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Chapter 8 Training and Development

1. Objectives and Goals


2. Theories and Principles of Training.
3. Orientation
4. Process of Training and Development
5. Modes and Techniques of Training

Training and Developing
Employees
Behavioral Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able
to:
Describe the basic training process.
Explain the nature of at least five training
techniques.
Discuss what management development is and
why its important.
Describe the five on-and off-the-job
development techniques.
Explain why training evaluation is important and
how it is best accomplished.
Chapter Outline
Orienting Employees
The Training Process
Training techniques
Training for Special Purposes
Managerial Development and Training
Techniques.
Evaluating the Training Effort
Key words
employee orientation
A procedure for providing new
employees with basic back-ground
information about the firm.
training
The process of teaching new employees
the basic skills they need to perform
their jobs.
Key words
task analysis
A detailed study of a job to identify the skills
required so that an appropriate training
program may be instituted.
performance analysis
Verifying that there is a performance
deficiency and determining whether that
deficiency should be rectified through training
or through some other means (such as
transferring the employee).
Key words
on-the-job training (OJT)
Training a person to learn a job while
working at it.
job instruction training (JIT)
Listing of each jobs basic tasks, along with
key points in order to provide step-by-step
training for employees.
Key words
programmed learning
A systematic method for teaching job skills
involving presenting questions or facts, allowing
the person to respond, and giving the learner
immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her
answers.
vestibule or simulated training
Training employees on special off-the-job
equipment, as in airplane pilot training, whereby
training costs and hazards can be reduced.
Key words
management development
Any attempt to improve current or future
management performance by imparting
knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing
skills.
succession planning
A process through which senior-level
openings are planned for and eventually filled.
Key words
job rotation
A management training technique that
involves moving a trainee from department to
department to broaden his or her experience
and identify strong and weak points.
action learning
A training technique by which management
trainees are allowed to work full time
analyzing and solving problems in other
departments.
Key words
case study method
A development method in which the manager
is presented with a written description of an
organizational problem to diagnose and solve.
management game
A development technique in which teams of
managers compete with one another by
making computerized decisions regarding
realistic but simulated companies.
Key words
role playing
A training technique in which trainees act out the
parts of people in a realistic management situation.
behavior modeling
A training technique in which trainees are first
shown good management techniques in a film, are
then asked to play roles in a simulated situation,
and are then given feedback and praise by their
supervisor.
Key words
in-house development centers
A company-based method for exposing
prospective managers to realistic exercises to
develop improved management skills.
controlled experimentation
Formal methods for testing the effectiveness
of a training program, preferably with before-
and-after tests and a control group.
1. Objectives and Goals
(1) Definition
(2) Goals and Objectives
(3) Relation with other HRM activities
(1)Definition
Training and development are planned efforts
to facilitate the learning ob job-related behavior
on the part of the employees.
(2)Goals and Objectives
(1) Goals of training and development
The goal of training and development is to
enhance employee quality and motivation so as
to improve productivity and meet future needs of
the organization.
(2) Objectives of training and development:
A. Meet organization needs.
B. Meet individual needs.
C. Improve productivity satisfaction.
(3) Relation with other HRM activities
A. Task analysis: the basis for developing
training programs, strategies and materials.
B. HR planning: guidelines for training and
development programs.
C. Performance appraisals: identifying training
needs.
D. Organization development: identifying training
needs.
2. Theories and Principles of Training
(1) Reinforcement theory
(2) Goal-setting theory
(3) Expectancy theory
(4) Application of the theories
(5) Basic principles of learning
(1)Reinforcement theory (Skinner, B.F.)
A. The frequency of behavior is influenced by its
consequences.
B. Three major types of consequences:
Positive reinforcement: reward desirable
behavior.
Negative reinforcement: withhold punishments
to force the adoption of desirable behavior.
Punishment: punish undesirable behavior.
(2) Goal-setting theory (Locke, E. A)
A. Ones conscious goals or intentions regulate
his/her behavior.
B. Three important implications for motivating
trainees:
The learning objective should be conveyed
clearly to the trainees.
Training goals should be difficult enough to
challenge the trainees and satisfy their needs.
The final goal should be supplemented with
periodic sub-goals during training.
(3) Expectancy theory
A. One will be motivated to chose a behavior
alternative that is most likely to have favorable
consequences.
B. Key concepts:
Outcome: the result of a certain behavior.
Valence: perceived value of the outcome.
E (effort) P (performance) expectancy: the
amount of effort for a certain level of performance.
P (performance) O (outcome) expectancy: the
probability that improved performance will lead to
desirable outcome.
(4) Application of the theories
A. Schedule reinforcement in training:
Continuous reinforcement.
Intermittent reinforcement.
B. Set clear and challenging goals in training.
C. Tie desirable rewards to training outcome for
each individual.
(5) Basic principles of learning
A. The principle of reinforcement: continuous and
repetitive practice ensures the retention of
knowledge and skills.
B. The principle of behavior modeling: set
models for the trainees to follow.
C. The principle of feedback: timely and
adequate feedback motivates the trainees.
D. The principle of learning transfer: those that
can be transferred to work are most likely to
be retained.
Orientation
(1) What is orientation?
Orientation is to help the new employees know the
organization and their jobs.
(2) Content of orientation:
A. Socialization: to help the new employees know
their colleagues and supervisors.
B. Organization: to help the new employees to
know the organization structure and regulations.
C. Job: to help the new employees know the
tasks, duties and desirable behavior of their
jobs.
4. Process of Training and
Development
(1) Training needs analysis
(2) Instructional design
(3) Validation
(4) Implementation
(5) Evaluation and follow-up
(1)Training needs analysis
A. Organization analysis: identify training needs
of the organization according to its long-term
goals-set the training goals.
B. Job analysis: identify training needs according
to job descriptions and specificationsspecify
skills/knowledge/behavior to be trained.
C. People analysis: identify people that need
training and their trainability-identify potential
trainees.
(2) Instructional design
A. Set training goals.
B. Determine what to train.
C. Identify trainees.
D. Choose training materials.
E. Determine training modes and methods.
F. Select trainers.
G. Schedule training.
H. Develop training budget.
(3) Validation
A. Validate the training program before
implementation.
Pilot study: conduct the program with a small
number of trainees to test its effect.
Consultation: consult the trainees and their
supervisors on the appropriateness of the
program.
B. Make revision of the training programs before
implementation.
(4) Implementation
A. Obtain continuous support from line-
management to the training program.
B. Appoint manager of the training program.
C. Develop managing guidelines for the program.
D. Provide logistic supports.
E. Conduct concurrent evaluation of the program.
(5) Evaluation and follow-up
A. Types of evaluation:
Concurrent evaluation: evaluate training effects
during training.
Immediate evaluation: evaluate training effects
at the end of the training.
Follow-up evaluation: evaluate training effect
by evaluating trainee performance over time.
C. Forms of evaluation
Written tests: Check learning results of
knowledge.
Simulation: check learning results of skills.
Interviews: check training effects by talking to
the trainees and their supervisors.
Questionnaire: check effectiveness of
instruction materials, trainer and training
methods.
Performance appraisal: check learning transfer
and training effectiveness on job.
5. Modes and Techniques of Training
(1) Training modes
A. On-job training
B. Off-job training
(2) Training techniques