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Disposal of
Solid Waste
CHAPTER 5D
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At the end of this chapter, the student are expected to;
1. Recognize the different landfilling method of MSW
2. Explain the function of an engineered landfill and
all the components of a landfill
3. Explain the process of landfill design and operation
4. Recognize the impact of landfill leachate and gas
their control
5. Evaluate the environmental impact of a landfill with
respect to air, water and soil quality



Learning Objectives
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MSW Engineered Landfill
In broad term, operations and processes in an
engineered landfill are;
Landfill design;- foundation design, liner design, leachate and
gas collection, drainage design, filling design, runoff collection,
closure design
Landfill operation;- waste inventory, load, type, cell layout, cell
for hazardous waste,
Biochemical raction in landfill;- biological decay rates, slowly
biodegradable, rapidly biodegradable, non biodegradable
Leachate management;- collection, treatment, monitoring,
reuse.
Landfill gas management;- Monitoring, collection, flaring or
using, quantity and quality
Environmental monitoring;- air quality, odour, CH4, H2S,
VOCs, groundwater quality monitoring, pets and litter, traffic

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Landfill types
All landfill should be containment
type
Attenuate and disperse site or
dump site are no longer
acceptable due to the
environmental pollution that it will
cause


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Dump Site
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Dump Site
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i. Excavated trench / cell
ii. Area method
iii. Canyon / depression
method


Landfilling Methods
(Containment Type)
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Ideal for area with adequate depth of cover
Water table is low
Trench is excavated in the ground
Liner put in place before waste are deposited
Excavated earth use back as cover at the end
of each operation







Excavated Trench / Cell
Trench Method

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Terrain not suitable for excavation
High groundwater level
Liner are place on original ground
Cover material hauled from location nearby
Compost can be use as alternative

Area method
(Ground Level Landfill)

Area Method

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Area Method or Ground Level Landfill
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Techniques vary with canyon geometry
Control of surface water drainage is critical


Canyon / depression method

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Canyon Landfill

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Example of operating canyon type landfill
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Canyon Landfill

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Landfill

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Cross Section of a Landfill
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Primary purpose is to minimize leakage of landfill
leachate and gas into subsurface
Allow collection of leachate for treatment and disposal
Most commonly used materials for liner include one or
all of the following:
Geomembrane (Hydraulic barrier)
Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) (Hydraulic Barrier)
Compacted Clay (Hydraulic Barrier)
Geotextile (for cushion or separation)
Typical slope of base liner is 2% to 10%
Typical slope of side wall liner ranges from 20% to 40%

Liner
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Landfill Under Construction

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Installation of HDPE Liner
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Construction of a landfill drainage layer installation
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Construction of Leachate Collection and Gas Escape Pipes
Leachate Collection Pipe
Gas Escape Pipes
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Liner Construction Process
Placing Clay Liner
Smooth Drum
Rolling Clay
Disking Clay to Dry
Placing GM
Placing Drainage Sand & Collection
Trench Gravel
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Depositing of Solid Waste
Solid waste brought to landfill sites in truckloads
Trucks unload the solid waste onto the landfill
operating cell
Dump and spread out by spreader and dozer
and compacted
At the end of the day the compacted solid waste
is covered by cover material up to 20-30 cm
thick to prevent rats and other scavenging
animals
Rainfall will seep through the compacted solid
waste and form leachate


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Deposition of Solid Waste
Spreading, Compacting and Covering

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Covering with earth
Covering with plastic
Covering with plastic
Spreading and compacting
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Leachate
Leachate is contaminated water in landfill which
is drawn out via pumping system from inside the
landfill to be treated at an adjacent water
treatment plant.
Typical leachate chemical composition are TSS
500-2500, VSS 3000-8000, COD 5000-30000,
BOD 4000-20000. All in mg/l (ppm)

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Leachate Recycling
During early stages leachate contain high concentration of TDS, BOD5,
COD, nutrients and heavy metals
When leachate re-circulated the constituent are attenuated by biological,
chemical and physical activities reactions occurring within the landfill
Leachate Evaporation
The most simple treatment is evaporation in lined leachate storage
facility
Leachate Treatment
The treatment process selected will depend on the contaminants to be
removed
Selection of treatment facilities will depend primarily on characteristics of
contaminants which include TDS, COD, SO
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2-
, heavy metals and other
non-specific toxic constituents
Treatment Facilities
Integrated leachate management system
Discharge to wastewater treatment plant

Leachate Treatment
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Leachate Treatment
Discharge to waste water
treatment plant
In locations where a landfill is
located near a waste water
collection system or where a
pressure sewer can be used to
connect the landfill leachate
collection to a waste water
collection system, leachate is
often discharged to the waste
water collection system. In many
cases, the organic content of
leachate required to be reduced
before discharged to the sewer.

