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UNIT II

DIGITAL
COMMUNICATION

IFETCE/EEE /M.SUJITH /III YEAR/V SEM/EC 2311/CE/PPT/VER1.0
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Syllabus
Pulse modulations concepts of sampling and
sampling theorems, PAM, PWM, PPM, PTM,

Quantization and coding: DCM, DM, slope
overload error. ADM, DPCM, OOK systems
ASK, FSK, PSK, BSK, QPSK, QAM, MSK,
GMSK, applications of Data communication.

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INTRODUCTION
Modulation is the process of frequency
translation in which any one
parameter(Amplitude, frequency or phase)
of high frequency carrier signal is varied in
accordance with instantaneous value of
low frequency modulating signal.
Modulation is either analog or digital.


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INTRODUCTION
Many signals in modern communication
systems are digital
Additionally, analog signals are transmitted
digitally
Digitizing a signal results in reduced
distortion and improvement in signal-to-
noise ratios

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INTRODUCTION
A digital signal is superior to an analog
signal because it is more robust to noise
and can easily be recovered, corrected
and amplified. For this reason, the
tendency today is to change an analog
signal to digital data.
The process of transmitting signals in the
form of pulses (discontinuous signals) by
using special techniques.

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PULSE MODULATION INCLUDES

Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Pulse Width Modulation
Pulse Position Modulation
Pulse Code Modulation
Delta Modulation

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PULSE MODULATION



Analog Pulse Modulation Digital Pulse Modulation
Pulse Amplitude (PAM)
Pulse Width (PWM)
Pulse Position (PPM)
Pulse Code (PCM)
Delta Modulation(DM)
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Sampling
The process of transmitting signals in the
form of pulses (discontinuous signals) by
using special techniques.
The signal is sampled at regular intervals
such that each sample is propotional to the
amplitude of signal at that instant.This
technique is called sampling.
Sampling is common in all pulse
modulation techniques.

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Concepts of Sampling &
sampling Theorem
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Sampling
Analog signal is sampled every T
S
secs.
T
s
is referred to as the sampling interval.
f
s
= 1/T
s
is called the sampling rate or
sampling frequency.
There are 3 sampling methods:
Ideal - an impulse at each sampling
instant
Natural - a pulse of short width with
varying amplitude
Flat top - sample and hold, like natural
but with single amplitude value

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Three different sampling methods for
PCM

4.11
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Sampling Rate
Nyquist showed that it is possible to
reconstruct a band-limited signal from
periodic samples, as long as the sampling
rate is at least twice the frequency of the of
highest frequency component of the signal
i.e. fs 2fm
where fs is sampling rate
Sampling rates that are too low result in
aliasing or foldover



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Sampling
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Sampling
Sampling alone is not a digital technique
The immediate result of sampling is a
pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)
signal
PAM is an analog scheme in which the
amplitude of the pulse is proportional to the
amplitude of the signal at the instant of
sampling
Another analog pulse-forming technique is
known as pulse-duration modulation
(PDM). This is also known as pulse-width
modulation (PWM)
Pulse-position modulation is closely
related to PDM
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation
In PAM,amplitude of pulses is varied in
accordance with instantaneous value of
modulating signal.

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Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Low
Pass
Filter
Multiplier
Pulse
train
generator
Modulating
Signal
PAM
Signal
The carrier is in the form of narrow pulses having
frequency fs.The uniform sampling takes place in multiplier
to generate PAM signal.Samples are placed Ts sec away
from each other.
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Depending upon the shape and polarity of
the sampled pulses, PAM is of two types,
Natural PAM sampling occurs when top
portion of the pulses are subjected to
follow the modulating wave.
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Flat topped PAM sampling is often used
because of the ease of generating the
modulated wave. In this pulses have flat
tops after modulation.
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Pulse Amplitude
Modulation
The PAM signal can be detected by
passing it through a low pass filter.
Fig
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Pulse Width Modulation
In this type, the amplitude is maintained
constant but the width of each pulse is
varied in accordance with instantaneous
value of the analog signal.

