Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 148

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 1

FUNDAMENTALS
OF DWDM
Course Code:
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 2
Class Round-Robin
Introductions
Participant Introductions
Name
Position
Location (city)
How long with Reliance Infocom?
How long in the Telecommunications
Industry?
India
International
Expectations
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 3
Course Logistics
PowerPoint Presentation
Follow along with the trainer
Student Guide
Glossary of Terminology
Support information
Logistics
Breaks
Toilets
Lunch
Water and soft drinks
Mobile phones

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 4
Learning Objectives -
On successful completion of this course the participants would be able to:
Describe the key elements of Transport in a Ring topology
Identify the limitations of PDH transmission
Define the concept of Virtual Containers
Describe the process of mapping PDH payload into SDH frame
Describe the SDH multiplexing hierarchy
Identify the Lower and Higher order Path Overheads
Define the Regenerator section & Multiplexer section overheads
Identify the Protection mechanisms
Describe the Synchronisation process
Identify the various types of Optical Fibre
Describe the various losses in Optical Fibre
Describe the concept of Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
Identify the critical elements of DWDM
Describe the functioning of Optical ADM and Amplifiers
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 5
Your Questions
The only dumb question is one that is not asked!
Raise your hand!
Ask on a break.
Use Question Board.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 6
Module 1

REVIEW OF
COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 7
Why Communicate
Communication is the means
to convey ones needs,
feelings, urgency, etc. or to
provide information to
someone specific, to a
group or to everyone in
general.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 8
Verbal (speak, listen)
Written (mail, e-mail)
Body language (video!)
Sensory, ESP (!?)
Modes of Communication
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 9
Mediums of Communication
Post & Telegraph
Phone & Cell-Phone
Internet, e-mail
Voice-mail
Video Phone


Proprietary & Confidential Slide 10
Model of Telecommunication
A
c
c
e
s
s

A
c
c
e
s
s

Switch Switch
Services
Transport
Signaling
Operation Support
Systems
Access Access
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 11
Module 2

MEDIA & TOPOLOGY
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 12
Guided Media
Electrical
RF or mW through Wave Guide
Optical through OFC

Un-guided Media
RF or mW through free air
Optical through free air
Guided and Un-guided Media
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 13
Copper cables (UTP, STP, Co-ax, )
Simple and easy to use, least in cost
Bandwidth-distance limitation, Attenuation, Interference,
Maintenance problems
Tran receivers: simple electronic driver/ receivers
Simple & easy to use, least in cost
Power Output & Sensitivity is a function of various factors
Guided Media: Electrical
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 14
Optical Fiber Cable
Not so easy to use, costlier than copper cable
Very high Bandwidth, very low Attenuation, No Interference,
Connecting is a high skill job
Maintenance problems
Tran receivers: complicated LASER driver/ receivers
Costly, difficult to maintain, hazardous
Power Output & Sensitivity has a wide range
Guided Media: Optical
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 15
mW/ RF Waveguides
Difficult to use, costliest
High Bandwidth, low Attenuation,
Connecting is a high skill job
Maintenance problems
Impractical over long distances (telecommunication)
Tran receivers: complicated mW/ RF driver/ receivers
Costly, difficult to maintain, hazardous
Power Output & Sensitivity have to be fine tuned
Guided Media: mW and RF
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 16
Air (media) & Frequency band (for separation)
Air is free (till now!) but Frequency bands are licensed (mostly)
Mostly Line-of-sight communication, but for low frequencies
Limited Bandwidth, Attenuation depend on several factors,
Tran receivers: complicated mW/ RF driver/ receivers
Costly, difficult to maintain, hazardous
Power Output & Sensitivity have to be fine tuned
Location and geography are factors
Maintenance problems
Un-Guided Media: mW and RF
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 17
Journey through the Optical Tunnel
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 18
TOTAL INTERNAL REFRACTION
Snells Law: n1*sin1 = n2*sin 2
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 19
So all you need is TIR!
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 20
Transmitter - fundamentals of emission
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 21
Emission by P-N junction
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 22
Source composition
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 23
Light Source comparison
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 24
Transmit-Receive Overview
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 25
Transmitter & Receiver Functions
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 26
Transmitter Simple Block Diagram
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 27
Modulations at the Transmitter
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 28
Transmitter Basic Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 29
Receiver Simple Block Diagram
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 30
Receiver Basic Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 31
LASER Temperature Compensation
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 32
Receiver Noise-list
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 33
Acceptance angle 1 is the maximum angle of incidence onto a fiber such
that the refracted wave inside the fiber doesnt cross the Critical angle (of
TIR).
1 = sin
-1
[( n1
2
- n2
2
)]
Acceptance Angle
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 34
Multi Mode Fiber
Multiple wave-fronts enter and propagate through the core
Different wave-fronts would take different time period to travel through
the entire distance of the core.
This is because different wave-fronts are traversing different distances.
Net effect is that a sharp square pulse gets distorted and spread out
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 35
Dispersion eats your BW
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 36
Number of Modes:

M = V
2
/2
Multi Mode Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 37
Graded Index Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 38
Graded Index Fiber less dispersion
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 39
Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 40
Single Mode Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 41
Profiles of SM Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 42
Energy Distribution in SM Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 43
LED: Typical spectral width 75-125 nm LASER: Typical spectral width 2-5 nm
Chromatic Dispersion
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 44
Different frequency/ wavelength have different velocity of propagation
A single pulse would have several wavelengths
Each wavelength would travel at different speed
Thereby causing Chromatic dispersion
Material Dispersion
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 45
Polarisation
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 46
Attenuation in Optical Fiber
A. Rayleigh Scattering
Rayleigh scattering is caused by small variations in the
density of glass as it cools.
These variations are smaller than the wavelengths used and
therefore act as scattering objects.
Scattering affects short wavelengths more than long
wavelengths and limits the use of wavelengths below 800 nm.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 47
Attenuation in Optical Fiber
B. Stimulated Raman Scattering
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)is an effect which transfers power from
a signal at a shorter wavelength to a signal at a longer wavelength.
The process is caused by the interaction of signal light waves with vibrating
molecules (optical phonons) within the silica fiber. Light is then scattered in
all directions. This effect has its maximum for a wavelength difference
between the two signals of about 100 nm (13.2 THz).
l
l
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 48
Attenuation in Optical Fiber
C. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)is a backscattering process causing
loss of power.
With high power, the signal lightwaves induce periodic changes in the
refractive index of the fiber.
This can be described as a virtual grating traveling away from the signal as
an acoustic wave.
The signal itself is then scattered, but mostly reflected off this induced
grating.
This effect occurs when only a few channels are transmitted.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 49
Attenuation in Optical Fiber
D. Absorption
Caused by the intrinsic properties of the material itself, the
impurities in the glass, and any atomic defects in the glass.
These impurities absorb the optical energy, causing the light to
become dimmer.
Intrinsic absorption is an issue at longer wavelengths and
increases dramatically above 1700 nm.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 51
Attenuation in Optical Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 52
Whats Power in dbm terms
Its simple to relate to attenuation if Power is also expressed in terms of db.
So if mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log
10
(P/mW)
Where mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log
10
(P/mW)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 53
Whats the dbm & db mathematics
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 54
Exercise 1: Attenuation in Optical Fiber
For the above please calculate the following:
1. Attenuation in dB =
2. Attenuation per km =
3. Pout in dBm =
Pout in dBm = 2 mW (i.e 3 dBm) 9.03 dB = -6.97 dBm

