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A Short Course for Human

The 6 most important words

I admit I made a mistake
The 5 most important words
You did a good job
The 4 most important words
What is your opinion?
The 3 most important words
If you please
The 2 most important words
Thank You
The least important word




Vacuum tube

What is electronics?
How electronic components are
Identify basic electronic components.
What are the 7 basic logic gates.
Identify the circuit symbol for each logic

Fundamentals of Electronics
What is electronics?
Electronics, field of engineering and applied
physics dealing with the design and application of
devices, usually electronic circuits, the operation
of which depends on the flow of electrons for the
generation, transmission, reception, and storage
of information. The information can consist of
voice or music (audio signals) in a radio receiver, a
picture on a television screen, or numbers and
other data in a computer.

Components are classified into two categories
active or passive. Passive elements never supply
more energy than they absorb; active elements can
supply more energy than they absorb. Passive
components include resistors, capacitors, and
inductors. Components considered active include
batteries, generators, vacuum tubes, and

Resistors determine the flow of current in an electrical
circuit. Where there is high resistance then the flow of
current is small, where the resistance is low the flow of
current is large
Resistors are used for regulating current and they
resist the current flow and the extent to which they
do this is measured in ohms (). Resistors are
found in almost every electronic circuit.
Resistors are too small to have numbers
printed on them and so they are marked
with a number of colored bands. Each
color stands for a number. Three color
bands shows the resistors value in ohms
and the fourth shows tolerance.
Resistors can never be made to a
precise value and the tolerance band
(the fourth band) tells us, using a
percentage, how close the resistor is to
its coded value.
Reading Rating of Resistors
(a story)
0 B
1 B
2 R
3 O
4 Y
5 G
6 B
7 V
8 G
9 W
+ 5% G
+ 10%S
+ 20%N
Bad Boy Raped Our Young Girl But Vina
Gave Willingly, Gracefully. So No
What are the resitance value of
the above resistors?
1. Yellow, violet,black
2. Orange,orange brown
3. Brown, black, red
4. Green,blue, red, gold
5. Red,yellow,orange,gold
6. Blue, gray, yellow, silver
7. Red, yellow, orange, black, brown
8. Orange, black, black, brown, brown
1.47 ohms, 20%
2. 330 ohms, 20%
3. 1k, 20%
4.5,6kOhms, 5%
5. 24kOhms, 5%
6.680k, 10%
7. 243 ohms,1%
8.3 kOhms, 1%

A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device
that can store energy in the electric field
between a pair of conductors (called "plates").
Capacitors are often used in electrical circuit
and electronic circuits as energy-storage
devices. They can also be used to differentiate
between high-frequency and low-frequency
signals. This property makes them useful in
electronic filters.
Capacitors are occasionally referred to as

Polyester Film

BFF Series High
Voltage Power Factor

Motor Running

Aluminum Electrolytic

Motor Running

Lighting Capacitor

Railway Capacitor

Motor Starting
The amount of charge on either plate per unit
difference in potential between the plates.

It is expressed in a unit called farad, named in
honor of Michael Faraday.
C(farad) = Q(cuolombs)
v (Volts)

Vacuum Tube
In electronics, a vacuum
tube, electron tube (in North
America), thermionic valve, tube,
or valve is a device
controlling electric current through a
vacuum in a sealed container.
Vacuum tubes are thus used
for rectification, amplification, switch
ing, or similar processing or creation
of electrical signals
A diode is a specialized electronic component with two
electrodes called the anode and the cathode. Most diodes
are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon,
germanium, or selenium.
Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters, voltage
regulators, switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal
demodulators, and oscillators.
A diode is specifically made to
allow current to flow through it in
only one direction.

1. Voltage regulation diode (Zener Diode)
It is used to regulate voltage, by taking advantage of the fact that Zener
diodes tend to stabilize at a certain voltage when that voltage is applied in
the opposite direction.
2. Light Emitting Diode .This type of diode emits light when
current flows through it in the forward direction.
3.Variable capacitance diode
The current does not flow when applying the voltage of the
opposite direction to the diode. In this condition, the diode has a
capacitance like the capacitor. It is a very small capacitance. The
capacitance of the diode changes when changing voltage. With
the change of this capacitance, the frequency of the oscillator
can be changed.
Rectification / Switching
/ Regulation Diode

Light Emitting Diode
A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly
used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled
switch. The transistor is the fundamental building
block of the circuitry in computers, cellular phones,
and all other modern electronics.