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Pulse Width Modulation
Fig:
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Pulse Width Modulation
That is why the information is contained in
width variation. This is similar to FM.
In pulse width modulation (PWM), the
width of each pulse is made directly
proportional to the amplitude of the
information signal.

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Pulse Width Modulation
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Pulse Width Modulation
A simple method to generate the PWM
pulse train corresponding to a given signal
is the intersective PWM: the signal (here
the green sinewave) is compared with a
sawtooth waveform (blue). When the latter
is less than the former, the PWM signal
(magenta) is in high state (1). Otherwise it
is in the low state (0).
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Pulse Width Modulation
The block diagram of next slide can be
used for generation of PWM as well as
PPM.In this case a sawtooth signal of
frequency fs is a sampling signal.
It is applied to inverting terminal of a
comparator with modulating signal at non
inverting terminal.
O/P remains high as long as modulating
signal is higher than that of ramp signal.

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Pulse Width Modulation
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Pulse Position Modulation
In this type, the sampled waveform has
fixed amplitude and width whereas the
position of each pulse is varied as per
instantaneous value of the analog signal.
PPM signal is further modification of a
PWM signal.
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Pulse Position Modulation
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Pulse Position Modulation
The vertical dotted lines shown in last slide
treated as reference lines.
The PPM pulses marked 1,2 and 3 go
away from their respective reference
lines.This corresponds to increase in
modulating signal amplitude.
Then as modulating signal decreases the
PPM pulses 4,5,6,7 come closer to their
respective reference lines.

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Pulse Position Modulation
The PPM signal can be generated from
PWM signal.
The PWM pulses obtained at the
comparator output are applied to a
monostable multivibrator which is ve edge
triggered.
Hence for each trailing edge of PWM
signal, the monostable output goes high.It
remains high for a fixed time decided by its
own RC components.
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Pulse Position Modulation
Thus as the trailing edges of the PWM
signal keeps shifting in propotion with the
modulating signal,the PPM pulses also
keep shifting.
Therefore all the PPM pulses have the
same amplitude and width.The information
is conveyed via changing position of
pulses.
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Digital Pulse Modulation
Merits of Digital Communication:
1.Digital signals are very easy to receive.
The receiver has to just detect whether
the pulse is low or high.
2.AM & FM signals become corrupted over
much short distances as compared to
digital signals. In digital signals, the
original signal can be reproduced
accurately.
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Digital Pulse Modulation
Merits of Digital Communication
3.The signals lose power as they travel,
which is called attenuation. When AM
and FM signals are amplified, the noise
also get amplified. But the digital signals
can be cleaned up to restore the quality
and amplified by the regenerators.
4.The noise may change the shape of the
pulses but not the pattern of the pulses.

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Digital Pulse Modulation
Merits of Digital Communication:
5.AM and FM signals can be received by
any one by suitable receiver. But digital
signals can be coded so that only the
person, who is intended for, can receive
them.
6.AM and FM transmitters are real time
systems. i.e. they can be received only at
the time of transmission. But digital
signals can be stored at the receiving
end.
7.The digital signals can be stored.

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Digital Pulse Modulation
The process of Sampling which we have
already discussed in initial slides is also
adopted in Digital pulse modulation.
It is mainly of two types:
Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
Delta Modulation(DM)

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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM) is the most
commonly used digital modulation scheme
In PCM, the available range of signal
voltages is divided into levels and each is
assigned a binary number
Each sample is represented by a binary
number and transmitted serially
The number of levels available depends
upon the number of bits used to express
the sample value
The number of levels is given by: N = 2
m

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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
PCM consists of three steps to digitize
an analog signal:
1. Sampling
2. Quantization
3. Binary encoding
Before we sample, we have to filter the
signal to limit the maximum frequency of
the signal .Filtering should ensure that
we do not distort the signal, ie remove
high frequency components that affect
the signal shape.

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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
The basic elements of a PCM system.
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
Analog to digital converter employs two
techniques:
1. Sampling: The process of generating pulses of
zero width and of amplitude equal to the
instantaneous amplitude of the analog signal.
The no. of pulses per second is called sampling
rate.

