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Strategic Management

Dwita Sastiyana
326445
Muhamad Ahnaf Lubab
327440
Sekar Ayu Kinanti
326330
Woro Nugraheni
326005
Alien Akmalia
326010
A conceptual discussion
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Faculty of Economics and Business
Magister Sains
Are these statements
strategy?

1. My strategy is to internationalize
2. My strategy is to consolidate my industry
3. My strategy ramp up my R&D budget
4. My strategy is to outsource more of my
production
Definition of strategy
Performing different activities from
rivals or performing similar activities
in different ways
M. Porter
A firms theory about how to compete
successfully
J. Barney
In its broadest sense, strategy is the
means by which individuals or
organizations achieve their objectives
Grant
Operational Effectiveness &
Strategy
Operational
Effectiveness
Performing similar
activities better than
rivals perform them
Strategy
Performing different
activities from rivals
or performing
similar activities in
different ways
Strategy Rests on Unique
Activities

Competitive Strategy is about
being different


The Origins of Strategic Position :
1. variety based positioning
2. needs based positioning
3. access based positioning

Strategy Rests on Unique
Activities
Choose activities that are
different from rivals
Strategy is the creation of a
unique and valuable
position
A Sustainable strategic position
requires trade-offs
Trade-offs arise for three reasons :

1
Inconsistencies in image or
reputation
2
Arise from activities themselves
3
Arise from limits on internal
coordination & control
A Sustainable strategic position
requires trade-offs
To choose what not to do
Strategy is making trade-
offs in competing
Fit Drives Both Competitive
Advantage & Sustainability
Strategy is about combining activities
The importance of fit
Types of fit :
- simple consistency between each
activity (function) and the over all strategy
- occurs when activities are reinforcing
- optimization effort

Fit Drives Both Competitive
Advantage & Sustainability
The success of a strategy depends on doing
many things well and integrating among them

Strategy is creating fit among a company
activities
The Strategy Concept :
Five Ps For Strategy

Strategy as Plan



Some sort of consciously intended course
of action, a guideline (or set of guidelines)
to deal with a situation
The Strategy Concept :
Five Ps For Strategy
Strategy as Plan
Strategies characteristics:
Made in advance of the actions to which they
apply
Develop consciously and purposefully
As plan, strategies may be:
General
Specific


The Strategy Concept :
Five Ps For Strategy






Strategy take us into realm of direct competition
Where threats and feints and various other
maneuvers are employed to gain advantage.

Strategy as Pattern


Strategy focuses on action
Also introduce another important
phenomenon in organization, that of
convergence, the achievement of consistency
behavior
The Strategy Concept :
Five Ps For Strategy

The Strategy Concept :
Five Ps For Strategy
Strategy as Position


A means of locating an organization in
what organization theorists like to call an
environment
To look at organization in context
Specifically in their competitive
environment


The Strategy Concept :
Five Ps For Strategy
Strategy as Perspective


Its content consisting not just of chosen
position, but of an ingrained way of
perceiving the world
Suggest above all the strategy is
concept.

Strategies About what?

Letak Strategi dalam
Perusahaan
Elemen-elemen Strategi
Arenas
(lingkungan
industri)
Vehicle
(cara mencapai
tujuan)
Differentiators
(faktor pembeda
perusahaan)
Staging
(tahapan
pelaksanaan
strategi)
Economics
Logic
(logika/cara
mencapai
keuntungan)
Contoh Staging 1
Contoh Staging 2
Penerapan Strategi
Perusahaan IKEA
Several aspects of the
concept of strategy:
1. Strategy as a theory
The examples of firms that have developed and
implemented appropriate & inappropriate theories:

Appropriate theory
Microsoft, Disney, Wal-Mart
Inappropriate theory
Honda, Yugo
2. Strategy and competitive
advantage
What it might mean to compete successfully



Competing very successfully
to gain a competitive advantage
1
Competing successfully
to gain competitive parity
2
Competing unsuccessfully
to gain competitive disadvantage
3
Successful strategy by Grant
3. Strategy and a firms
mission
A firms mission a firms theory of how to compete successfully &
gain competitive advantages is based on its mission.
Relationship between a firms mission, its objectives, strategies &
strategies & tactics:

Mission


Objectives
Strategies
Tactics/Policies
4. Strategy and the setting
within which a firm operates
Most successful strategic theories address
4 aspects of the setting within which a firm
operates:
1. Strengths
2. Weaknesses SWOT analyses
3. Opportunities
4. Threats

Multiple Roles of Strategy
Strategy as Decision
Support
Strategy as a Coordinating
Device
Strategy as Target
Evolution of strategic
management: dominant themes
Terima Kasih
If you know the enemy and
know yourself, you need not
fear the result of a hundred
battles. If you know yourself but
not the enemy, for every victory
gained you will also suffer a
defeat. If you know neither the
enemy nor yourself,
you will succumb in every
battle
Sun Tzu, The Art of War,
Special Edition