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1 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP over DWDM
NANOG May 24, 1999
Larry McAdams
lmcadams@cisco.com
2
NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Outline
Optical Transmission
Fundamentals
DWDM Systems
IP over DWDM
3
NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Its Analog Transmission
Attenuation
Dispersion
Nonlinearity
Waveform after 1000 km Transmitted data waveform
Reflectance
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Fiber Attenuation
Telecommunications
industry uses two
windows: 1310 & 1550
1550 window is preferred
for long-haul applications
Less attenuation
Wider window
Optical amplifiers
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900
Wavelength
L
o
s
s

i
n

d
B
/
k
m
1310
window
l
1550
window
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Fiber Dispersion
Wavelength
l
D
i
s
p
e
r
s
i
o
n


p
s
/
n
m
-
k
m

18
0
1310 nm
1550nm
Normal fiber
Non-dispersion shifted fiber (NDSF)
>95% of deployed plant
Reduced dispersion fibers
Dispersion shifted fiber (DSF)
Non-zero dispersion shifted fibers (NZDSF)
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Dispersion
Dispersion causes the pulse to spread as it
travels along the fiber
Chromatic dispersion is important for
singlemode fiber
Depends on fiber type and laser used
Degradation scales as (data-rate)
2

Modal dispersion limits use of multimode fiber
to short distances
Interference
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Polarization Mode Dispersion
Most severe in older
fiber
Caused by several
sources
Core shape
External stress
Material properties
Becomes an issue at
OC-192
8
NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)
Creates in-band crosstalk
that can not be filtered
Problem increases
geometrically with
Number of ls
Spacing between ls
Optical power level
Chromatic dispersion
minimizes FWM
9
NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Outline
Optical Transmission
Fundamentals
DWDM Systems
IP over DWDM
10
NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
EDFAs Enable DWDM
40-80 km
Terminal
Regenerator - 3R (Reamplify, Reshape and Retime)
Terminal
120 km
Terminal Terminal
EDFA - 1R (Reamplify)
Terminal
EDFA amplifies all ls
Terminal
Terminal
Terminal
Terminal
Terminal
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
EDFA Schematic
EDFAs amplify all ls in 1550 window simultaneously
Key performance parameters include
Saturation output power, noise figure, gain flatness/passband

...
...
980
Pump
Laser
WDM
Coupler
WDM
Coupler
EDF
DCF
Optical
Isolator
1480
Pump
Laser
Optical
Filter
Optical
Isolator
EDF
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
DWDM System Design
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Amplify

D
W
D
M

F
i
l
t
e
r




O
p
t
i
c
a
l

C
o
m
b
i
n
e
r

15xx nm 1310 nm
Reamplify
Reshape
Retime
Rx Tx
1310 nm
Rx
E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

M
o
d
u
l
a
t
o
r

Laser
15xx nm
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
DWDM State-of-the-Art
Data
Rate
Point-to-point systems
40l x OC-48 deployed
16l x OC-192 deployed
160l x OC-192 announced
Configurable OADMs
Metro rings
1-10 Tbps per fiber is just around the corner!
14
NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Outline
Optical Transmission
Fundamentals
DWDM Systems
IP over DWDM

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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Synchronization for IP over DWDM
OC-48c
Ethernet
Gig-Ethernet
Ethernet
DS1
Point-to-point application
Synchronization driven from
router
Router interface internal timed
T1 OC-12c
~
~
~
~
~
~
OC-48c
FIBER
REGEN
WDM
OC-3c
PRS
SONET
NETWORK
OC-48c
OC-48c
SONET network application
Synchronization driven from network
Router interface timed to PRS via
Rx OC-48c
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Protection for IP over DWDM
Optical protection is not sufficient
Only protects transmission infrastructure
Layer 3 must provide path restoration
Opportunity for differentiation at the service level
Optical Cloud
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Ciena 40l DWDM
TX
RC
TX
500 km
100 km
25 dB
RC
TX
TX
RC
RC
GSR 12000
SR OC-48 PoS
l1
l2
l3
Error-free transmission over 20,000
kms without SONET regeneration
TX
RC
GSR 12000
SR OC-48 PoS
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Nortel 16l DWDM and OC-192 Ring
PRS
Working
Protect
Lack of transponders prohibits direct connections at OC-192
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NANOG 5/24/99
www.cisco.com
Conclusion - IP over DWDM
Transmission is an analog problem
Proprietary solutions abound
DWDM provides 100s Gbps of capacity
Transponders are required for an open architecture
Large scale deployments have been achieved
IP directly over DWDM is a reality