Please check your calculations as per the results shown by the instructor.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 55
Optical Fiber Standards
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 56
Optical Fiber Standards
Designs of single-mode fiber have evolved over several decades. The
three principle types and their ITU-T specifications are:
Non-dispersion-shifted fiber (NDSF), G.652
Minimum dispersion at 1310 nm
Dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), G.653
Minimum dispersion at 1550 nm
Non-linear amplification for various wavelengths
Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF), G.655
Optimum dispersion at 1550 nm
Linear amplification for various wavelengths

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 57
Optical Fiber Bandwidth
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 58
Optical Fiber vs Copper Wire
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 59
Bending Losses
Micro bending
Deformation of fiber axis (axial distortion)
during cabling causes light to couple out
of the fiber.

Macro bending
Loss due to excessive bending.
Fiber Bending radius < 3 mm

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 60
Bending Losses
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 61
Optical Fiber Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 62
Optical Fiber Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 63
Optical Fiber Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 64
Optical Fiber Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 65
Optical Fiber Specifications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 66
Optical Fiber Splicing
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 67
Optical Fiber Splicing
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 68
Optical Fiber Splicing
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 69
Optical Fiber Splicing
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 70
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 71
Exercise 2: Star vs Ring Topology
Lets consider a location with 16
Access nodes, equidistant from a
Switch located at the center.
1. What would be the total
distance of media in
Star Topology:



2. What would be the total
media distance in Ring
Topology with two rings
as shown:
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 72
Exercise 2: Star vs Ring Topology contd.
In a similar location lets consider 8
Access nodes with a Switch located
at the center. Now:
1. What would be the total
distance of media in
Star Topology:



2. What would be the total
media distance in Ring
Topology with two rings
as shown:
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 73
Star vs Ring Topology
Total media distance is not
necessary more/ less for Star/
Ring topology.
It should be examined on a
case to case basis.
In Star transmission remains
point to point between each
node.
In Ring a Add-drop function/
technique is needed at each
node.
In Star link failure is isolated,
in ring it needs to be overcome
by protection technique.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 74
Payload Manager
Payload Manager
Ring Elements & Terminologies
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 75
Module 3

DENSE
WAVE DIVISION
MULTIPLEXING
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 76
Network scenario of near future!
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 77
OPTICAL MULTIPLEXERS
SINGLE FIBER
WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING
MULTIPLE FIBER
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 78
Evolution of DWDM
It took about 2 decades to perfect the technique!
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 79
DWDM Records!
140 G up to 65 km (Alcatel98). PMD Limited.
32 5 G to 9300 km (1998)
64 5 G to 7200 km (Lucent97)
10010 G to 400 km (Lucent97)
1610 G to 6000 km (1998)
13220 G to 120 km (NEC96)
7020 G to 600 km (NTT97)
1022 Wavelengths on one fiber (Lucent 99)
Ref: OFC9x
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 80
Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
DWDM
Standard support 1000 colors of light, only 160 colors supported
today
Key players - Ciena, Cerent (Cisco), Lucent, Marconi, Nortel,
Siemens, Sycamore
Supports PoS packet over Sonet to Wavelength
Supports LAMBDA routing

Attenuation
Wavelength
1.3
1.4 1.5 1.6
(mm)
1.0 dB/KM
0.3
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 81
Fiber Optics
Serves as the transmission medium for most carriers backbone network
Physically links every major metropolitan area in the United States,
Canada, and the United Kingdom
Now deployed in The Reliance Network
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 82
ITU-T WAVELENGTH GRID
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 83
Single & Multi Longitudinal Mode LASER
Multi Longitudinal Mode (MLM) LASER
Single Longitudinal Mode (MLM) LASER
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 84
Four Way Mixing
Caused when multiple wavelengths travel in the same phase for long time
New signals are generated at the same frequency spacing as original: f1,f2
2f2-f1, 2f1-f2
Closer channels More FWM
More power More FWM
Less dispersion More time same phase More FWM
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 85
Four Way Mixing
Dispersion Optimized Fiber:
Non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZ-DSF)
4 ps/nm/km near 1530-1570nm band
Avoids four-way mixing
Dispersion Compensating Fiber:
Standard fiber has 17 ps/nm/km. DCF -100 ps/nm/km
100 km of standard fiber followed by 17 km of DCF zero dispersion

Standard Fiber Dispersion Compensating Fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 86
A Typical DWDM Link
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 87
Typical DWDM Link spans
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 88
Optical Fiber Coupling
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 89
Monochromator
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 90
Customized Bandwidth
OC-48
STM16
OC-3/STM1
OC-12/STM4
OC-24/STM8
OC-N
Delhi
Bombay
Cal
Chennai
Nagpur
X-Connect
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 91
WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 94
PUMP LASER
Band pass
Filter
WDM
Coupler
Erbium
Doped
DM
Coupler
Isolator
Input
Isolator
PUMP LASER
980 or 1480 nm 980 or 1480 nm
ERBIUM DOPED FIBER AMPLIFIER (EDFA)
OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 95
OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION
1480 nm
l1, l2, l3, ln
l1, l2, l3, ln
Stable Sate
Unstable
Sate
Meta-stable
Sate
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 96
1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600
-70
-68
-66
-64
-62
-60
-58
-56
1460 - 1550nm
Tm 6000ppm Er 1200ppm

100 cm
50 cm
25 cm
13 cm
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
Wavelength (nm)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 97
1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650
-2. 0
-1. 5
-1. 0
-0. 5
0. 0
0. 5
1. 0
1. 5
2. 0


G
a
i
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(
m
-
1
)
Wavelength(nm)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 98
Raman Amplifier
RFAs use the Raman effect or
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)
to transfer power from the pump laser
at a shorter wavelength to the optical
signal.
It uses either the embedded fiber as
the active medium (distributed Raman
amplification), or a part of the fiber
inside a structure (discrete Raman
amplification).
The optical fiber is commonly counter
pumped (pumped backwards) with a
600 mW laser which is most efficient
with a wavelength difference of 100 nm
(13.2 THz) to the signal.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 99
OPTera Long Haul 1600 Application
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 100
Unidirectional two-fiber arrangements can support up to 80
wavelengths over both the C- and L-Bands.
This offering corresponds to up to 0.8 Tbps (or 800Gbps) aggregate
traffic capacity at 10 Gbps.
OPTera LH Release 3 introduces the OPTera 1600G C-Band
unidirectional application.
OPTera LH Release 3 supports up to 40 wavelengths in the C-Band
(or 400 Gbps).