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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
2. Quantization: The process of dividing
the maximum value of the analog signal
into a fixed no. of levels in order to
convert the PAM into a Binary Code.
The levels obtained are called
quanization levels.

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Time
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
111
110
101
100
011
010
001
000
L
e
v
e
l
s
B
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
d
e
s
Time
Time
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Sampling,
Quantization and
Coding
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)
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Quantization
By quantizing the PAM pulse, original
signal is only approximated
The process of converting analog signals
to PCM is called quantizing
Since the original signal can have an
infinite number of signal levels, the
quantizing process will produce errors
called quantizing errors or quantizing
noise

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Quantization
Two types of quantization: (a) midtread and (b)
midrise
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Quantization
Coding and Decoding
The process of converting an analog signal
into PCM is called coding, the inverse
operation is called decoding
Both procedures are accomplished in a CODEC


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Quantization


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Quantization


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Quantization and encoding of a
sampled signal
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Quantization Error
When a signal is quantized, we introduce
an error - the coded signal is an
approximation of the actual amplitude
value.
The difference between actual and coded
value (midpoint) is referred to as the
quantization error.
The more zones, the smaller A which
results in smaller errors.
BUT, the more zones the more bits
required to encode the samples -> higher
bit rate

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Quantization Error (cont.)
Round-off error
Overload error
Overload
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Quantization Noise

Illustration of the quantization process
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Pulse Code Modulation
In PCM system,N number of binary digits
are transmitted per sample.Hence the
signaling rate and channel bandwidth of
PCM are very large.
Also encodind,decoding and quantizing
circuitary of PCM is complex.
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DPCM
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Quantization error feedback
in the DPCM coder
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Signal distortions due to
intraframe DPCM coding
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Delta Modulation
In Delta Modulation, only one bit is
transmitted per sample
That bit is a one if the current sample is
more positive than the previous sample,
and a zero if it is more negative
Since so little information is transmitted,
delta modulation requires higher sampling
rates than PCM for equal quality of
reproduction

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Delta Modulation
This scheme sends only the difference
between pulses, if the pulse at time t
n+1
is
higher in amplitude value than the pulse at
time t
n
, then a single bit, say a 1, is used
to indicate the positive value.
If the pulse is lower in value, resulting in a
negative value, a 0 is used.
This scheme works well for small changes
in signal values between samples.
If changes in amplitude are large, this will
result in large errors.

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Delta Modulation
The process of delta modulation
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Delta Modulation
Components of Delta Modulation
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Delta Modulation
DM system. (a) Transmitter. (b) Receiver.
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Delta Modulation
Distortions in DM system
1. If the slope of analog signal is much
higher than that of approximated digital
signal over long duration,than this
difference is called Slope overload
distortion.
2. The difference between quantized signal
and original signal is called as Granular
noise. It is similar to quantisation noise.

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Delta Modulation
Two types of quantization errors :
Slope overload distortion and granular noise
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Delta Modulation
Distortions in DM system
Granular noise occurs when step size is
large relative to local slope m(t).
There is a further modification in this
system,in which step size is not fixed.
That scheme is known as Adaptive Delta
Modulation.
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Simple Implementation of a DM
system

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Slope Overload Error
Slope overload
When the analog signal has a high rate of
change, the DM can fall behind and a
distorted output occurs

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Tradeoffs
Simplicity versus Quality
In order to obtain the high quality DM
requires very high sampling rates, typically
20 the highest frequency of interest, as
opposed to Nyquist rate of 2


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Adaptive Delta Modulation
A better performance can be achieved if
the value of is not fixed.
The value of changes according to the
amplitude of the analog signal.
It has wide dynamic range due to variable
step size.
Also better utilisation of bandwidth as
compared to delta modulation.
Improvement in signal to noise ratio.
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Adaptive Delta Modulation
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Conclusion for Pulse Modulation
The main advantage of these pulse
modulation schemes are better noise
immunity and possibility of use of
repeaters which makes communication
more reliable and error free.
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Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)
Why We Require?
To Have Non-coherent Detection
That Makes Receiver Design
How can we do?
0 may be used represent transition
1 indicate No Transition

