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Concepts of IPM

Hagus Tarno
Trends in expenditure on crop protection products (based on trade
prices) from 1960 to 2000 (Data from CountyNatWest WoodMac, 1992,
FAO 2002).
Estimation of the effect of crop protection on the yield of the eight
principal food and cash crops, 1988-1990 (After Oerke et al., 1993).
Concepts of Pest Management
Understanding the agricultural ecosystem
Planning the agricultural ecosystem
Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
Tolerance of Pest Damage
Leave of Pest Residue
Timing of Treatments
Public Understanding and Acceptance
Understanding the agricultural
Ecosystems are self-sufficient habitats where living
organisms and the non living environment interact to
exchange energy and matter in continuing cycle
Agricultural ecosystem contain less diversity of animal and
plant species than natural ecosystem such as forest
Agroecosystem is intensively manipulated by man
subjected to sudden alterations such as treatments with
Agroecosystem can be more susceptible to pest damage
and catastrophic outbreaks, because of the lack of diversity
in species of plants, species of insects and the sudden
alterations imposed by weather and man
Planning the agricultural ecosystem
It`s unfortunate that one would try to grow a
crop where that crop cannot be successfully
In insect pest management applied
agroecosystem planning should anticipate
pest problems and ways to avoid them
Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
In most agricultural pest control activities,
benefits usually are not known, they are usually
not measured and costs of prevention become
costs of production.
The use of insecticides when they are not needed
is contrary to the pest management philosophy.

Tolerance of Pest Damage
Quantitative studies of the degree of damage
versus reduction in crop yield are urgently
Tanspot (Drechslera tritici-repentis) in wheat: Disease-loss relationship
calculated from the sum of leafspots on the upper three leaves and yield
loss (Data from Wolf, 1991).
Practical use of disease prediction, dependent on crop specific tolerance
of infection.
Schematic description of the decision model IPM wheat model for an
optimum control of wheat diseases by minimized input of fungicides
(Modified after Ver-reet, 1995).
Decision scheme for threshold-oriented control of wheat diseases
according to the IPM wheat model in Germany (Modified after
Verreet and Klink, 2000).
Decision scheme for threshold-oriented control of barley
diseases according to the IPM barley model in Germany (Data after
Appel, 1996).
Fungicide strategy of the IPM wheat model (After Verreet and Klink,
Rhynchosporium secalis: Dependence of fungicide effects on the
incubation time determined by the sum of daily average C (Data
from Appel, 1996).
Decision scheme for the fungicide control of Rhynchosporium
secalis in barley based on threshold values and weather data
exceeded (After Appel, 1996).
Damage threshold
The damage boundary is the lowest level of
injury that can be measured. This level of injury
occurs before economic loss.

A basic IPM principle ensues from the damage
boundary/economic damage relationship; it is
that no injury level below the damage boundary
merits suppression, but injury predicted to
result in economic damage does.
Damage threshold
Damage threshold
Economic Injury Level
Another of the basic elements, the economic
injury level, is the lowest population density
that will cause economic damage. The EIL is
the most basic of the decision rules; it is a
theoretical value that, if actually attained by a
pest population, will result in economic

Therefore, the EIL is a measure against which
we evaluate the destructive status and potential
of a pest population.
Economic Injury Level
Economic Injury Level
Economic threshold
The economic threshold (ET) differs from the EIL
in that it is a practical or operational rule, rather
than a theoretical one. It is the population density
at which control action should be determined
(initiated) to prevent an increasing pest population
(injury) from reaching the economic injury level.

Although measured in insect density, the ET is
actually a time to take action, i.e., numbers are
simply an index of that time.

ET is the action threshold.
Economic threshold
Graphical representation of the interactions of the ecological and socioeconomic scales that
dene the regional characteristics of the scales of agricultural systems and levels of IPM
integration within the context of the ecological, socioeconomic, and agricultural scales.