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By: Janelle Yu

 Meaning of GROUP
 A group is composed of two or more people
who came into a more meaningful contact
for a purpose (Hebding and Glick, 1992)
 A group is also defined as people connected
in a network of social relationships guided by
set of norms.
 By Brinkerhoff, a group is consist of two o
more people who interact on the basis of a
social structure and recognize mutual
According to Joseph Fichter, a group is
characterized by the ff:
 A group has identity and it is identifiable to both
its members and outsiders.
 A group has social structure in the sense that each
pat o member has a position related to other
 Each member in a group has roles to play.
 There is mutual reciprocity among members in a
 A group has norms of behavior that influences the
way in which roles enacted.
A group has a purpose o a goal,
which are commonly based on
interest and values of each
Group activity is dieted towards
the attainment of goals.
A group has relative permanence,
a measurable duration over a
period of time.
 Aggregate
Are people waiting for a ride.
People are lined up to attend a movie show, o
 Category

Filipinos, Gays, dorm residents, poor people o
rich people.
Are the EL SHADDAI gatherings.
Mass demonstration, cheering and
chanting during basketball games
by fans rooting for their respective
teams, etc.
A group is a major source of
solidarity and cohesion.
A group reinforces and strengthens
our integration into society.
A group shares survival and problems
A group gives meaning and support
to an individual.
According to Cartwright and Zander, a group is
formed because of the ff:
The Desire to achieve an
To meet the needs of the
individual member.
People are treated alike by
Group is classified into two primary groups and
secondary group.
 Primary Group. The concept of primary group
was founded by Charles Norton.
He believed that primary groups are an
extremely important nit of organization, a
necessary pat of social life.
Personal and intimate relationship
Face to face communication
A strong sense of loyalty of “we” feelings
Small in size
Traditional o non-rational decision-
 Secondary group. By contrasts, secondary groups
are formal, large and impersonal.
 secondary groups are created for a clearly
defined limited purpose.
 Secondary groups are characterized by the ff:
• Large
• Relationship is personal and aloof
• Communication is indirect
• Duration is temporary
• Group cohesiveness is weak and are based on self
•Decisions are based
on nationality and
•Structure is formal
 People in groups create boundaries to
maintain a distinction between the “we” of
the group and “they” outside the group to
describe the “we” and the “they” feelings.
 William Graham,Summer,an early American
developed the concepts of”in group”
and”out group”.
Lesson 3 The Process of group
John doune once said that “no man
is an island” meaning to say that
man cannot live alone. He has to
seek the company of others. He has
to be with a group.
Process of group interaction
 There are three important processes of group interaction. These are
the ff:
 Cooperation. It is an interaction that occurs
when people work together to achieve
shared goals or promote common interest.
 Competition. It occurs when individuals or
groups struggle to reach the same goal.
 Conflict. It is a social process whereby two or
more groups consciously seek other to clock
one another in achieving a desired goal, or
annihilate one another.
Factors affecting small group
 Thereunder are some of the more important factors
that affect the kind of interaction people’s
experience in small groups (brinkerhoff and
 Size
 Proximity
 Communication
 All channel network
 Circle pattern
 Wheel pattern
 Cohesion
 Social control
 Decision-making