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Electronics- deals with the design and

application of devices called electronic circuit, the

operation of which depends on the flow of electrons
for the generation, transmission, reception, and
storage of information.

The information can consist:
voice or music (audio signals) in a radio receiver
a picture on a television screen
or numbers and other data in a computer.

Electronic circuits provide different functions to process

amplification of weak signals to a usable level
generation of radio waves
extraction of information, such as the recovery of an
audio signal from a radio wave (demodulation)
control, such as the superimposition of an audio signal
onto radio waves (modulation)
logic operations, such as the electronic processes taking
place in computers

Electronics comes from the word electron hence its
application involves the control of electrons:
in a vacuum such as vacuum tubes,
in gas vapor such as plasma tv,
and, most importantly solid semiconductor materials

All applications in electronics are based on the fundamental
laws of Electricity.

Part One
Electricity is one
of the basic forms
of energy. Occurs in
two forms:
Static electricity
dynamic electricity
(electric current)
Electricity is associated with
electric charge:
It all start with the Atom:
Protons are intact inside
the nucleus
Electrons are
movable hence can
An unbalance number of electrons and protons causes an atom to be
electrically charge.
Electrons can be transferred from one body to another:

Negatively charge body has excess number of electrons while
Positively charge body has deficiency of electrons
Current net flow of charges per unit time
Alternating Current if current periodically reverses the direction in
which it is moving.
Direct Current it continuously flow in one direction.

Two Convention for Current flow:
Conventional Current Electron Flow
Voltage the one that cause charges to move. Work done per unit charge.
Potential Difference
Electromotive force (EMF)
To maintain a steady current, a device
is needed to provide a constant
difference in potential. This is
provided by electric cells or
An analogy to electric circuit. The boy
serves as the source that maintains the
difference in potential. He provides the
Electromotive force (EMF) working to
maintain the potential deference.
Conductors and Insulators:
Conductors are materials which serve as path of current. Good conductors of
electricity are materials with large number of free electrons.

Free electrons are the valence electrons found at the outer most shells of the
atom, usually metals under groups I, II, III of the periodic table such copper,
silver and aluminum. The electrons under these group tend to lose electrons for
such they called as free electrons.

Electrical Resistance The opposition to the flow of
Materials with little resistance to current are
conductors of electricity
while materials which great resistance to the
current are insulators. While material which
are neither a conductor nor an insulator are
Electricity become usable when basic components are present and are
connected together to form a circuit:

Voltage source
Conducting wires
Complete Circuit
Part Two
Electronic Components:

Passive Components - are those that do not have gain or directionality .
Includes resistors and capacitors

Active components - are those that have gain or directionality. Includes
semiconductor devices such diode and transistors
Resistors. One way of controlling the electron flow is by means of
electrons. A resistor is an electronic component made of materials with
resistive properties against the flow of electric current.
Value= 27,000 ohms 5% tolerance
Resistor Color Code:
Capacitors: is an electronic component that has the ability to store
electric charge.
Types: The name of the capacitor are taken from the types of materials which is used for insulating the plates.
1. Electrolytic
2. Mylar
3. Polysester
4. Air
5. Mica
6. Tantalum
7. Ceramic
8. Paper
Semiconductors materials (specifically solids) able to conduct
electricity more readily than an insulator, but less easily than a metal conductor.
The most common semiconductors are silicon and germanium. Both have four
electrons in their outermost shells. Small amount of impurity of other element
having three or five outermost electrons produces very useful material. The
process is called doping. This creates the two type of semiconductors N-type
and the P-type.
Pure crystal structure of
germanium and silicon
N-type Semiconductor P-type semiconductor
Semiconductor Diode simplest semiconductor device. It allows
current to pass trough it in only one direction. It is produced when a layer of P-type
crystal is closely bonded to a layer of N-type crystal. The P-type meets the N-type
across a narrow layer depleted of charge carriers known as depletion layer.
The arrowhead in the circuit symbol of a diode indicates the
direction conventional current.
+ -
+ -
Checking Diodes

Checking cont.
Sanwa Test has reverse polarity in ohmmeter reading
The Rectifier Diode
Diodes can provide one-way path for current. One major use of
diodes is to convert alternating current (ac) to direct current (dc). Diodes built
for this purpose are called rectifiers.
Full Wave
Task for Assembly:
Transistors it looks like two diodes joined back to back. It consist of three
layers of semiconductors.
Types: P-N-P and N-P-N

Uses of Transistors:

1. Control valve
2. Amplifier
3. Oscillator
4. Switch

Integrated Circuits
Microelectronic components consisting of
resistors, capacitors, diodes and transistors
used to form more or less complete circuits
for specific purpose.
Logic gates
Most circuits in the integrated circuits (Ics) for
computers and control instruments are made
of logic gates. Like the gate of fences or
pipelines, a logic gate controls flow. It allows
what is to be transferred, and blocks what
must be withheld.
Types of logic gates
AND gate
OR gate
NOT gate
AND gate
OR gate
NOT gate
NOR and NAND gate
Write the logic expression:
(S + T) T = V