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Kamila Solihin 1394118 Tina Nguyen 1385167

Stella Nikiko 1369096 Yoonseo Lee 1369058


1. The globalization reader chapter 32: mass
schooling (Yoonseo)
2. Economist One Shot exam SK (Stella)
3. Economist Global Campus (Kamila)
4. Alternative View: Economists MOOCs (Tina)
5. Group Opinion
6. Discussion Questions

The Globalization Reader
About The Authors

Dr. David P. Baker is the Professor of
Education and Sociology at the Pennsylvania
State University. His research focuses on the
impact of education on individuals and
societies, international comparisons of
school organization, academic outcomes,
and educational policy. His most recent book
is National Differences, Global Similarities:
World Culture and the Future of Mass
Schooling, co-written with Gerald K.
LeTendre.
About The Authors

Dr. Gerald K. LeTendre, Professor of
Education and International Affairs, is chair of
the Educational Policy Studies Department at
The Pennsylvania State University. He is
also an associate editor of The American
Journal of Education. His most recent books
includes National Differences, Global
Similarities: World Culture and Current and
Future Institutional Trends in Mass
Schooling, co-written with David P. Baker.

Priority on passing on national uniqueness and heritage
& meeting technical needs of their labor market
Schooling would be limited to the nations need, and not
expand unless necessary
Hierarchal schooling: more resources allocated to the
best

However this is not the case.
Education as an institution has become a global enterprise:
people all over the world are being educated according to
the same patterns
Current image of national schooling:
would be organized in accordance to the nations
future welfare

Subplot One: The Worldwide
Success of Mass Schooling

The rise of state-sponsored mass schooling:
Public schooling which follows a singular model of education,
available to large masses of children.


In the past:
education was specialized;
reserved for the elite
Mass schooling -> Mass enrollment (primary and secondary) -> Mass literacy
-> Growth of Higher Education
Current model:
education available to the masses;
standardized
Subplot Two: Schooling is an
Institution

The spread of mass schooling is based on the idea that:
an academic education is beneficial to all children
all children should be educated
differences such as race, gender, religion, or language
should not be a barrier
it is in the nations interest to allow this to be achieved.

Education is an institution:
it may differ from nation to nation, but it is reflective of
certain ideas about what education is and how schools
should operate.
Conclusion
Schooling has become a global institution.
-> Reflective of a world culture?
December 17
th
2011
ROAD OF SUCCESS
(Korean Societys viewpoint)

HIGH SCORES IN EXAM
=
GET INTO THE BEST UNIVERSITIES
=
GET STABLE JOBS FROM THE
BEST COMPANIES
Suneung Siheom, or can be known as
Koreans SAT a test that final year high
school students have to take in order to be
admitted to any university.
it covers everything theyve
learned in high school.


9
HOURS
identifies the intelligent and
diligent, poor can rise to the
top by studying really hard!
MERISTOCRATIC
Both students and parents
pay attention to education!
BENEFITS
EDUCATION
=
ECONOMIC GROWTH
100 %
Parents want their
kids to go to
university

63%
People age 25-34 are
college graduates
(Poll by CLSA, highest in
OECD countries)

Economic growth since 1960,
last year increase by 6.2%
despite global slowdown.
South Korea a full sized country is
4
th
in OECDs scoring system after
big cities which are Shanghai,
Singapore, ad Hongkong.
Parents send their kids
for tutors and hagwon
to score better in thte
exam
DRAWBACKS
HELL IN HIGHSCHOOL
HIGH
SUICIDE
RATES
Education cost
> Job Income
COMPANY
Classes lasted
from 7 am -
4pm, then
study until
midnight in
library.
Study 7
days/week
Students are
less free to
pursue what
they really
want to do
SOCIAL PRESSURE:
NO DEGREE NO JOB
Age 15-24 years)
15/100.0000
Compared to 10
American, 7
Chinese, 5 Briton
A survey in
August
found that ,
four
months
after leaving
university
40% of
graduates x
find jobs.
In 2009,
202 people
tragically
commited to
suicide
Families in Seoul
spend 16% of their
income for private
tuition.
Chaebol only employ
10% of the workforce,
recruiting only from
prestigious university.
Pensioned off
Older people (even
though still have
much to offer)
Koreans are
dissatisfied with the
companies they
work at. Only 48%
feel they receive
suitable recognition,
Chinas worker 68%
Low birth rate:
(6 in 1960, 1.15 in 2009) No workforce for
future
WHY?
Unfriendly policy for women in workplace
After pregnancy :drop fast track or work long
inflexible hours (juggle between working and
raising kids
Education is expensive: hagwon/private
institutions, college entrance fee


Employee to hire non
graduates (high school
graduates) and give them
trainings.