Unidirectional topology
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 101
Unidirectional topology
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 102
Unidirectional topology:
80 wavelengths on each fiber
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 103
Bi-directional single-fiber arrangements can support up to 160
wavelengths or 80 channels over both the C and L-Bands.

A future release of OPTera 1600G configured as bi-directional
will employ up to 80 wavelengths in the C-Band with an
additional 80 wavelengths in the L-Band when required. These
channels are designed to co-propagate and counter-propagate
in each band.

Bi-directional topology
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 104
Bi-directional topology (future release):

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 105
Module 4

RELIANCE
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 106
Reliance Fiber, SDH and
WDM/DWDM
The infrastructure
Fiber
G.652
G.652 SSMF Standard Single Mode Fiber
Reliance will use to support low data rates (below 80gbps)
G.655
G.655 NZDSF Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber
Reliance will use for high traffic areas
Can support 80gbps
SDH
BSHR Bi-directional Self Healing Ring
WDM/DWDM
WDM: 32 channels of 2.5gbps
DWDM (Phase I) 40 channels of 10gbps
DWDM (Phase II) 80 channels of 10gbps
DWDM (Phase III) 160 channels of 10gbps
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 107

$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Wai
Pen
Bi d
Bhuj
Moga
Kota
I dar
Ar ni
Pune
Guna
Sor o
Zir a
Tuni
Agra
Vapi
Vi ta
Jind
Rew a
Mhow Dhar
Kal ol
Al war
Udupi
Hubli
Medak
Kar ur
Ponda
Botad
Padra
Adoor
G ubbi
R aman
D ahod
Armur
Pat na
Panji
Sur at
Sir sa
Ajmer
Kolar
Elur u
Unnao
Er ode
Sal em
Arr ah
Betul
Dewas
Sihor
Anand
Hansi
Kalka
N abha
Morvi
Pal ai
Tirur
Gokak
Hapur
Hosur
Sayan
Gudur
Har ur
Hal ol
Bidar
Ranni
Sat na
Sagar Kat ni
Akol a
Kar ad
Latur
D hul e
Jal na
Bar si
Sunam
Att ur
Kat wa
Habr a
Velur
Shi mla
Put tur
Rew ari
Keshod
Sanand
Bor sad
Dabhoi
Gohana
Gaj wel
Bodhan
Amroha
Tamluk
Abohar
Modasa
Saswad
Khurda
Thur be
Ranchi
Sangl i
Amrel i
Valsad
Godhra
Roht ak
Karnal
Ambal a
Rajkot
Jai pur
Qui lon
Mysor e
Tumkur
Guntur
Ongole
Kanpur
Rampur
Naw ada
Sat ara
Kalyan
Newasa
N agpur
I ndore
U jjai n Sehore
Bhopal
Mor ena
Limbdi
D hol ka N adi ad
Bar ar a
Beaw ar
U pleta Jet pur
N irmal
Vai kom
Mandya
Tenal i
Kavali
Kovvur
Tanuku
Omalur
Anekal
Bokar o
Meerut
Pal wal
Hissar
Tri chy
Mumbai
It ar si
Rat lam
Kuppam
Karw ar
Tiptur
Hospet
D ahanu
Junnar
Niphad
Rahur i
Nanded
Wardha
Mar gao
Gondia
Al ibag
Batal a
Malaut
Pal ani
C umbum
Bolpur
Haldia
Rai pur
Sidhpur
Khammam
Punalur
Jal gaon
Bar nala
Jodhpur
Bell ary
Bi japur
Bantval
Shimoga
Kai thal
Nuzvidu
Vuyyur u
Bapat la
Bhadohi
Sojit ra
Ki ranur
Sarhi nd
Bhar uch
Mehsana
G urgaon
Soni pat
Kurnool Belgaum
Nell or e
Al igar h
Lucknow
Mat hura
Si tapur
Chennai
Madurai
D hanbad
Tasgaon
Sol apur
Gwal ior
Bhadrak
Navsar i
Vijapur
Pani pat
Pati ala
Samral a
Rajpur a
Dhoraj i
Al athur
Medchal
Sompeta
Tr ichur
Hathr as
D eoband
Asansol
Bhavani
Ponneri
Cut tack
Khopoli
Tir upur
R ani pet
Miyagam
Dabw al i
Danapur
Pal ghat
Nandyal
Jagt ial
Repall e
Chir ala
Bhongir
Bar dol i
Bhi wani
Jhaj jar
Bhatkal
Kar kal a
Manj er i
N eemuch
Chipl un
Palghar
Yeot mal
Sangr ur
Tenkasi
Vellor e
Bangaon
Raichur
Putt uru
Cuddapah
Warangal
Dindi gul
Pollachi
Gulbar ga
Kaki nada
N amakkal
Bar amati
Visnagar
Si ddi pet
Arsiker e
Mulbagal
Palladum
Nil ambur
Fi rozpur
Bi li mora
Tir upati
Bari pada
Junagadh
Jamnagar
Vadodara
Ludhi ana
Amr it sar
Nalgonda
Adilabad
Kot tayam
Dehradun
Var anasi
Barei lly
Calcutt a
Kol hapur
Bhi wandi
Shivpur i
Phi llaur
Phagwar a
Kot putl i
Sur yapet
Badagara
Dur gapur
Avanashi
Att ingal
Lonaval a
H umnabad
Bathi nda
Jagadhri
Islampur
C hitt oor
Metpal li
Gudi vada
Sir cil la
Palanpur
Bagal kot
Kundapur
Kal petta
Mandsaur
Malegaon
Bhusawal
Bhandara
Canacona
Kar aikal
Ar iyalur
Kangayam
R anaghat
Basir hat
Jabal pur
Raurkel a
Kanhangad
Amr avat hi
Gor akhpur
Davangere
Mangalore
N anj angud
Ti ruvar ur
Koduvayur
Modinagar
U dumalpet
Bangarpet
Tir ut tani
Vall iyoor
C hinchwad
Baleshwar
Ghaziabad
Kozhikode
Vijayw ada
N ewD el hi
N asi kci ty
Bhavnagar
Far idabad
Anant apur
Hyderabad
Nizamabad
Ernakul am
All ahabad
Mor adabad
Cuddal ore
Thanjavur
Ber hampur
Porbander
Fatehabad
Nathdwar a
All agadda
Zahir abad
N andi gama
Kamar eddy
Bhimadol e
N ager coil
Sankagir i
Papanasam
Nanguneri
Tut icor in
Sull urpet
N ilokher i
Fari dakot
Kotkapur a
Karai kudi
Alappuzha
Kharagpur
Shadnagar
Sivaganga
Rasipur am
Roor kee- I
Pr oddatur
Huzurabad
Tadipatr i
Kaikalur u
Kasar gode
Osmanabad
Sangamner
Kopar agon
R at nagir i
Dhenkanal
Gurdaspur
Pathankot
Arakkonam
Mett ur dam
Berhampur
Gandhidham
Kar imnagar
Peddapall e
Bhi mavar am
Sher tal lai
Hoshiarpur
Mal erkotl a
Bi kaner
Oot acamund
Kapur thal a
Pandhar pur
Narai ngarh
Hazurnagar
Peddapuram
Thodupuzha
Kanakapura
Mannar gudi
Wanapar thy
Bat lagundu
Par amakudi
Chhachhrau
H imat nagar
Jal landhar
Sr ikakulam
Sahar anpur
C oimbat ore
Jamshedpur
C hhat r apur
Khambhali a
Hindupur am
Sangareddy
Ramannapet
Anakapal le
Per undur ai
Kovil patt i
Tindi vanam
Nedumandad
Tir upathur
Pandavpur a
Dhanmandal
Ankl eshwar
Bar ddhaman
Medar met la
Aurangabad
Thi ruval la
Devakott ai
Gudi yatham
C handi garh
Mir yalguda
Kot hagudem
Amal apuram
Mancher ial
Shor anmpur
Chhindwar a
Chandrapur
Per ambalur
Tir upat tur
Vil lupur am
Kri shnagar
Ahmednagar
Tell icherr y
Bul andshahr
Dhar mavar am
Chall apal le
Raibarei ll y
Nar saraopet
Tir uvel lor e
Patt ukott ai
Ti runel vel i
Chi kodi
Pudukkot tai
Bahadur garh
Taran Tar an
Maveli kkar a
Nelamangala
Mangal agir i
C hidambar am
Kr ishnagir i
Channapat na
Nawanshahar
Vaniyambadi
Dhar amapuri
Kuzhi thurai
Shri Rampur
Kur ukshetr a
Rajahmundry Jaggayyapet
Dronachalam
Pondicherr y
Sri nivaspur Chikmagalur
Chit radur ga
Talipar amba
Kunnamkul am
Dhar ampur am
Tiruchendur
Kal lkur ichi
Rajapalayam
Muvatt upuzha
Nagapatt inam
Tir uchengode
C hikball apur
Oddanchat r am
Bi har S hari f
Madur ant akam
Vizianagar am
Gandhi Nagar
Shahj ahanpur
Vir udhunagar
I ri njalakuda
Gowr ibidanur
Basavakalyan
Chengal patt u
Mahabubnagar
Amber
Kancheepur am
Thir umanglam
Bhubaneshwar
Jagapur Road
Jagapur Town
Khadakw asal a
Kanj ir apal ly
Rajgur unagar
Ambasamudram
I chal kar anji
Sri Ganganagar
Ar uppukkott ai
Vi rudhachalam
R ibag(Kudchi )
Vadakkanchery
Pathanamthit ta
Shir ol
Mi rzapur -I
Jansath
Ramachandrapur am
Rajsamand
Muzaf far Naga
D odbal lapur
Mayil aduthur ai
H ukker i
C handaul i
Mehmdabad
Tekkali
Bangal or e
Kar unagapal ly
Visakhapatnam
Ahmedabad
Sr ikalahasthi
Sr iper umpudur
Kovvur
Bandar ( Machili patnam)
Surendr anagar
Gadag-beti ger
Per inthal mann
Thir urai poondi
Tir uvannamala
Gobichett ipalayam
Sankaran Koil
R amanathpur am
Mett uppalayam
Satyamangal am
Gi rw a(U dai pur)
Chhata( Kosika)
Bassein( Vasai)
Theni
Gooty( Gunt akal )
Thir uvananthapur am
Fat ehpur - I
Jangareddi gudem
Ghatkeshwar ( HydE ast )
Shamshabad( HydWest)
Narsapur (Pal akollu)
Roor kee- II (H ardw ar )
Durg
H assan
C annanor e
D arbhanga
Pali
Muzaff arpur
Hoskot e
Dhr ol
Limbda
Bagodara
Sayla
Amar nagar
Bhadt har
Alina
X( Barw ala)
Bhachau
Shi kar pur
Mandapeta
Odhan
Igatpur i
Shi rur
Kale
X
X
X
Kut ti ppuram
Tir ubuvanam
Kol lidam
Kumbakonam
H azi gar
Ghatsi la
Akbar pur
Bagodar
Urw aMor e
Tamar
H arnaut
Dinara Dur gawati
Saini
Yamunanagar
Garh
Sanri ya
Baluana
Ar ini Estat e
HosaAgr ahara
Udeva
Vel lur
Bailhongal
Nar gund
Yel avigi
Basapur Har panahal li
Dhekuna
N aya Baradw ar
Kudopali
R air akhol
Sambal pur
Bi laspur
Raigarh
Anugul
Bamhani U rai dabr i
War ora
Badnagar Ashta Thandal a
Zalaki
Sangavi
Mhasve
Chik hali
Khamgaon Murtij apur

