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M.Prasad Naidu MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D,.

Introduction

  • Energy expenditure

  • 2 types

  • Energy Expenditure in doing D2D activities

  • EE in doing involuntary works

  • Calorific value of foods

  • Bomb calorimeter

  • Unit of Energy

Introduction

  • Calorific value may be defined as the amount of heat energy obtained by burning 1gm of the food stuff completely in the presence of O2

  • A calorie may be defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1gm of water by 1 0 C

  • Average values

  • Car 4.1;

Fats 9.3;

Pro-4.7

BMR

  • The rate of energy production under basal conditions per unit time (1hr) and per sq.mt of body surface is known as BMR or

  • the amount of heat given out by a subject who though

awake is lying a state of max.physical and mental rest

under comfortable conditions of temp, pressure & humidity, 12-18hrs after meal (post absorptive state)

Basal conditions

  • Person should awake but at complete rest both physical and mental

  • Person should be without food for atlease 12-18hrs i.e., post absorptive state

  • Person should be in recumbent /reclining position on bed

  • Person should remain in normal environmental conditions like normal temp, humidity, pressure etc

Determination of BMR

  • 1. Open circuit method: both O2 consumption and CO2 output are measured

  • Requires a high degree of tech skill and a combussom apparatus

  • Less rapid and more accurate

  • Tissot method and Douglous method

  • 2. Closed circuit method: only O2 consumption

  • Clinical practice (2-6 min under basal conditions)

  • Closed circuit system

  • Benedict-roth metobolism apparatus

Factors affecting BMR

  • Age: children much higher than adults

  • 6y65.5

  • 12y50.4

  • 20-30y 40

  • 40-70y 38.5 to 35

  • Sex: women < males (females 5-17y more)

  • Surface Area: α BMR ( Cal/Sq.m/hr)

  • Climate: colder (high) tropical (low)

  • State of Nutrition: BMR malnutrition, starvation

  • Body Temp: BMR 10% with a rise in 1 0 C

  • Barometric pressure: rapid fall of O2 BMR

  • Habits: Trained athlets & manual workers

  • Drugs: Caffine, Benzidrine,epinephrine,alcohol BMR

  • Anaesthetics BMR

  • Hormones: thyroid, adrenal medulla, anterior pituitary BMR

  • ! Mg thyroxine BMR by about 1000 cal

  • Androgens 10% BMR

  • Pregnancy: the BMR of pregnant mother after 6 months of gestation rises

Clinical aspect

  • Pathological variations in BMR:

  • 1. Fever:

  • 2. Diseases: (Leukaemias 21-80%), (Polycythemia 10-40%),(Cardiac failure / hypertension 28-80%)

  • 3. Endocrine Diseases

  • Determination of BMR is mainly used for the assesment of thyroid function

  • In Hyperthyroidism +75% or more

  • In hypothyroidism -40% or more

Importance of BMR

  • As a diagnostic aid

  • In the calculation of caloric requirements of an individual for prescribing a diet of adequate calorific value and planning nutrition for individuals or communities and populations at large

  • To note the effect of foods and drugs on BMR