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GSM INTRODUCTION

ADA CELLWORKS PVT LTD


INTRODUCTION
• The global system for mobile communications
(GSM) is a set of recommendations and
specifications for a digital cellular telephone
network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network,
or PLMN). These recommendations ensure the
compatibility of equipment from different GSM
manufacturers, and interconnectivity between
different administrations, including operations
across international boundaries.
THE GSM NETWORK
• The GSM network is comprised of the following
components:
• Network Elements
• The GSM network incorporates a number of network
elements to support mobile equipment. They are listed and
described in the GSM network elements section of this chapter.
• GSM subsystems
• In addition, the network includes subsystems that are not
formally recognized as network elements but are necessary for
network operation. These are described in the GSM subsystems
(non-network elements) section of this chapter.
• Standardized Interfaces
• GSM specifies standards for interfaces between network
elements, which ensure the connectivity of GSM equipment
from different manufacturers. These are listed in the
Standardized interfaces section of this chapter.
THE GSM NETWORK -
CONTINUED
• Network Protocols
• For most of the network communications on these
interfaces, internationally recognized communications
protocols have been used
• These are identified in the Network protocols section of
this chapter.

• GSM Frequencies
• The frequency allocations for GSM 900, Extended GSM
and Digital Communications Systems are identified in the
GSM frequencies section of this chapter.
DIGITAL NETWORKS

• GSM networks are digital and can cater for


high system capacities. They are consistent
with the world wide digitization of the
telephone network, and are an extension of the
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN),
using a digital radio interface between the
cellular network and the mobile subscriber
equipment.
INCREASED CAPACITY
• The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity
than analogue systems. GSM allows 25 kHz. Per user, that
is, eight conversations per 200kHz. Channel pair (a pair
comprising one transmit channel and one receive channel).
Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the
signal resistant to interference from the cells where the
same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference); a
Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 9 dB is achieved,
as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular. This
allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a reduction
in the number of cells in the reuse pattern. Since this
number is directly controlled by the amount of interference,
the radio transmission design can deliver acceptable
performance.
CGI : CELL GLOBAL
IDENTITY
LAI

MCC MNC LAC CI


CGI

MCC = Mobile Country Code


MNC = Mobile Network Code
LAC = Location Area Code
CI = Cell Identity
MSISDN

CC NDC SN

98 XXX 12345

CC = Country Code
NDC = National Destination Code
SN = Subscriber Number
MSISDN
• The Mobile Subscriber ISDN
(MSISDN) number is the telephone
number of the MS. This is the
number a calling party dials to reach
the subscriber. It is used by the land
network to route calls towards the
MSC.
IMSI
• IMSI (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity) Network
IdentityMCC
Unique To A Sim.
MNC MSIN

404 XX 12345..10

SIM = Subscriber Identity Module


MCC = Mobile Country Code
MNC = Mobile Network Code
MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identity Number
IMEI
• IMEI : Serial number unique to each
mobile
TAC FAC SNR SP
6 2 6 1

IMEI = International Mobile Equipment Identity


TAC = Type Approval Code
FAC = Final Assembly Code
SNR = Serial Number
SP = Spare
SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION
• International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
• Just the IMEI identifies the mobile equipment, other numbers
are used to identify the mobile subscriber. Different subscriber
identities are used in different phases of call setup. The International
Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identity of the
subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to
that subscriber.
• Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
• The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber
Identity (TMSI). After the subscriber’s IMSI has been initialized on
the system, the TMSI can be used for sending backward and forward
across the network to identify the subscriber. The system
automatically changes the TMSI at regular intervals, thus protecting
the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to
monitor the radio channels. The TMSI is a local number and is always
transmitted with the Local numbers and is always transmitted with
the Location Area Identification (LAI) to avoid ambiguities.
SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION
MODULE (SIM)
• By making a distinction between the subscriber
identity and the mobile equipment identity, a GSM PLMN
can route calls and perform billing based on the identity of
the subscriber rather than the mobile equipment being
used. This can be done using a removable Subscriber
Information Module (SIM). A ”smart card” is one possible
implementation of a SIM module.

• IMSI. This is transmitted at initialization of the mobile


equipment.
• TMSI This is updated periodically by the PLMN
• MSISDN This is made up of a country code, a national
code and a subscriber number.
• Location Area Identity (LAI) This identified the
current location of the subscriber.
• Subscriber Authentication Key (KI) This is used to
authenticate the SIM.
EQUIPMENT IDENTITY NUMBER

• International Mobile station Equipment


Identity (IMEI)
• Each MS is identified by an International Mobile
station Equipment Identity (IMEI) number which is
permanently stored in the mobile equipment. On
request, the MS sends this number over the signalling
channel to the MSC. The IMEI can be used to identify
MS,s that are reported stolen or operating incorrectly.

