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New Internal Combustion

Engine Technology and

Alternative Fuel
Pathmaprasad s/o Ramachandiran
I. Variable Valve Timing and Lift
II. Cylinder Deactivation
III. Direct Fuel Injection
IV. Forced Induction Technologies
V. Start Stop System
VI. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)
VII. Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder (OPOC)
VIII. Hybrid Technologies
New Engine Technologies
Variable Valve Timing and Variable Lift is currently implemented.
Although they increase the efficiency, the systems especially
variable lift systems are very complex and expensive.
Hence, researchers are developing engines without camshafts. The
opening and closing of the valves are done electronically
Koenigseggss technology

I. Variable Valve timing and Lift
Also known as variable displacement engine
In a multi-cylinder engine, this system shuts off a few cylinders
when the power requirement is low such as
a) Idling in traffic jam and traffic light
b) Cruising at a constant speed.
This technology was started by Cadilac in 1981 but was abondoned
as it was very problematic and prone to unpredictable failure. A few
other automakers tried this tecnology in the 90s but abondoned the
Currently, cylinder deactivation is being developed by Volkswagen
with the name of Active Cylinder Technology(ACT).

II. Cylinder Deactivation
Direct injection is the technology where the fuel is injection directly
into the combustion chamber at high pressure (10 20MPa)
Its an old technology but abandoned because it cost more (higher
pressure and injector must withstand heat of combustion)
It is being developed and implemented as it has the following
a) Finer spray of fuel at high pressure results cleaner combustion
b) The cooling effect of fuel vaporization does not dissipate before
spark, hence engine is more resistant to knock.
c) Operate at higher compression ratio which improves the efficiency
of the engine.
d) Best example will be TSI from VW and SkyActive from Mazda
e) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvysuD5MFow
III. Direct Fuel Injection
Allows more compressed air into the cylinder compared to naturally
aspirated engine with the usage of turbocharger and/or
Small engine with turbocharger can be equally powerful as a big
engine and also have the efficiency of a small engine at lower power.
Combination with direct injection technology can allow for higher
compression ratio, increasing efficiency.
New types of turbocharger such as variable geometry turbocharger
can operate efficiently at all engine speed as compared to traditional
Bigger V6 and V8 engines are being replaced by smaller inline 4
turbocharged ones.
Ford EcoBoost, Jaguar
IV. Forced Induction
A technology where the engine is programmed to switch off when
not in use.
Needs a more powerful battery and a more durable starter.
Currently, this technology can be easily incorporated in direct
injection engines
Mazdas i-stop, the computer stops the engine when one piston is just
past the top of the compression stroke. To restart, fuel is injected into
the cylinder, the spark plug is fired, and the engine is instantly running
V. Start Stop System
Combination of Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition
When high power is required, the combustion is initiated by a spark.
When power demand is low, the combustion is initiated by high
pressure and heat of compression. But the fuel is injected earlier than
the compression stroke
It all sounds complicated, but the payoff can be a 20-percent
improvement in fuel economy without the particulate traps and the
NOx catalysts that diesels need.
To make HCCI work, we need very good control of the combustion
process with a faster engine-control computer and combustion-
pressure feedback says GMs Hancock
Example will be Mercedez Dies-Otto

VI. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)
It is like a flat four engine. Instead of having cylinder head, there is
another set of piston moving opposite of the conventional piston.
The second set of piston is connected to the crankshafts using longer
connecting rod.
In the OPOC engine, the intake and exhaust ports are at opposite
ends of the cylinders. As the pistons move, the exhausts are
uncovered before the intakes and turbochargers blow air through the
cylinders to push out the exhaust gas and fill them with clean air.
Since the engine needs positive pressure to do this, the turbochargers
have electric motors to power them at low rpm when exhaust energy
is low.
Uses direct fuel injection system.
12% to 15% better efficiency (less friction, less heat loss through
cylinder head)
Perfectly balanced engine.