$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Wai
Pen
Bi d
Bhuj
Moga
Kota
I dar
Ar ni
Pune
Guna
Sor o
Zir a
Tuni
Agra
Vapi
Vi ta
Jind
Rew a
Mhow Dhar
Kal ol
Al war
Udupi
Hubli
Medak
Kar ur
Ponda
Botad
Padra
Adoor
G ubbi
R aman
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Wai
Pen
Bi d
Bhuj
Moga
Kota
I dar
Ar ni
Pune
Guna
Sor o
Zir a
Tuni
Agra
Vapi
Vi ta
Jind
Rew a
Mhow Dhar
Kal ol
Al war
Udupi
Hubli
Medak
Kar ur
Ponda
Botad
Padra
Adoor
G ubbi
R aman
D ahod
Armur
Pat na
Panji
Sur at
Sir sa
Ajmer
Kolar
Elur u
Unnao
Er ode
Sal em
Arr ah
Betul
Dewas
Sihor
Anand
Hansi
Kalka
N abha
Morvi
Pal ai
Tirur
Gokak
Hapur
Hosur
Sayan
Gudur
Har ur
Hal ol
Bidar
Ranni
Sat na
Sagar Kat ni
Akol a
Kar ad
Latur
D hul e
Jal na
D ahod
Armur
Pat na
Panji
Sur at
Sir sa
Ajmer
Kolar
Elur u
Unnao
Er ode
Sal em
Arr ah
Betul
Dewas
Sihor
Anand
Hansi
Kalka
N abha
Morvi
Pal ai
Tirur
Gokak
Hapur
Hosur
Sayan
Gudur
Har ur
Hal ol
Bidar
Ranni
Sat na
Sagar Kat ni
Akol a
Kar ad
Latur
D hul e
Jal na
Bar si
Sunam
Att ur
Kat wa
Habr a
Velur
Shi mla
Put tur
Rew ari
Keshod
Sanand
Bor sad
Dabhoi
Gohana
Gaj wel
Bodhan
Amroha
Tamluk
Abohar
Modasa
Saswad
Khurda
Thur be
Ranchi
Sangl i
Amrel i
Valsad
Godhra
Roht ak
Karnal
Ambal a
Rajkot
Jai pur
Qui lon
My
Bar si
Sunam
Att ur
Kat wa
Habr a
Velur
Shi mla
Put tur
Rew ari
Keshod
Sanand
Bor sad
Dabhoi
Gohana
Gaj wel
Bodhan
Amroha
Tamluk
Abohar
Modasa
Saswad
Khurda
Thur be
Ranchi
Sangl i
Amrel i
Valsad
Godhra
Roht ak
Karnal
Ambal a
Rajkot
Jai pur
Qui lon
Mysor e
Tumkur
Guntur
Ongole
Kanpur
Rampur
Naw ada
Sat ara
Kalyan
Newasa
N agpur
I ndore
U jjai n Sehore
Bhopal
Mor ena
Limbdi
D hol ka N adi ad
Bar ar a
Beaw ar
U pleta Jet pur
N irmal
Vai kom
Mandya
Tenal i
Kavali
Kovvur
Tanuku
Omalur
Anekal
Bokar o
Meer
sor e
Tumkur
Guntur
Ongole
Kanpur
Rampur
Naw ada
Sat ara
Kalyan
Newasa
N agpur
I ndore
U jjai n Sehore
Bhopal
Mor ena
Limbdi
D hol ka N adi ad
Bar ar a
Beaw ar
U pleta Jet pur
N irmal
Vai kom
Mandya
Tenal i
Kavali
Kovvur
Tanuku
Omalur
Anekal
Bokar o
Meerut
Pal wal
Hissar
Tri chy
Mumbai
It ar si
Rat lam
Kuppam
Karw ar
Tiptur
Hospet
D ahanu
Junnar
Niphad
Rahur i
Nanded
Wardha
Mar gao
Gondia
Al ibag
Batal a
Malaut
Pal ani
C umbum
Bolpur
Haldia
Rai pur
Sidhpur
Khammam
Punalur
Jal gaon
Bar nala
Jodhpur
ut
Pal wal
Hissar
Tri chy
Mumbai
It ar si
Rat lam
Kuppam
Karw ar
Tiptur
Hospet
D ahanu
Junnar
Niphad
Rahur i
Nanded
Wardha
Mar gao
Gondia
Al ibag
Batal a
Malaut
Pal ani
C umbum
Bolpur
Haldia
Rai pur
Sidhpur
Khammam
Punalur
Jal gaon
Bar nala
Jodhpur
Bell ary
Bi japur
Bantval
Shimoga
Kai thal
Nuzvidu
Vuyyur u
Bapat la
Bhadohi
Sojit ra
Ki ranur
Sarhi nd
Bhar uch
Mehsana
G urgaon
Soni pat
Kurnool Belgaum
Nell or e
Al igar h
Lucknow
Mat hura
Si tapur
Chennai
Madurai
D hanbad
Tasgaon
Sol apur
Gwal
Bell ary
Bi japur
Bantval
Shimoga
Kai thal
Nuzvidu
Vuyyur u
Bapat la
Bhadohi
Sojit ra
Ki ranur
Sarhi nd
Bhar uch
Mehsana
G urgaon
Soni pat
Kurnool Belgaum
Nell or e
Al igar h
Lucknow
Mat hura
Si tapur
Chennai
Madurai
D hanbad
Tasgaon
Sol apur
Gwal ior
Bhadrak
Navsar i
Vijapur
Pani pat
Pati ala
Samral a
Rajpur a
Dhoraj i
Al athur
Medchal
Sompeta
Tr ichur
Hathr as
D eoband
Asansol
Bhavani
Ponneri
Cut tack
Khopoli
Tir upur
R ani pet
Miyagam
Dabw al i
Danapur
Pal ghat
Nandyal
Jagt ial
Repall e
C
ior
Bhadrak
Navsar i
Vijapur
Pani pat
Pati ala
Samral a
Rajpur a
Dhoraj i
Al athur
Medchal
Sompeta
Tr ichur
Hathr as
D eoband
Asansol
Bhavani
Ponneri
Cut tack
Khopoli
Tir upur
R ani pet
Miyagam
Dabw al i
Danapur
Pal ghat
Nandyal
Jagt ial
Repall e
Chir ala
Bhongir
Bar dol i
Bhi wani
Jhaj jar
Bhatkal
Kar kal a
Manj er i
N eemuch
Chipl un
Palghar
Yeot mal
Sangr ur
Tenkasi
Vellor e
Bangaon
Raichur
Putt uru
Cuddapah
Warangal
Dindi gul
Pollachi
Gulbar ga
Kaki nada
N amakkal
Bar amati
Visnagar
Si d
hir ala
Bhongir
Bar dol i
Bhi wani
Jhaj jar
Bhatkal
Kar kal a
Manj er i
N eemuch
Chipl un
Palghar
Yeot mal
Sangr ur
Tenkasi
Vellor e
Bangaon
Raichur
Putt uru
Cuddapah
Warangal
Dindi gul
Pollachi
Gulbar ga
Kaki nada
N amakkal
Bar amati
Visnagar
Si ddi pet
Arsiker e
Mulbagal
Palladum
Nil ambur
Fi rozpur
Bi li mora
Tir upati
Bari pada
Junagadh
Jamnagar
Vadodara
Ludhi ana
Amr it sar
Nalgonda
Adilabad
Kot tayam
Dehradun
Var anasi
Barei lly
Calcutt a
Kol hapur
Bhi wandi
Shivpur i
Phi llaur
Pha
di pet
Arsiker e
Mulbagal
Palladum
Nil ambur
Fi rozpur
Bi li mora
Tir upati
Bari pada
Junagadh
Jamnagar
Vadodara
Ludhi ana
Amr it sar
Nalgonda
Adilabad
Kot tayam
Dehradun
Var anasi
Barei lly
Calcutt a
Kol hapur
Bhi wandi
Shivpur i
Phi llaur
Phagwar a
Kot putl i
Sur yapet
Badagara
Dur gapur
Avanashi
Att ingal
Lonaval a
H umnabad
Bathi nda
Jagadhri
Islampur
C hitt oor
Metpal li
Gudi vada
Sir cil la
Palanpur
Bagal kot
Kundapur
Kal petta
Mandsaur
Malegaon
Bhusawal
Bhandara
Canacona
Kar
gwar a
Kot putl i
Sur yapet
Badagara
Dur gapur
Avanashi
Att ingal
Lonaval a
H umnabad
Bathi nda
Jagadhri
Islampur
C hitt oor
Metpal li
Gudi vada
Sir cil la
Palanpur
Bagal kot
Kundapur
Kal petta
Mandsaur
Malegaon
Bhusawal
Bhandara
Canacona
Kar aikal
Ar iyalur
Kangayam
R anaghat
Basir hat
Jabal pur
Raurkel a
Kanhangad
Amr avat hi
Gor akhpur
Davangere
Mangalore
N anj angud
Ti ruvar ur
Koduvayur
Modinagar
U dumalpet
Bangarpet
Tir ut tani
Vall iyoor
C hinchwad
Baleshwar
Ghaziabad
Koz
aikal
Ar iyalur
Kangayam
R anaghat
Basir hat
Jabal pur
Raurkel a
Kanhangad
Amr avat hi
Gor akhpur
Davangere
Mangalore
N anj angud
Ti ruvar ur
Koduvayur
Modinagar
U dumalpet
Bangarpet
Tir ut tani
Vall iyoor
C hinchwad
Baleshwar
Ghaziabad
Kozhikode
Vijayw ada
N ewD el hi
N asi kci ty
Bhavnagar
Far idabad
Anant apur
Hyderabad
Nizamabad
Ernakul am
All ahabad
Mor adabad
Cuddal ore
Thanjavur
Ber hampur
Porbander
Fatehabad
Nathdwar a
All agadda
Zahir abad
N andi gama
Kamar eddy
Bhima
hikode
Vijayw ada
N ewD el hi
N asi kci ty
Bhavnagar
Far idabad
Anant apur
Hyderabad
Nizamabad
Ernakul am
All ahabad
Mor adabad
Cuddal ore
Thanjavur
Ber hampur
Porbander
Fatehabad
Nathdwar a
All agadda
Zahir abad
N andi gama
Kamar eddy
Bhimadol e
N ager coil
Sankagir i
Papanasam
Nanguneri
Tut icor in
Sull urpet
N ilokher i
Fari dakot
Kotkapur a
Karai kudi
Alappuzha
Kharagpur
Shadnagar
Sivaganga
Rasipur am
Roor kee- I
Pr oddatur
Huzurabad
Tadipatr i
Kaikalur u
Kasar gode
Osmanab
dol e
N ager coil
Sankagir i
Papanasam