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Leachate Treatment Plant
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Selection of Gas Control
Facilities
To determine the size of the gas collection &
processing facilities needed, the quantity of
landfill gas must first be estimated
The decision to use horizontal or vertical gas
recovery wells depends on the design &
capacity of the landfill
The decision to flare or to recover energy from
the landfill gas is determined by the capacity of
the landfill site & the opportunity to sell power
produced from the conversion of landfill gas to
energy
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Normal condition-gas release to atmosphere through diffusion
In active landfill-internal pressure is greater and gas release thru
covection and diffusion
Movement of Principal Landfill Gases
Upward Migration of Landfill Gases
Downward Migration of Landfill Gases
Movement of Traces Landfill Gases

Movement of Principal Landfill Gases
Most escape to atmosphere
Some will migrate laterally (case were recorded where gas
concentration of 40% at distance of 400 ft of unlined landfill)
Methane can accumulate in lateral distance if unvented
Can accumulate under building or enclosed space
Carbon dioxide (heavier than air) tend to move downward


Movement of Landfill Gases
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Passive Control
Active Control With
Perimeter Facilities
Active Control With
Vertical and
Horizontal Extraction
Wells



Control Of Landfill Gases
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Pressure relief vents / Flare in landfill cover
Perimeter interceptor trench
Perimeter barrier trench / slurry wall
Impermeable barriers within landfill
Sorption barriers within landfill for trace gas




Passive Control
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Perimeter gas extraction and odor control well
Perimeter gas extraction trenches
Perimeter air injection well (air curtain system )




Active Control With
Perimeter Facilities
Gas Extraction Systems
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Convert to electricity by using combustion generator. Gas must be
processed to remove detrimental impurities



Gas Energy Recovery Systems


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Flaring
Common method of gas
management
Also called thermal
destruction
Methane will be burned
together with other gas


Management of Landfill Gases
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Selection of Landfill Cover
Configuration
The use of a geo-membrane liner as a barrier
layer is favored by most landfill designers to limit
the entry of surface water & to control the release
of landfill gases
The specific cover configuration selected will
depend on the location of the landfill & the
climatalogical conditions
To ensure the rapid removal of rainfall from the
completed landfill & to avoid the formation of
puddles, the final cover should have a slope of
about 3% to 5%
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Surface Water Drainage
Facilities
An important step in the design of a landfill is
to develop an overall drainage plan for the
area that shows the location of;
Storm drains
Culverts
Ditches
Subsurface drain
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Storm Drains
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Properly equipped tractors can be used
to perform all necessary operation at
sanitary landfill including :
1. Spreading
2. Compacting
3. Covering
4. Trenching
5. Hauling cover material

Equipment Requirements
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Equipment Requirements
The type, size & amount of equipment required
will depend on the size of the landfill & the
method of operation
Type of equipment used at sanitary landfills
include :
1. Crawler tractors
2. Scrapers (self loading earth moving scraper)
3. Compactors (high track compactor with trash
blade & steel-wheeled compactor with trash
blade)
4. Draglines (for excavation of landfill cells &
trenches)
5. Motorgraders

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LANDFILL MACHINERIES
Crawlwer ractor with dozer blade
Self loading scraper
Motor grader
Steel wheel compactor with trash blade
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Public Health and Safety
Health and safety of workers
The federal government through OSHA regulations &
states through OSHA-type programs have established
requirements for a comprehensive health & safety
program for the workers at landfill site
Attention must be given to the types of protective
clothing & boots, air-filtering head gear & punctureproof
gloves supplied to the workers
Safety of the public
The use of a convenience transfer station at the landfill
site, to minimize the public contact with the working
operations of the landfill is gaining in popularity
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Completed Landfill

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Factors Affecting Longterm Integrity of Landfill Cap
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Post Closure Care

Routine Inspections
Infrastructure Maintenance
Environmental Monitoring System

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Capped Landfill
(and it will be active for 50-100yrs)


End
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