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DPSK Transmitter
d
K
d
K-1
b
K
A
c
Cos(2f
c
t)
S(t)=A
c
Cos(2f
c
t)
Encoder
Delay T
b
Product
Modulator
What Should We Do to make Encoder?
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DPSK Transmitter..Modified
d
K
d
K-1
b
K
A
c
Cos(2f
c
t)
S(t)=A
c
Cos(2f
c
t)
Delay T
b
Product
Modulator
Ex- NOR
Gate
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Differentially Encoded Sequence
Binary Data 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Differentially
Encoded Data
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1

Phase of DPSK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shifted
Differentially
encoded Data
d
k-1
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
Phase of
shifted Data
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Phase
Comparision
Output
- - + - - + - - + +
Detected
Binary Seq.
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
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DPSK Receiver
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Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
Extension of Binary-PSK
Spectrum Efficient Technique
In M-ary Transmission it is Possible to Transmit M Possible Signal

M = 2
n

where,
n= no of Bits that we Combine

signaling Interval T= nT
b


In QPSK n=2 === > So M =4
and
signaling Interval T= 2T
b
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Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
M=4 so we have possible signal are 00,01,10,11
Or In Natural Coded Form 00,10,11,01
3
( ) cos(2 )
4
c c s t A f t
t
t =
cos(2 )
4
c c A f t
t
t =
cos(2 )
4
c c A f t
t
t = +
3
cos(2 )
4
c c A f t
t
t = +
-135

-45

45

135
Binary Dibit 00

Binary Dibit 10

Binary Dibit 11

Binary Dibit 01

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QPSK Waveform
00 11 00 11 10 10
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QPSK Signal Phase
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Constellation Diagram
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Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
( ) cos(2 ( )) c c s t A f t t t | = +
The QPSK Formula
Where, (t)=135,45,-45,-135
( ) cos ( ).cos(2 ) sin ( )sin(2 ) c c c c S t A t f t A t f t | t | t =
(1)
Simplifying Equation 1
This Gives the Idea about Transmitter design
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QPSK Transmitter
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QPSK Receiver
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Synchronization Circuit
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Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
In Binary FSK the Phase Continuity is
maintained at the transition Point. This type of
Modulated wave is referred as Continuous
Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK)
In MSK there is phase change equals to one
half Bit Rate when the bit Changes 0 to 1 and 1
to 0.

1
2 b
f
T
o =
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Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
1 2 1 2
1
2 2
c c c c
c
f f f f
f
+
= +
2
c
f
f
o
= +
1 2
1 2
2
c c
c c
f f
fc
f f f o
+
=
=
1 2 1 2
2
2 2
c c c c
c
f f f f
f
+
=
2
c
f
f
o
=
Lets take fc1 and fc2 represents binary 1 and 0 Respectively
Where
Similarly
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Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
The MSK Equation


where
( ) cos(2 ( )) s t Ac fct t t | = +
( ) t ft | to =
For Symbol 1
( ) t ft | to =
2 b
t
T
t
=
For Symbol 0
( ) t ft | to =
2 b
t
T
t
=
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Carrier Phase Coding
For dibit 00
(t)
t
T
b
2T
b
-/2
-
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Carrier Phase Coding
For dibit 10
T
b
2T
b
/2

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88
Carrier Phase Coding
T
b
2T
b
/2

For dibit 11
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Carrier Phase Coding
For dibit 01
(t)
t
T
b
2T
b
-/2
-
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Basic Encoding Techniques
Digital data to analog signal
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK)
Amplitude difference of carrier frequency
Frequency-shift keying (FSK)
Frequency difference near carrier frequency
Phase-shift keying (PSK)
Phase of carrier signal shifted
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Basic Encoding Techniques
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Amplitude-Shift Keying
One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at
constant amplitude
Other binary digit represented by absence of carrier




where the carrier signal is Acos(2f
c
t)

( )

= t s
( ) t f A
c
t 2 cos
0
1 binary
0 binary
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Amplitude-Shift Keying
Susceptible to sudden gain changes
Inefficient modulation technique
On voice-grade lines, used up to 1200 bps
Used to transmit digital data over optical fiber