Nanguneri
Tut icor in
Sull urpet
N ilokher i
Fari dakot
Kotkapur a
Karai kudi
Alappuzha
Kharagpur
Shadnagar
Sivaganga
Rasipur am
Roor kee- I
Pr oddatur
Huzurabad
Tadipatr i
Kaikalur u
Kasar gode
Osmanabad
Sangamner
Kopar agon
R at nagir i
Dhenkanal
Gurdaspur
Pathankot
Arakkonam
Mett ur dam
Berhampur
Gandhidham
Kar imnagar
Peddapall e
Bhi mavar am
Sher tal lai
Hoshiarpur
Mal erkotl a
Bi kaner
Oot acamund
Kapur thal a
Pandhar pur
Narai ngarh
ad
Sangamner
Kopar agon
R at nagir i
Dhenkanal
Gurdaspur
Pathankot
Arakkonam
Mett ur dam
Berhampur
Gandhidham
Kar imnagar
Peddapall e
Bhi mavar am
Sher tal lai
Hoshiarpur
Mal erkotl a
Bi kaner
Oot acamund
Kapur thal a
Pandhar pur
Narai ngarh
Hazurnagar
Peddapuram
Thodupuzha
Kanakapura
Mannar gudi
Wanapar thy
Bat lagundu
Par amakudi
Chhachhrau
H imat nagar
Jal landhar
Sr ikakulam
Sahar anpur
C oimbat ore
Jamshedpur
C hhat r apur
Khambhali a
Hindupur am
Sangareddy
Ramannapet
Hazurnagar
Peddapuram
Thodupuzha
Kanakapura
Mannar gudi
Wanapar thy
Bat lagundu
Par amakudi
Chhachhrau
H imat nagar
Jal landhar
Sr ikakulam
Sahar anpur
C oimbat ore
Jamshedpur
C hhat r apur
Khambhali a
Hindupur am
Sangareddy
Ramannapet
Anakapal le
Per undur ai
Kovil patt i
Tindi vanam
Nedumandad
Tir upathur
Pandavpur a
Dhanmandal
Ankl eshwar
Bar ddhaman
Medar met la
Aurangabad
Thi ruval la
Devakott ai
Gudi yatham
C handi garh
Mir yalguda
Kot hagudem
Amal apuram
Mancher ial
Anakapal le
Per undur ai
Kovil patt i
Tindi vanam
Nedumandad
Tir upathur
Pandavpur a
Dhanmandal
Ankl eshwar
Bar ddhaman
Medar met la
Aurangabad
Thi ruval la
Devakott ai
Gudi yatham
C handi garh
Mir yalguda
Kot hagudem
Amal apuram
Mancher ial
Shor anmpur
Chhindwar a
Chandrapur
Per ambalur
Tir upat tur
Vil lupur am
Kri shnagar
Ahmednagar
Tell icherr y
Bul andshahr
Dhar mavar am
Chall apal le
Raibarei ll y
Nar saraopet
Tir uvel lor e
Patt ukott ai
Ti runel vel i
Chi kodi
Pudukkot tai
Bah
Shor anmpur
Chhindwar a
Chandrapur
Per ambalur
Tir upat tur
Vil lupur am
Kri shnagar
Ahmednagar
Tell icherr y
Bul andshahr
Dhar mavar am
Chall apal le
Raibarei ll y
Nar saraopet
Tir uvel lor e
Patt ukott ai
Ti runel vel i
Chi kodi
Pudukkot tai
Bahadur garh
Taran Tar an
Maveli kkar a
Nelamangala
Mangal agir i
C hidambar am
Kr ishnagir i
Channapat na
Nawanshahar
Vaniyambadi
Dhar amapuri
Kuzhi thurai
Shri Rampur
Kur ukshetr a
Rajahmundry Jaggayyapet
Dronachalam
Pondicherr y
Sri ni
adur garh
Taran Tar an
Maveli kkar a
Nelamangala
Mangal agir i
C hidambar am
Kr ishnagir i
Channapat na
Nawanshahar
Vaniyambadi
Dhar amapuri
Kuzhi thurai
Shri Rampur
Kur ukshetr a
Rajahmundry Jaggayyapet
Dronachalam
Pondicherr y
Sri nivaspur Chikmagalur
Chit radur ga
Talipar amba
Kunnamkul am
Dhar ampur am
Tiruchendur
Kal lkur ichi
Rajapalayam
Muvatt upuzha
Nagapatt inam
Tir uchengode
C hikball apur
Oddanchat r am
Bi har S hari f
Madur ant akam
Vizianagar am
Gandhi Nag
vaspur Chikmagalur
Chit radur ga
Talipar amba
Kunnamkul am
Dhar ampur am
Tiruchendur
Kal lkur ichi
Rajapalayam
Muvatt upuzha
Nagapatt inam
Tir uchengode
C hikball apur
Oddanchat r am
Bi har S hari f
Madur ant akam
Vizianagar am
Gandhi Nagar
Shahj ahanpur
Vir udhunagar
I ri njalakuda
Gowr ibidanur
Basavakalyan
Chengal patt u
Mahabubnagar
Amber
Kancheepur am
Thir umanglam
Bhubaneshwar
Jagapur Road
Jagapur Town
Khadakw asal a
Kanj ir apal ly
Rajgur unagar
Ambasamudram
I
ar
Shahj ahanpur
Vir udhunagar
I ri njalakuda
Gowr ibidanur
Basavakalyan
Chengal patt u
Mahabubnagar
Amber
Kancheepur am
Thir umanglam
Bhubaneshwar
Jagapur Road
Jagapur Town
Khadakw asal a
Kanj ir apal ly
Rajgur unagar
Ambasamudram
I chal kar anji
Sri Ganganagar
Ar uppukkott ai
Vi rudhachalam
R ibag(Kudchi )
Vadakkanchery
Pathanamthit ta
Shir ol
Mi rzapur -I
Jansath
Ramachandrapur am
Rajsamand
Muzaf far Naga
D odbal lapur
Mayil aduthur ai
H ukker i
C handaul i
Mehmdaba
chal kar anji
Sri Ganganagar
Ar uppukkott ai
Vi rudhachalam
R ibag(Kudchi )
Vadakkanchery
Pathanamthit ta
Shir ol
Mi rzapur -I
Jansath
Ramachandrapur am
Rajsamand
Muzaf far Naga
D odbal lapur
Mayil aduthur ai
H ukker i
C handaul i
Mehmdabad
Tekkali
Bangal or e
Kar unagapal ly
Visakhapatnam
Ahmedabad
Sr ikalahasthi
Sr iper umpudur
Kovvur
Bandar ( Machili patnam)
Surendr anagar
Gadag-beti ger
Per inthal mann
Thir urai poondi
Tir uvannamala
Gobichett ipalayam
Sankaran Koi
d
Tekkali
Bangal or e
Kar unagapal ly
Visakhapatnam
Ahmedabad
Sr ikalahasthi
Sr iper umpudur
Kovvur
Bandar ( Machili patnam)
Surendr anagar
Gadag-beti ger
Per inthal mann
Thir urai poondi
Tir uvannamala
Gobichett ipalayam
Sankaran Koil
R amanathpur am
Mett uppalayam
Satyamangal am
Gi rw a(U dai pur)
Chhata( Kosika)
Bassein( Vasai)
Theni
Gooty( Gunt akal )
Thir uvananthapur am
Fat ehpur - I
Jangareddi gudem
Ghatkeshwar ( HydE ast )
Shamshabad( HydWest)
Narsapur (Pa
l
R amanathpur am
Mett uppalayam
Satyamangal am
Gi rw a(U dai pur)
Chhata( Kosika)
Bassein( Vasai)
Theni
Gooty( Gunt akal )
Thir uvananthapur am
Fat ehpur - I
Jangareddi gudem
Ghatkeshwar ( HydE ast )
Shamshabad( HydWest)
Narsapur (Pal akollu)
Roor kee- II (H ardw ar )
Durg
H assan
C annanor e
D arbhanga
Pali
Muzaff arpur
Hoskot e
Dhr ol
Limbda
Bagodara
Sayla
Amar nagar
Bhadt har
Alina
X( Barw ala)
Bhachau
Shi kar pur
Mandapeta
Odhan
Igatpur i
Shi rur
Kale
X
X
X
Kut ti ppuram
Tir
l akollu)
Roor kee- II (H ardw ar )
Durg
H assan
C annanor e
D arbhanga
Pali
Muzaff arpur
Hoskot e
Dhr ol
Limbda
Bagodara
Sayla
Amar nagar
Bhadt har
Alina
X( Barw ala)
Bhachau
Shi kar pur
Mandapeta
Odhan
Igatpur i
Shi rur
Kale
X
X
X
Kut ti ppuram
Tir ubuvanam
Kol lidam
Kumbakonam
H azi gar
Ghatsi la
Akbar pur
Bagodar
Urw aMor e
Tamar
H arnaut
Dinara Dur gawati
Saini
Yamunanagar
Garh
Sanri ya
Baluana
Ar ini Estat e
HosaAgr ahara
Udeva
Vel lur
Bailhongal
Nar gund
Yel avigi
Basapur Har pan
ubuvanam
Kol lidam
Kumbakonam
H azi gar
Ghatsi la
Akbar pur
Bagodar
Urw aMor e
Tamar
H arnaut
Dinara Dur gawati
Saini
Yamunanagar
Garh
Sanri ya
Baluana
Ar ini Estat e
HosaAgr ahara
Udeva
Vel lur
Bailhongal
Nar gund
Yel avigi
Basapur Har panahal li
Dhekuna
N aya Baradw ar
Kudopali
R air akhol
Sambal pur
Bi laspur
Raigarh
Anugul
Bamhani U rai dabr i
War ora
Badnagar Ashta Thandal a
Zalaki
Sangavi
Mhasve
Chik hali
Khamgaon Murtij apur
Delhi
Kolkata
Chennai
Hyderabad
Mumbai
Ahmedabad
Jaipur
Nagpur


