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# Heat & Temprature

By…
Syeda Shafaq Batool
&
Rabia Tufail
Agenda
 Define Heat
 Heating & Cooling
 Heat Energy
 Identify the three ways heat can be transferred
 What is temperature
 Temperature Scales
 Common Temperature Comparisons
 Temperature conversions between the
temperature scales
What is HEAT? HEAT ENERGY
• Form of energy and measured in JOULES
• Particles move about more and take up more

## room if heated – this is why things expand if

heated
• It is also why substances change from:
solids liquids gases
when heated
Heating and Cooling
 If an object has become hotter,
it means that it has gained heat energy.
 If an object cools down, it means it has
lost energy
 Heat energy always moves from:

## HOT object COOLER object

HEAT ENERGY

•Energy transfer
Conduction
Convection
Conduction
 Heat is transferred through a material by being
passed from one particle to the next

##  Occurs by the particles hitting each other and so

energy is transferred.

## the HOT end the cold end

Conduction cont…
 Happens best in solids-particles very
close together
 Conduction does not occur very quickly in
liquids or gases
Conductors
 Materials that conduct heat quickly are called
conductors
 All metals are good conductors of heat
 Copper is a very good conductor of heat
 Pans for cooking are usually made with a copper
or aluminium bottom and plastic handles
Insulators/poor conductors
 Materials that conduct heat slowly or poorly are called
insulators
 Glass, wood, plastic and rubber are poor conductors
(good insulators)
 Nearly all liquids including water are poor conductors
(good insulators)
 Gases, including air are poor conductors,e.g., wool
feels warm because it traps a lot of air
 A fridge has insulation material round it to keep it cold –
reduces amount of heat conducted to inside from the
warmer room
Convection
 Takes place in material where particles can move
around inside the material, i.e. liquid or gas
 Convection current rise up and the warmer
molecules goes up to take their place, cooler
molecules from the surface comes down
 Is a continuous process until the heat is being
provided.
Convection Currents
 Hot liquids and gases expand and rise
while the cooler liquid or gas falls
2. Goes across

3. Then down
1. Hot air rises

4. And across
Convection cont…
 The sun can cause large convection
currents - WINDS
 During daytime the land warms up more
than the sea. The warm air rises over the
land and cool air falls over the sea. So we
feel a sea breeze.
 Heat radiation is also known as

 All objects that are hotter than their surroundings give
 Heat transfer by radiation does not need particles to
occur and is the only way energy can be transferred
across empty space
What is temperature?
 Temperature is a degree of hotness or coldness
that can be measured using a thermometer.
 It's also a measure of how fast the atoms and
molecules of a substance are moving.
 Temperature is measured in degrees on the
Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales.
Temperature Scales
 Three temperature scales are in common use
in science and industry.
1. The degree Celsius (°C) scale was devised by
dividing the range of temperature between the
freezing and boiling temperatures of pure
water at standard atmospheric conditions (sea
level pressure) into 100 equal parts.
Temperature Scales
 The kelvin (K) temperature scale is an extension of
the degree Celsius scale down to absolute zero, a
hypothetical temperature characterized by a
complete absence of heat energy.
 The degree Fahrenheit (°F) non-metric temperature
scale was devised and evolved over time so that the
freezing and boiling temperatures of water are whole
numbers, but not round numbers as in the Celsius
temperature scale.
Some baseline temperatures in the three
temperature scales
Common Temperature Comparisons
Temperature conversions between the
temperature scales

## kelvin / degree Celsius conversions

 kelvin = degree Celsius + 273.15
 degree Celsius = kelvin - 273.15

## degree Fahrenheit / degree Celsius conversions

 degree F = degree C x 1.8 + 32.
 degree C = (degree F - 32.) / 1.8