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Attention!

In Even weeks lecture starts earlier!!!


At 16.00 18.00 in room EF. 13-15
In odd weeks at 18.10 -19.40

Midterm exam: 26. October 2010.
Topic: present value calculations
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Investment
decisions and time value of money
Res tantum valet quantum vendi protest
A thing is worth only what someone else will pay for it.
(unknown)

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Learning goals
1. Discuss the role of time value in finance
2. Understand the concepts of future and present
value
3. Find the future and present value of ordinary
annuity
4. Find the present value of a perpetuity
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Materials to learn from
Lawrence J. Gitman: Principles of Managerial Finance,
Addison - Wesley 10th Edition see sharepoint: CH4 +
web
http://wps.aw.com/aw_gitman_pmf_11
Brealey and Myers: Principles of corporate Finance, West
Publishing Company
www.mhhe.com/business/finance

Lecture material



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Basic principles of finance
Time value of money - a
dollar today worth more
than a dollar tomorrow
A safe dollar is worth
more than a risky one
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Basic idea and theories
1. Theory of Present
Value
2. Castle-in-the air
Theory
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Castle-in-the-air Theory
Baloon theory by Lord Keynes
(1936)
Investor psychology
Follow others
Succesful investor: identify
timepoint of building castle in the
air, and buy before that point
Tronics prosperity

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Theory of Present Value
Theory by John B.
Williams
Based on : dividends and
assumes long-term
decisions
Compares actual value
and real value



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Basics
Yield
Rate of return
Rate of interest
Income
Maturity
Nominal/ par/face value-the principal
Future and present value
Simple interest
Compound interest
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Concept of time value of money postulate

All operations with money must be compared
between alternatives to find the best result.

Interest rate is a simple but prominent equivalent of
any change of time value of money.

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Rate of return rule
We accept investments that offer rates of return
in excess of their opportunity cost of capital

Cost of capital invested: the return forgone by
NOT INVESTING in other securities
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Future value and present value
Changing in time value of money gets future and
present nomination
Getting from present value to future value is called
compounding.
Getting from future value to present value is called
discounting.

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PV and FV
PV cash in hand today

FV cash received at given future date

Time line can be used to depict the cash flows
in time
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Simple interest
Present value = discount future value by an appropriate
interest rate
Interest rate opportunity cost of capital
PRINCIPAL AMOUNT OF MONEY ON WHICH INTEREST IS
PAID
Up to 1 year
PV= FV / (1+ r)
FV = PV ( 1+ r)
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Where to use simple interest
Money market instruments
Treasury bills (T-bill)
Local authority/ public utility bills
Certificate of deposit (CD)
Commercial paper (CP)
Bill of exchange
Bankers` acceptance (BA)
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Money market
Short term instruments
Pure discount securities
Contracts up to 1 year
Huge volume and vigorous competition
No physical place
Essentially for professionals ( banks,institutional investors,
brokerage firms, companies)
Liquidity ( fine spreads based on interest rate of lending and
borrowing)
Creditworthiness
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Money market securities
T-bills
Domestic instruments issued by governments to raise short term finance
balancing cashflow
Non-interest bearing and interest-bearing, sold at discount in auction
Negotiable
Generally 13,26,52 weeks
Certificate of deposit - CD
Usually issued by banks, is simple the evidence of time deposit
Negotiable not as time deposit
Sold at discount or pay coupon
Interest payed at maturity
30 days to 3 month or could be longer
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Money market securities 2
Commercial paper- CP
Issued by large, safe and well-known companies
bypassing banks to achieve lower borrowing rates
(sometimes below the banks prime rate)
Very short term (max 270 days, most 60days or less)
Issued at discount
Unsecured security

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Money market securities 3
Trade bill, bills of exchange, bankersacceptance
Used by companies for trade purposes
The seller draws up a bill to the buyer to pay and
asks to sign it
Could be sold at a discount to the bank
Banks signature is a guaranty ( eligible bills in UK
the Bank of England is the guarantor)

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HELP!!!
Computational tools for
finding PV and FV:
Financial tables
Financial Calculators
Computers and
spreadsheets
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FV
FV = PV ( 1+ r)
t

r = interest rate
PV = recent cashflow
FV = future cashflow
t = time period
FVIF= (1 + r)
t
FV = PV ( FVIF)
PV = $100
r = 10%
FV = ?
t = 1 year
t = 3 years
FV = 100 (1 + 0.10) = 110
FV = 100 (1.10)
3
= 133.

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Future value and present value
(1 + r) is a future value factor (FVF)
To simplify calculations of FV use table of FVF.

Years 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%
1 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,1
2 1,02 1,04 1,06 1,08 1,10 1,12 1,14 1,17 1,19 1,21
3 1,03 1,06 1,09 1,12 1,16 1,19 1,23 1,26 1,295 1,33
4 1,04 1,08 1,13 1,17 1,22 1,26 1,31 1,36 1,41 1,46
5 1,05 1,1 1,16 1,22 1,28 1,34 1,40 1,47 1,54 1,61
6 1,06 1,13 1,19 1,27 1,34 1,42 1,50 1,59 1,68 1,77
7 1,07 1,15 1,23 1,32 1,41 1,50 1,61 1,71 1,83 1,94
8 1,08 1,17 1,27 1,37 1,48 1,59 1,72 1,85 1,99 2,14
9 1,09 1,20 1,30 1,42 1,55 1,69 1,84 1,999 2,17 2,36
10 1,1 1,22 1,34 1,48 1,63 1,79 1,97 2,16 2,37 2,59
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Nominal and Effective Annual Rate
of Interest (EAR)
EAR = (1+ r/t )
t
- 1