Bhopal
Vishakhapatnam
Vijayawada
Ernakulum
Krishna
Allahabad
Lucknow
Pune
Surat
Jamnagar
Bangalore
Reliance Optical Network - National
National Backbone
11 rings, 80K Km OFC
18 out of 21 circles
20 Gbps bandwidth used
230 Tbps Capacity!
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 108
Reliance Optical Network - International
International Submarine Cable (Flag Telecom)
22 Countries, 44 PoPs, 180 Carriers connected world over
42,000 km route length
India - Presently: 15 STM-1s, Mar. 05: 39 STM-1s
SA NY LN, PR, FR
AL JD, TH, MU HK
SG TY
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 109
5
SDH Backbone Rings
Allahabad
Ambala
Kolkata
Mumbai
Hyderabad
Bhubaneshwar
Vijaywada
Chennai
Bangalore
Ernakulum
Ahmedabad
Bhopal
Trivendrum
Jallandhar
Coimbatore
Delhi
3A 1A
4
Nagpur
1B
1C
3B
3C
6
Pune
7
2
Total of 22 DX
Add/Drop Locations
Surat
Lucknow
Madurai
Jaipur
Jamnagar
10G ADM
10G SDH Ring
2.5G SDH Ring
2.5G ADM
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 110
The Core Backbone Network
J
B A
D
J
DX Digital Cross-connect
LH Optical Amplifier
OM4200 SDH ADM
AXE10 ILT Switch
OM4100, TN1X/1C SDH ADM
Express Ring (DWDM)
Collector Ring (SDH)
Access Ring (SDH)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 111
Standard OPTera 1600G shelf configurations

