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Indian Institute of Technology

By C.Sneha (ME12B1011)
What is ECG?
Why is ECG used?

-to check how well medicines are working and whether they are causing
side effects that affect the heart.
-to check the health of the heart when other diseases or conditions are
present such as high B.P., high cholestrol, diabetes, etc..
-to assess if the patient has had a heart attack or evidence of a previous
heart attack.
-to observe the effects of medicines used for coronary heart disease.
-to see if there are too few minerals in the blood.
-to diagnose poor blood flow to the heart, heart attack and abnormalities of
the heart.
A technique of recording bioelectric currents generated by the heart.
It records any problems with the hearts rhythm, and the conduction of the heart beat
through the heart which may be affected by underlying heart disease.
How does an ECG machine detect
the bodys electrical signals?
Up to 12 self-adhesive electrodes will be attached to the selected locations on the
skin(limbs and chest).
At rest, across the cell membrane,each heart muscle has a negative charge, called the
membrane potential.
Decreasing this negative charge towards zero, via influx of the +ve cations, Na+ and
Ca++,is called depolarisation, which activates the mechanisms in the cell that cause it to
A healthy heart will have an orderly progression of a wave of depolarisation,during each
heart beat.
This is detected as tiny rises and falls in the voltage between two electrodes placed on
either side of the heart which is displayed as a wavy line either on a screen or on paper.
This display indicates the overall rhythm of the heart and weaknesses in different parts of
the heart muscle.
ECG characteristics:
-The ECG signal consists of low amplitude voltages in the
presence of high amplitude offsets and noise.
-The large offsets present in the system are due to halfcell
potential developed at the electrodes.
-Ag/AgCl(Silver-silverchloride) is the common electrode used in
ECG systems and has a maximum offset voltage of +/- 300 mV.
-The actual desired signal is +/- 0.5 mV superimposed on the
electrode offset.
-In addition, the system also picks up the 50/60 Hz noise from the
power lines which forms the common mode signal.
-The amplitude of the power line noise may be very high . So, it
has to be filtered.
ECG acquisition:
-Analog front-end processing forms an important part of the ECG system
since it needs to distinguish noise and the desired signal which is of small
-The front end processing circuitry consists of an instrumentation amplifier
which reduces the common mode signal.
-Instrumentation amplifiers that operate on +/- 5V are commonly used to take
advantage of the large input voltage range.
-The instrumentation amplifiers should have high input impedance since the
skin resistance could be very large.
-Operational amplifiers are needed for signal conditioning for the ECG
-The signal chain for the acquisition system consists of instrumentation
amplifiers, filters implemented through op-amps, and ACD s.
ECG filtering:
Signal processing is a huge challenge since the actual
signal value will be 0.5 mV in offset environment of 300 mV.
Other factors like AC power supply interference, RF
interference from surgery equipment, and implanted
devices like pace makers and physiological monitoring
systems can also impact accuracy.
The main sources of noise in ECG are-
-Baseline wander(low frequency noise)
-Power line interference(50Hz or 60 Hz noise from power
-Muscle noise(this noise is very difficult to remove as it is in
the same region as the actual signal. It is usually
corrected in software).
-Other interference(i.e. radio frequency noise from other

Preprocessing ECG signals:
Helps us remove contaminants from the ECG signals.
ECG cantaminants can be classified as-
-power line interference
-electrode pop or contact noise
-patient electrode motion artifacts
-electromyographic(EMG) noise
-baseline wandering
The baseline wandering and other wideband
noises are not easy to be suppressed by hardware
equipments. Instead the software scheme is more
powerful and feasible for offline ECG signal processing.
You can use the following methods to remove baseline
wandering and other wideband noises.
the most
significant and
can strongly
affect ECG
signal analysis.
Removing wideband noise:
To remove the wideband noises you can use the wavelet denoise express VI.
The LabVIEW based higher level express VI decomposes the ECG signal into into
several subbands by applying the wavelet transform , and then modifies each wavelet
coefficient by applying a threshold or shrinkage function and finally reconstructs the
denoised signal.
ECG signal processing:
-It can be divided into two stages by functionality-
preprocessing and feature extraction.
-The preprocessing stage removes or suppresses noise
from the raw ECG signal and the feature extraction stage
extracts diagnostic information from the ECG signal.
Removing baseline wandering:
Baseline wandering usually comes from the respiration at frequencies
between 0.15 Hz and 0.3 Hz, and you can suppress it by a high pass filter.
Wavelet transform also can be used to remove baseline wandering by
eliminating the trend of the ECG signal.
Below figure shows the original ECG signal and the resulting ECG signals
processed by the digital filter-based and the wavelet transform based
The resulting ECG signals contain little baseline wandering information
but retain the main characteristics of the original ECG signal.
Wavelet transform based approach is better because this approach
introduces no latency and less distortions than the digital filter based