EAR ?. with increasing compounding
frequency
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Compound Interest 1
Invetments for more than 1 year
Contracts in the capital markets
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Capital market
Instruments
Bonds
Government bonds
Local authority papers
Mortgage or other assets backed bonds
Corporate
Foreign
Junk
Shares
Preferred
Normal
Innovations
Convertibles
Variables
Investment notes


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Present Value
PV = $125
FV = $132
r = ?
PV = FV / DF
DF = discount factor
DF = 1 / 1 + r
DF = PV / FV
DF = 125: 132 = 0.899
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2. Future value and present value
Table of present value factor

Years 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%
1 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,96 0,95 0,94 0,935 0,93 0,92 0,91
2 0,98 0,96 0,94 0,92 0,91 0,89 0,87 0,86 0,84 0,83
3 0,97 0,94 0,92 0,89 0,86 0,84 0,82 0,79 0,77 0,75
4 0,96 0,92 0,89 0,85 0,82 0,79 0,76 0,74 0,71 0,68
5 0,95 0,91 0,87 0,82 0,78 0,75 0,71 0,68 0,65 0,62
6 0,94 0,89 0,84 0,79 0,75 0,70 0,67 0,63 0,596 0,56
7 0,93 0,87 0,81 0,76 0,71 0,67 0,62 0,58 0,55 0,51
8 0,92 0,85 0,79 0,73 0,68 0,63 0,58 0,54 0,50 0,47
9 0,914 0,84 0,77 0,70 0,64 0,59 0,54 0,50 0,46 0,42
10 0,905 0,82 0,74 0,68 0,61 0,56 0,51 0,46 0,42 0,39
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Compound Interest 2
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Compound Interest 3
DF
8
= 0.285
FV
8
=CF
8
= $ 596
PV = ?
PV = FV (DF) = 596 X 0.285 = $170

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Valuing more assets
We have plenty of investments:
PV = PV
1
+ PV
2
+ PV
3
+ .+ PV
n

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Basic patterns of cash flow
Single amount : a lump sum amount
Annuity : A level periodic stream fixed amount
for fixed period of time
Mixed stream: stream of CF that reflects no
particular pattern
Perpetuity: fixed amount of payments forever

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Annuities
Asset that pays a fixed sum each year over a
specified period of time
Outflows or inflows
Expl: house mortgage, Installment credit, bond
Types:
annuity due ( CF at the begining)
Ordinary annuity ( CF at the end of each period)

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Annuities 2
End of year CF
1 100
2 100
3 100
4 100
5 100
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Annuities 3
The model of annuities present value calculation is:
PVa = cf / (1 + r) + cf / (1 + r) + cf / (1+ r) + + cf / (1+ r)-1;
Matematical expression:
PVIFA
r, t
= 1 / r X ( 1 - 1/ (1 + r)
t


Pva = CF X PVIFA
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Calculating The Future Value of an Annuity

Fred wishes to determine
how much money he will
have at the end of 5
years, if he puts $1000 at
the end of each year.
The saving account pays
7% interest per annum
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Future and present value of stream of
cash flow
Table of future value factor of annuity

Years 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%
1 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
2 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,1
3 3,03 3,06 3,09 3,12 3,15 3,18 3,22 3,25 3,28 3,31
4 4,06 4,12 4,2 4,25 4,31 4,38 4,44 4,51 4,57 4,64
5 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,42 5,53 5,64 5,75 5,87 5,99 6,11
6 6,2 6,3 6,5 6,63 6,8 6,98 7,15 7,34 7,52 7,72
7 7,2 7,4 7,7 7,898 8,14 8,39 8,65 8,92 9,2 9,49
8 8,3 8,6 8,9 9,21 9,55 9,897 10,26 10,64 11,03 11,45
9 9,4 9,8 10,16 10,58 11,03 11,49 11,98 12,49 13,02 13,58
10 10,5 10,95 11,46 12,01 12,58 13,18 13,82 14,49 15,19 15,94
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Calculating The Future Value of an Annuity

CF = $1000
t = 5 years
r = 7%
FVa = CF X FVIFA
FVa = CF X (1 + r )
t-1


Years amount PV
1. 1000 1311
2. 1000 1225
3 1000 1145
4. 1000 1070
5. 1000 1000
? 5000 5751
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Table of present value annuity factor


Years 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%
1 0,99 0,98 0,97 0,96 0,95 0,94 0,93 0,925 0,917 0,91
2 1,97 1,94 1,91 1,89 1,86 1,83 1,81 1,78 1,76 1,74
3 2,94 2,88 2,83 2,76 2,72 2,67 2,62 2,58 2,53 2,49
4 3,90 3,81 3,72 3,63 3,55 3,47 3,39 3,31 3,24 3,17
5 4,85 4,71 4,58 4,45 4,33 4,21 4,10 3,99 3,89 3,79
6 5,796 5,60 5,42 5,24 5,08 4,91 4,77 4,62 4,49 4,36
7 6,73 6,47 6,23 6,00 5,79 5,58 5,39 5,21 5,03 4,87
8 7,65 7,33 7,02 6,73 6,46 6,21 5,97 5,75 5,53 5,33
9 8,57 8,16 7,79 7,44 7,11 6,8 6,52 6,25 5,99 5,76
10 9,47 8,98 8,73 8,11 7,72 7,36 7,02 6,71 6,42 6,14
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Thank you
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