• Equipment Identity Register ( EIR )


• A listing of the allowed IMEI is maintained by the
PLMN’s in the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to
validate the mobile equipment.
Frequency Bands

Uplink 890 – 915 MHz 25 MHz

Downlink 935 – 960 MHz 25 MHz

1 2 3 4 ……………. 124

100 KHz 200 KHz 100 KHz

A 200 KHz carrier spacing has been chosen. Excluding 2x100 KHz edges of
the band, this gives 124 possible carriers for the uplink and downlink. The
use of carrier 1 and 124 are optional for operators.
GSM Network Architecture
BSC
AUC
HLR
BTS
TRAU
VLR
BTS
MSC
SMSC
BTS BSC EIR
BTS
BTS
PSTN
MS – Mobile Station

MS

SIM ME
• Mobile station provides user access to
GSM network for voice and data
• All GSM mobiles comply to GSM standards
• Subscriber data is read from a SIM card
that plugs into ME
MS (cont..)
• Each MS has a unique number called
as IMEI number, which is stored in
EIR for authentication purposes
• Mobile camps on to the GSM network
through the BTS serving the cell
• Mobile also scans neighboring cells
and reports signal strengths
• Mobile transmits and receives voice
at 13 kb/s over the air interface
Mobile Station Output Power
• CLASS 1 20 watts Vehicle and Portable
• CLASS 2 8 watts Portable and Vehicle
• CLASS 3 5 watts Hand-Held
• CLASS 4 2 watts Hand-Held (GSM)
• CLASS 5 0.8 watts Hand-Held (DCS 1800)
• Output power determines:
– Accessibility in areas of coverage
– Talk Time and Standby time
Mobile Station Identities
MSISDN : Mobile Station ISDN Number
It is the human identity used to call a Mobile
Station
CC NDC SN MSISDN
98 250 00134
• CC – Country Code
• NDC – National Destination Code
• SN – Serial Number
IMSI (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity)
3 2 or 3

MCC MNC MSIN IMSI

Not more than 15


NMSI

• MCC – Mobile Country Code


• MNC – Mobile Network Code
• MSIN – Mobile Subscriber Identity Number
IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity)

TAC FAC SNR SP IMEI


6 2 6 1 15
• TAC – Type Approval Code
• FAC – Factory Assembly Code
• SNR – Serial Number
• SP – Spare digit (usually used to
specify software version)
SIM ( Subscriber Identity
Module)
Space to insert SIM photo

• Removable module inserted when the


subscriber wants to use the ME
• Two sizes: credit card size and stamp size
• SIM features and contents are
personalized by the Service Activator
• ROM – 6kb to 16 kb
• RAM – 128 bytes to 256 bytes
• EEPROM – 3kb to 8 kb
Contents of SIM
• Serial Number
• IMSI, Subscriber Key Ki, Ciphering Key Kc
• Algorithms for authentication and ciphering
• Network Code
• PIN, PUK
• Charging Information
• Abbreviated Dialling
• Supplementary Features (e.g. Call barring)
SIM Security
• Two level protection
• When mobile is turned on, it will ask
for user to enter PIN (Personal Id
Number)
• 3 tries for PIN, after that PIN locked
• To unblock PIN, there is PUK (Pin
Unblock Key)
• 10 attempts of PUK allowed
• After that SIM is blocked
BTS (Base Transceiver
Station)
• BTS has a set of Transceivers (TRXs) to
communicate with mobiles in its area
• One BTS covers one or more than one cell
• The capacity of a cell depends on number of
transceivers in the cell
• BTS is connected to the BSC through Abis
Interface which is 2Mbps
• BTS transmits and receives voice at 13kbps
over air interface to the mobiles.
• BTS commands mobiles to set Tx. Power,
timing advance and Handovers
BTS
BSC – Base Station
Controller
• Several BTSs are connected to the BSC
• BSC Manages channel allocation, handovers and
release of channels at connected BTSs
• BSC connects to the BTS via the Abis interface and to
the MSC on A interface
• BSC has the entire database of cell parameters
associated with the BTSs.
• No mobile data is stored in the BSC
• Less connections for MSC as intelligence is made
common to all BTSs by the BSC
BSC
TRAU – Transcoder Rate
Adaptation Unit