Companies to accept not only
by merit background, but
also experience.

Limit hagwon fees and hours
(currently there are still
100,000 hagwon)
Young workers dont want to be chained in the same
desk for the next 30 years
Part time jobs instead of secure jobs (8% in 2000, 23%
in 2010)
Workers under 25 on temporary contract leapt from
ZERO to 28%.

Bright and less beholden to tradition Korean graduates
from abroad are challenging the system
Looked into market potential->start new business (Ex:
Richard Chois story)
Some locally educated Koreans also do the same (Ex:
Charles Pyo won a place at Yonsei because he set up
his own business)
Allow many routes to success
Korea is rich, so it can no longer grow fast by copying others. It cannot
remain dynamic with an aging, shrinking workforce. It cannot become
creative with a school system that stresses rote learning above thinking.
And its people cannot realize their full potential in a society where
they get only one shot at doing well in life, and it comes when they are
still teenagers. To remain what one writer called The Land of Miracles,
Korea will have to loosen up, and.
THE GLOBAL
CAMPUS
THE ECONOMIST JANUARY 20
TH
2011
POPULAR DESTINATIONS
FOR STUDYING ABROAD
America accounts for 19% of the worlds most mobile
students.

In France, most foreign students come from Europe or
former colonies in Africa.
MASSACHUSETTS
INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY
Receives large
research funds from
companies.

Founded more than
25,800 companies.

Staff and students
collaborate with
established firms.


Receives buckets of
cash from the
government and
private companies.

Funding for new
research initiatives.
Collaboration across
disciplines provoke
inventions.

[PROJECT #1]
nanoparticles that
destroy cancer cells.

[PROJECT #2] GM
viruses that saves
energy.
MIT GENERATES AND
SPREADS KNOWLEDGE
ADVICES
THE
WHITE HOUSE
POSTS
COURSE MATERIALS
ON THE INTERNET
PROMOTES
COLLABORATION
ACROSS
BORDERS
Internships abroad
for students.
Joint ventures.
China & India.
[AT HARVARD] hear a
range of views on appropriate
relationships between
governments, markets, and
citizens.

Students are exposed to
arguments FOR and
AGAINST democracy.

See problems associated with
quick election cycles and
extreme partisanship.
TRAINING STUDENTS FOR
POTENTIAL LEADERSHIP
RECRUIT FROM A GLOBAL POOL OF
TALENT
Alumni becomes part of a
global network.

17/20 of the worlds
leading universities are
American.

Enhances academic
firepower.
SAMUEL HUNTINGTON
Growing influence of
global elites
ALARMING.

Globocrats have little
need for national loyalty.

See national government
as relics whose useful
function is to facilitate the
elites global operations.

Alternative Views
Graduated from Columbia
University with a masters
in science of journalism
Previously a food critic for
New York Times

Government funding for public university is
going down while tuition fees are just getting
higher and higher. (Student Debt)
College is presented to us as a definite bridge
through the middle class.
The idea of college being a social mobility is
going down.
Although more kids are going to college, its
still not at the ideal state yet
Racial
Money and social class
High school rankings

massive open online courses
free education made available online
Through readings, videos, and problems
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/education/edlife/
massive-open-online-courses-are-multiplying-at-a-
rapid-pace.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-
culture/creating-content-many-access-mooc-
value-education-76008/#PSMag.com
Udacity
Coursera
edX
Advantage
Free/cheap (to an extent)
Pay for your master degrees or certificate of completion to show to
jobs
Go on your own pace
Disadvantage
Interaction with professors and other students
What about networking
Jobs going down for professors
Commitment from student to material
Technology based (what about people without
technology)
A real time great lecture motivates
Stella: Traditional Education as to receive a
higher education is important only that Im
not fond of the rote learning style that is
emphasized in Koreans education system.

Kamila: Receiving traditional education still
beats virtual education especially if students
are to learn the skills of becoming a global
leader.
Yoonseo: While globalization has made
education more widely available, I feel that
the current higher education system fails to
take into account certain inequalities and
therefore fails to be truly meritocratic.
MOOCs could be a possible solution as it
allows students to bypass this system.

Does the globalization of education diminish
inequality?

Is higher education (and Western education)
necessary in order to succeed?

Does Globalization really help bringing
education for everyone?