is ----
a ) TDM
b) Svnchronous TDM
c ) Asynchronous TDM
d ) SDM

108
QUIZ
14 A multiplexing system where signals are
separated on frequency slots but jumbled
together in time domain is ---------
a ) FDM
b) TDM
c ) WDM
d ) SDM

109
QUIZ
16 An example for FDM is
a) Telephone system
b) Cable TV System
c) RADAR
d ) none

110
QUIZ
15 A multiplexing system where signals are
separated on Time slots but jumbled
together in frequency domain is ---------
a ) FDM
b) TDM
c ) WDM
d ) SDM

111
QUIZ
17 An example for TDM is
a) Telephone system
b) Cable TV System
c) RADAR
d ) none

112
QUIZ
19 Frequency assignment multiple access is
represented as
a) TDMA
b) FDMA
c) CDMA
d) FAMA

113
QUIZ
Spread spectrum technology is used in ------
---
a) TDMA
b) FDMA
c) CDMA
d) FAMA

114
QUIZ
Frequency Division multiple access is
represented as
a) TDMA
b) FDMA
c) CDMA
d) FAMA

115
QUIZ
Time Division multiple access is
represented as
a) TDMA
b) FDMA
c) CDMA
d) FAMA

116
Review Question
In what situation multiplexing is used?
Ans:- Multiplexing is used in situations where the
transmitting media is having higher bandwidth, but the
signals have lower bandwidth. Hence there is a
possibility of sending no of signals simultaneously.
Multiplexing can be used to achieve following goals
To send a large number of signals simultaneously.
To reduce the cost of transmission
To make effective use of the available bandwidth
117
Review Question
Q. Why sync pulse is required in TDM?
Ans: In TDM, in each frame time slots are pre-assigned
and are fixed for each input sources. In order to
identify the beginning of each frame, a sync pulse is
added at the beginning of every frame.

118
Review Question
Q. How is the wastage of bandwidth in TDM is
overcome by Statistical TDM?
Ans: It dynamically allocates the time slots on demand to
separate input channels, thus saving the channel
capacity. As with Synchronous TDM, statistical
multiplexers also have many I/O lines with buffer
associated to each of them. During the input, the
multiplexer scan the input buffers, collecting data untill
the frame is filled and send the frame.At the receiving
end, the demultiplexer receive the frame and distributes
the data to the appropriate buffers.
In case of statistical TDM, the data in each slot must
have an address part, which identify the sorce of data.
119
Review Question
Q. Why guard bands are used in FDM?
Ans: In FDM, a number of signals are sent
simultaneously on the same medium by allocating
separate frequency band or channel to each signal.
Guard bands are used to avoid interference between two
successive channels.

120
Review questions

Compare between FDMA and FDM?
Compare between FDM,TDM?
Compare FDMA,TDMA and CDMA ?
What do you mean by multiple access? Explain
FDMA,TDMA, CDMA ?
Explain the use TDM in telephony and its digital
hierarchy?
121
References
Data Communications and Networking By
Behrouz A.Forouzan
Wireless Communications Principles and
Practice Theodore S.Rappaport,
Data communication nptel lectures and Notes.
122