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Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
Phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent data
Binary PSK (BPSK): two phases represent two binary digits
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0

0 0 0


1 ) ( ), 2 cos( ) (
0 ), 2 cos(
1 ), 2 cos(
0 ), 2 cos(
1 ), 2 cos(
) (
= =

+
=
t d t f t Ad
binary t f A
binary t f A
binary t f A
binary t f A
t s
c
c
c
c
c
t
t
t
t t
t
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Differential PSK (DPSK)
In DPSK, the phase shift is with reference to the previous bit
transmitted rather than to some constant reference signal
Binary 0:signal burst with the same phase as the previous one
Binary 1:signal burst of opposite phase to the preceding one
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Four-level PSK: Quadrature PSK (QPSK)


+
+
+
=
10 )
4
2 cos(
00 )
4
3
2 cos(
01 )
4
3
2 cos(
11 )
4
2 cos(
) (
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t f A
t f A
t f A
t f A
t s
c
c
c
c
More efficient use of bandwidth if each signal element represents
more than one bit
eg. shifts of t/2 (90
o
)
each signal element represents two bits
split input data stream in two & modulate onto the phase of the carrier







can use 8 phase angles & more than one amplitude
9600bps modem uses 12 phase angles, four of which have two amplitudes: this
gives a total of 16 different signal elements
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QPSK and Offset QPSK (OQPSK)
Modulators
) 2 sin( ) (
2
1
) 2 cos( ) (
2
1
) ( :
) 2 sin( ) (
2
1
) 2 cos( ) (
2
1
) ( :
t f T t Q t f t I t s OQPSK
t f t Q t f t I t s QPSK
c b c
c c
t t
t t
=
=
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Example of QPSK and OQPSK Waveforms
4
1 1 0 1
4
3
1 1 0 0
4
3
1 1 1 0
4
1 1 1 1
:
t
t
t
t




QPSK f or
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Performance of ASK, FSK, MFSK, PSK and
MPSK
Bandwidth Efficiency

ASK/PSK:

MPSK:

MFSK:
1 0 ,
1
1
< <
+
= = r
r B
R
bandwidth on transmissi
rate data
T
elements signal different of number M
r
M
B
R
T
: ,
1
log
2
+
=
M r
M
B
R
T
) 1 (
log
2
+
=
Bit Error Rate (BER)
bit error rate of PSK and QPSK are about 3dB superior to ASK
and FSK (see Fig. 5.4)
for MFSK & MPSK have tradeoff between bandwidth efficiency
and error performance
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Performance of MFSK and MPSK
MFSK: increasing M decreases BER and decreases bandwidth Efficiency
MPSK: Increasing M increases BER and increases bandwidth efficiency
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Binary Frequency-Shift Keying
(BFSK)
Two binary digits represented by two different
frequencies near the carrier frequency





where f
1
and f
2
are offset from carrier frequency f
c
by equal but
opposite amounts
( )

= t s
( ) t f A
1
2 cos t
( ) t f A
2
2 cos t
1 binary
0 binary
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Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK)
Less susceptible to error than ASK
On voice-grade lines, used up to 1200bps
Used for high-frequency (3 to 30 MHz) radio
transmission
Can be used at higher frequencies on LANs
that use coaxial cable
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Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying
(MFSK)
More than two frequencies are used
More bandwidth efficient but more susceptible to
error



f
i
= f
c
+ (2i 1 M)f
d
f
c
= the carrier frequency
f
d
= the difference frequency
M = number of different signal elements = 2
L
L = number of bits per signal element
( ) t f A t s
i i
t 2 cos =
M i s s 1
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Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying
(MFSK)
To match data rate of input bit stream, each
output signal element is held for:
T
s
=LT seconds
where T is the bit period (data rate = 1/T)
So, one signal element encodes L bits

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Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying
(MFSK)
Total bandwidth required
2Mf
d
Minimum frequency separation required
2f
d
=1/T
s
Therefore, modulator requires a bandwidth of
W
d
=2
L
/LT=M/T
s
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Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying
(MFSK)
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Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
Two-level PSK (BPSK)
Uses two phases to represent binary digits