VII. Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder (OPOC)

Vehicles with two or more power source. Petrol-Electric are the
common hybrid systems.
Used to improve fuel consumption, emission and performance.
There are a few ways where an efficient combination can be achieved
a) Parallel hybrid
b) Power split hybrid (Series-Parallel hybrid)

VIII. Hybrid Technologies

a) Series Hybrid
Mild hybrid
Internal combustion engine and electric motor coupled together
Speed of both motor and engine will be the same but the output
torque will be the sum of both.
When only one of the two sources is being used, the other must
either also rotate in an idling manner, be connected by a one-way
clutch, or freewheel
Honda Insight is an example of parallel hybrid system.
Batteries can also be recharged using regenerative braking.

b) Power split hybrid (Series-Parallel hybrid)
The cars drive system is coupled to a smaller efficient engine and an electric motor with a
Power to the wheel can be mechanical or electrical
The car can be powered by the battery alone (at startup and low speed) and the engine
starts up to charge the battery when power in battery is low.
The car will be powered by both the battery and engine during high power requirement
(acceleration, speeding etc)
During heavy power requirement (climbing hill), both battery and engine power the drive
system plus the engine charges the battery at the same time.
While braking, the engine shut off, and the regenerative braking is used to charge the
Example is Hybrid Synergy Drive in Toyota Prius

I. Compressed Air
II. Battery Electric Vehicle
III. Biofuel
IV. Solar
V. Ammonia Fuel
VI. Hydrogen
Alternative Fuel
Expansion of compressed air to run the pistons
High efficiency
Conventional air compressor and carbon fibre tank
Expanded air (low temp) can be used for air-conditioning

I. Compressed Air
II. Battery Electric Vehicle
Use electric motor to drive the vehicle
Electric motor powered by "flooded" lead-acid, absorbed glass mat,
NiCd, nickel metal hydride, Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries.
Zero emission
Uses domestic electricity to recharge batteries

Fuel that is renewable (derived from bio materials)
Ethanol, Biodiesel,
Most modern cars are designed to run on gasoline are capable of
running with a blend from 10% up to 15% ethanol mixed into
With a bit of modification, gasoline engine can run on pure ethanol
Ethanol is a bit expensive than petrol
Fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) can be used to replace diesel
The biodiesel has higher cetane number, hence the timing has to be
adjusted before diesel engine can run on biodiesel
Biodiesel has cleaner emission than petrol engine
III. Biofuel
Its an electric car that is powered by solar.
Current solar technology are not sufficient to run a car but they can
be used as a secondary power for a car.
Research are being carried out extensively to improve the solar
technology as well as car design to make use of solar power
IV. Solar
V. Ammonia Fuel
Ammonia fuel can be can be used in Spark Ignition engines.
Due to higher octane number, it needs a higher compression ratio
and combustion temperature.

There are two methods to harvest energy from hydrogen which are
combustion and fuel-cell conversion
Combustion operates similar to a internal combustion engine where the
hydrogen will be spark ignited.
The differences between a hydrogen engine and a traditional gasoline engine
include hardened valves and valve seats, stronger connecting rods, non-
platinum tipped spark plugs, a higher voltage ignition coil, fuel injectors
designed for a gas instead of a liquid, larger crankshaft damper, stronger
head gasket material, modified (for supercharger) intake manifold, positive
pressure supercharger, and a high temperature engine oil.
In fuel cell conversion, the hydrogen will be used to produce electricity and
power the electric motor.
The chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen
At the anode a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, usually hydrogen, turning the fuel
into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron. The
electrolyte is a substance specifically designed so ions can pass through it, but
the electrons cannot. The freed electrons travel through a wire creating the
electric current. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. Once
reaching the cathode, the ions are reunited with the electrons and the two
react with a third chemical, usually oxygen, to create water or carbon dioxide.
VI. Hydrogen