An inductor (also choke, coil, or reactor) is
a passive two-terminal electrical component that
stores energy in its magnetic field. For
comparison, a capacitor stores energy in
an electric field, and a resistor does not store
energy but rather dissipates energy as heat.
Any conductor has inductance. An inductor is
typically made of a wire or other conductor
wound into a coil, to increase the magnetic field.

Integrated Circuit (IC)
In electronics, an integrated circuit (also
known as IC, microcircuit, microchip,
silicon chip, or chip) is a miniaturized
electronic circuit (consisting mainly of
semiconductor devices, as well as passive
components) that has been manufactured
in the surface of a thin substrate of
semiconductor material.
Microchips with a transparent window, showing the
integrated circuit inside. Note the fine silver-colored wires
that connect the integrated circuit to the pins of the
Short Quiz: Determine the nominal resistance values of
these resistors, given their band colors, and also
express the allowable tolerance in ohms.
For example, a 25 k resistor with a 10% tolerance
rating would have an allowable tolerance of +/- 2.5 k.

1. Red, Org, Blu, Gld
2. Brn, Blk, Grn, Sil
3. Blu, Blk, Brn, Gld
4. Yel, Vio, Red, Sil
5.Grn, Brn, Yel
6.Wht, Blu, Blk, Sil
7. Gry, Grn, Org, Gld
8. Org, Org, Gld
9.Vio, Red, Sil, Gld
10.Brn, Red, Blk, Sil
1. Red, Org, Blu, Gld = 23 M, +/- 1.15 M
2. Brn, Blk, Grn, Sil = 1 M, +/- 100 k
3. Blu, Blk, Brn, Gld = 600 , +/- 30
4.Yel, Vio, Red, Sil = 4.7 k, +/- 470
5. Grn, Brn, Yel = 510 k, +/- 102 k
6. Wht, Blu, Blk, Sil = 96 , +/- 9.6
7. Gry, Grn, Org, Gld = 85 k, +/- 4.25 k
8. Org, Org, Gld = 3.3 , +/- 0.66
9. Vio, Red, Sil, Gld = 0.72 , +/- 0.036
10. Brn, Red, Blk, Sil = 12 , +/- 1.2

Short Quiz
Determine whether or not the following resistors measure within
the resistance range specified by their color codes:
(Org, Org, Red, Blk, Blu) Measured resistance = 332.5
(Brn, Blk, Blk, Gld, Red) Measured resistance = 9.7
(Blu, Vio, Brn, Red, Grn) Measured resistance = 67.43 k
(Red, Wht, Grn, Yel, Vio) Measured resistance = 2.949 M
(Yel, Vio, Org, Gld) Measured resistance = 44.68 k(Gry,
Red, Brn, Sil) Measured resistance = 905
(Grn, Blu, Gld) Measured resistance = 6.73
(Vio, Brn, Red, Gld, Brn) Measured resistance = 70.82
(Wht, Org, Blu, Brn, Grn) Measured resistance = 9.38 k
(Red, Blk, Wht, Grn, Vio) Measured resistance = 20.86 M

(Org, Org, Red, Blk, Blu) Measured resistance = 332.5 Within
(Brn, Blk, Blk, Gld, Red) Measured resistance = 9.7 Out of
(Blu, Vio, Brn, Red, Grn) Measured resistance = 67.43 k Within
(Red, Wht, Grn, Yel, Vio) Measured resistance = 2.949 M Within
(Yel, Vio, Org, Gld) Measured resistance = 44.68 k Within tolerance
(Gry, Red, Brn, Sil) Measured resistance = 905 Out of tolerance!
(Grn, Blu, Gld) Measured resistance = 6.73 Out of tolerance!
(Vio, Brn, Red, Gld, Brn) Measured resistance = 70.82 Within
(Wht, Org, Blu, Brn, Grn) Measured resistance = 9.38 k Within
(Red, Blk, Wht, Grn, Vio) Measured resistance = 20.86 M Out of