Standard shelf configurations supported in OPTera LH Release 3 are as
follows:
C-Band Dual Amplifier followed by Booster18 C-Band. This configuration
provides a single Mid Stage Access point (Single MSA).
C-Band Dual Amplifier followed by Booster21 C-Band (Single MSA).
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 112
OPTera LH Release 3 supports the extension shelf 2 with the following
restrictions:
All slots must be equipped with NTCA49AA filler circuit packs.
The system provides no alarming for the second extension shelf.
A future OPTera LH software release will fully support the second
extension shelf for L-Band applications.


Extension shelf 2 Equipping rules
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 113
Single MSA in C-Band supporting up to 30 wavelengths
for each group (limited OADM)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 114
Single MSA in C-Band supporting up to 40 wavelengths for
each group (limited OADM/DSCM)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 115
Dual MSA in C-Band supporting up to 40 wavelengths for
each group (full OADM/DSCM)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 116
DWDM passive bay
The DWDM passive bay can store passive components such as Mux
and Demux couplers, OADM filters, and DSCMs.
This bay supports Mux, Demux, DSCMs at Terminal or ADM sites. At
Line amplifier sites, the bay supports DSCMs and OADM filters as
required.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 117
OPTera 1600G
DWDM passive bay
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 118
The DWDM passive bay has a 24-module capacity.
The DWDM passive bay contains six shelves that can each house up to
four modules.
The top two shelves house DSCMs and DCMs, if required.
One shelf can house two Mux and two Demux couplers. Since each
coupler consists of 10 ports (10 channels), each shelf can support 40
wavelengths: 20 wavelengths Mux and 20 wavelengths Demux.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 119
This deals with the multiplexer (Mux) and demultiplexer (Demux) couplers
that are required for the OPTera 1600G Amplifier application.
OPTera 1600G requires a new architecture for passive Mux and Demux
modules to enable unidirectional amplifier configurations.
The C-Band wavelength plan is mapped into 2 grids:
C-Band Grid 1, and
C-Band Grid 2.
Grid 1 is based on 100-GHz ITU-T wavelength plan. Grid 2 is also based
on a 100-GHz spacing with a 50-GHz offset from Grid 1. In a typical
unidirectional application, the Mux and Demux would be based on the
same grid.
OPTera 1600G DWDM filter Architecture
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 120
Up to four modules (Mux or Demux) are interconnected in cascade
to support up to 40 wavelengths, plus 1 spare, in each wavelength
grid.
Each module carries 10 wavelengths except for the first module that
contains the spare wavelength.
Future releases of OPTera 1600G will introduce two additional grids
to support L-Band applications.