( )

= t s
( ) t f A
c
t 2 cos
( ) t t + t f A
c
2 cos
1 binary
0 binary

=
( ) t f A
c
t 2 cos
( ) t f A
c
t 2 cos
1 binary
0 binary
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Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
Differential PSK (DPSK)
Phase shift with reference to previous bit
Binary 0 signal burst of same phase as previous signal
burst
Binary 1 signal burst of opposite phase to previous
signal burst
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Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
Four-level PSK (QPSK)
Each element represents more than one bit
( )

= t s
|
.
|

\
|
+
4
2 cos
t
t t f A
c 11
|
.
|

\
|
+
4
3
2 cos
t
t t f A
c
|
.
|

\
|

4
3
2 cos
t
t t f A
c
|
.
|

\
|

4
2 cos
t
t t f A
c
01
00
10
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Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
Multilevel PSK
Using multiple phase angles with each angle
having more than one amplitude, multiple signals
elements can be achieved



D = modulation rate, baud
R = data rate, bps
M = number of different signal elements = 2
L
L = number of bits per signal element
M
R
L
R
D
2
log
= =
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Performance
Bandwidth of modulated signal (B
T
)
ASK, PSK B
T
=(1+r)R
FSK B
T
=2DF+(1+r)R

R = bit rate
0 < r < 1; related to how signal is filtered
DF = f
2
-f
c
=f
c
-f
1
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Performance
Bandwidth of modulated signal (B
T
)

MPSK

MFSK


L = number of bits encoded per signal element
M = number of different signal elements
R
M
r
R
L
r
B
T
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
log
1 1
( )
R
M
M r
B
T
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
log
1
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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QAM is a combination of ASK and PSK
Two different signals sent simultaneously on the
same carrier frequency

( ) ( ) ( ) t f t d t f t d t s
c c
t t 2 sin 2 cos
2 1
+ =
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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
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Reasons for Analog Modulation
Modulation of digital signals
When only analog transmission facilities are
available, digital to analog conversion required
Modulation of analog signals
A higher frequency may be needed for effective
transmission
Modulation permits frequency division
multiplexing
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GMSK
GMSK as implemented by quadrature signal processing at baseband
followed by a quadrature modulator
Generating a GMSK Waveform
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Architecture of a GMSK Modulator

Coder
Bits a
k
r t ( )
VCO
h
x t ( )
h t ( )
Gaussian filter
GMSK modulator using a VCO

( )
k
k
a s t kT

( )
k
k
a t kT o


( ) ( ) * ( ) s t r t h t =

Rectangular filter

x t ( ) Coder
Bits a
k
s t ( )
2 t h

}
t
u ( ) t
cos()
sin()
+
-
s t r t h t ( ) ( ) * ( ) =
GMSK modulator without VCO
( )
k
k
a t kT o


( ) cos 2
c
f t t
( ) sin 2
c
f t t

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Pulse Shaping
Input: Binary pulse train (+1/-1)
Each binary pulse goes through a LPF with a Gaussian impulse response
The filter smoothes the binary pulses
The filter output is truncated and scaled
This process results in a train of Gaussian shaped pulses
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Summing and Integration
The pulses are summed together (left)
The signal is integrated over time to obtain a continuous
waveform which captures the bit transition information (right)

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I&Q Signals
The resulting waveform is divided into In-Phase and
Quadrature components
In-phase: Left
Quadrature: Right
The two signal components are then up-converted to the
carrier frequency
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GMSK Properties
Improved spectral efficiency
Power Spectral Density
Reduced main lobe over MSK
Requires more power to transmit data than many
comparable modulation schemes
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Applications to Digital Data
communications
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Telegraph
Morse Code
Dots and dashes
Slow
No error correction
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Message Switching Systems
Equipment: teletypewriters
Types: torn tape message system
Point-to-point
Multipoint line
Collision, polling, address, and protocol
Control or master station and subordinate or
slave station

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Computers
Benefits
Inquiry
File updating
Timesharing
Other applications (TPS, MIS, DSS, EX, EC)
Types
Centralized
Distributed
Client-server
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