Proprietary & Confidential Slide 121
Each Demux module can support up to 10 wavelengths and contains a
miniature variable optical attenuator (mVOA) for each wavelength.
Module 1 (first module of the four interconnected modules) includes a
monitor port and a spare wavelength port.
Two patchcords (A and B) as shown are used to interconnect the
modules.
Demux Modules
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 122
Standard DWDM passive bay layout - Terminal applications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 123
OPTera Long Haul 1600 passive bay
Line/ OADM applications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 124
Recommended interconnection for Demux
modules
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 125
Mux modules
Each Mux module can support up to 10 wavelengths. Module 1 (first
module of the four interconnected modules) includes a monitor port and
spare wavelength port. The Mux modules are a mirror image of the
Demux modules. Two patchcords (A and B) are used to interconnect
the modules.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 126
Recommended interconnection for Mux
modules
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 127
The wavelength upgrade plans for OPTera 1600G C-Band are shown in
(Grid 1) and (Grid 2). The tables specify the channel wavelength-to-
DWDM Mux/Demux module mapping.
Engineering rules for module deployment sequence
For all fiber types, the engineering rules for DWDM Mux/Demux module
deployment sequence are:
Deploy Module 1 until all the capacity is exhausted for all fiber types.
Deploy Module 2 next for all fiber types except certain types of NZ-SF
fiber.
Deploy Module 3 next for all fiber types.
Finally, deploy Module 4 for all fiber types except TrueWaveTM
Classic.


Wavelength Plans
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 128
For OADM applications, choose the wavelengths according to 1-channel,
2-channel, or Band OADM drop recommendations. OADM modules will
be introduced in 1-channel, 2-channel, or multichannel band drop.
Channels designated to support express or OADM channels need to be
correctly assigned to either express or OADM applications.
As a result, careful planning of wavelengths before deployment is
required.
For example, if all wavelengths from Module 1 are to be deployed as
express channels, the wavelengths on that module must remain as
express wavelengths.
In case an OADM is required at a later date, the OADM wavelengths from
modules 2, 3, or 4 must be used for providing that the OADM
wavelengths
OADM applications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 129
C-Band Grid 1 wavelength plan
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 130
C-Band Grid 1 wavelength plan
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 131
Coupler
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 132
Applications supported
The following applications are supported on the Repeater NE:
Wavelength Translator
Dense regenerator
Wavelength Combiner
Optical dedicated protection ring (ODPR)
MOR Plus amplifier
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 133
Previous Applications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 134
Product Architecture
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 135
Flexible full-fill
Repeater NE
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 136
Optera 1600G Amplifier applications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 137
Optera 1600G Amplifier applications
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 138
Interworking with OPTera Long Haul 1600
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 139
Dense regenerator application in a network
Note: The client-facing equipment's TFEC setting must be
turned off for correct interoperability with other vendors.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 140
Wavelength Translator
Note: The client-facing equipment's forward error correction setting must be
turned off for correct interoperability with other vendors.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 141
Wavelength Translator
Sectionalization of faults for the Repeater network element
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 142
Wavelength Combiner
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 143
Wavelength Combiner
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 144
Wavelength Combiner
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 145
Wavelength Combiner
Sectionalization of faults for a Wavelength Combiner application
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 146
Wavelength Combiner
Note: The Wavelength Combiner circuit pack groups at both terminals
must be originally equipped with the same type of T/R circuit packs,
either TriFEC-capable or non-TriFEC. Failure in following this rule
will probably cause a "Protection scheme mismatch" or "Channel ID
mismatch" alarm to be raised on the subtending OC-48 or TN-16X
equipment and cause subsequent protection path failures.
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 147
Optical Dedicated Protection Ring (ODPR)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 148
Optical Switch Module (OSM)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 149
Optical Dedicated Protection Ring (ODPR)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 150
Optical Dedicated Protection Ring (ODPR)
Proprietary & Confidential Slide 151
Standards
ITU:
G.681 Functional characteristics of interoffice and long-haul line systems using
optical amplifiers including optical multiplexing
G.692 Optical Interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers (Oct 98):
50 and 100 GHz spacing centered at 193.1 THz (1553.5 nm)
G.872 Architecture for Optical Transport Networks, 1999
ANSI T1X1.5: http://www.t1.org/t1x1/_x1-grid.htm
IETF: MPLS over DWDM
Optical Interoperability Forum (OIF): www.oiforum.com
Started April 1998 by CISCO, Ciena, ...Now over 128 members
Working groups on Architecture, Physical and Link Layer, OAM&P
Signaling protocols for rapid provisioning and restoration