MSC and TRAU

BSC PSTN
BTS

13 kbps 16 kbps 16 kbps 64 kbps


TRAU (cont..)
• The MSC is based on ISDN switching.
The Fixed Network is also ISDN
based.
• ISDN has speech rate of 64 kbps.
Mobile communicates at 13 kbps.
• TRAU converts the data rates
between 13kbps GSM rate to 64kbps
Standard ISDN rate
• TRAU can be collocated with the BTS,
BSC or MSC or it can be a separate
unit.
Location of Transcoder
• Collocated with MSC, BSC, BTS
• Separate Unit

Transco
MSC BSC
der
MSC – Mobile Switching Centre

HLR
BSC

BSC
VLR
BSC

BTSs PSTN
MSC (cont..)
• Exchange where calls are established,
maintained and released
• Database for all subscribers and their
associated features.
• Communicates with the BSCs on the A
interface and with PSTN on fixed line.
• MSC is weighted on the number of
subscribers it can support. E.g. an MSC of 1
lac subscribers means one MSC is enough till
subscriber base increases upto 1 lac, beyond
which another MSC is required.
Multiple MSCs
• When there is more capacity, there are
more than one MSCs.
• All MSCs have to communicate with one
another and to the outside world.
• Very complicated to connect each MSC to
each other and each MSC to PSTN
• So there is a concept of GMSC (Gateway
MSC)

MSC
BSC
GMSC PSTN
BSC
MSC
HLR – Home Location
Register
• MSC has all subscriber database
stored in HLR
• HLR has all permanent subscriber
database
• HLR has a database which describes
the subscriber’s profile i.e. basic
features and supplementary services
• MSC communicates with the HLR to
get data for subscribers on call
VLR – Visiting Location
Register
• A subscription when activated is
registered in VLR
• VLR has all the subscriber numbers
which are active.
• VLR has a temporary database of all
active subscribers (on/off, location
information)
HLR

MSC VLR
VLR (cont..)

HLR

MSC VLR VLR MSC

• MSC communicates with HLR for


subscribers coming from different
MSCs. If the subscriber is found
valid, then it registers the subscriber
in the VLR
AUC – Authentication Centre
• Authentication is a process by which a SIM
is verified
• Secret data and the verification process
algorithm are stored in AUC
• AUC is the element which carries out the
verification of the SIM
• AUC is associated with the HLR

MS MSC HLR AUC


EIR (Equipment Identity
Register)
• EIR is the Mobile Equipment Database
which has a series of IMEIs
• MSC asks the Mobile to send its IMEI
• MSC then checks the validity of IMEI
with the EIR
• All IMEIs are stored in EIR with relevant
classifications

EIR
MSC
Classification of IMEIs
White list: This contains the IMEI of
type approved mobiles

Black List: List of IMEIs which should be


barred because either they are stolen or
are not functioning properly

Grey list: List of IMEIs which are to be


evaluated before they are put in black list
Billing Centre (BC)
• BC Generates the billing statement
for each subscriber
• BC may be directly connected to the
MSC or through a mediation device
• MSC sends CDRs (Call Detail
Records) to the BC
• According to the template of pulse
rates and units set, BC creates a bill
according to the destination called
and the call duration
Billing Centre (BC) (cont..)
Templates for unit costs

CDRs
OMC – Operations and
Maintenance Centre

• Also called the NOC (Network


Operations centre)
• It is the central monitoring and
remote maintenance centre for all
network elements
• OMC has links to BSCs and MSCs
OMC – Operations and
Maintenance Centre

• Also called the NOC (Network


Operations centre)
• It is the central monitoring and
remote maintenance centre for all
network elements
• OMC has links to BSCs and MSCs
OMC

BTSs BSC

BSC OMC System


BTSs

BTSs BSC

OMC Terminals
GSM Channels
GSM Channels
• Physical Channel
– One time slot on one carrier is called
physical channel.
• Logical Channel
– Information carried by physical channels is
called logical Channels.
– Logical channels are mapped on physical
channels.
Logical Channels
• Traffic channels: Used for speech and data
– Full Rate(TCH/F)
– Half Rate(TCH/H)
• Control channels: Used for signaling .i.e.
setting up a radio connection, call or controlling an
MS during conversation
– BCH(Broadcast channels)
– CCCH(common control channels)
– DCCH(dedicated control channels)
Traffic Channels(TCH)

Traffic Channels(TCH)

TCH/F TCH/H
(full Rate) (half Rate)
Control Channels(CCH)

CCH(Control Channel)

BCH CCCH DCCH

CCH Synch. RACH CBCH SDCCH ACCH


Chanels

PCH/
FACCH SACCH
SCH FCCH AGCH
BCH(Broadcast Channels)
• BCCH(Broadcast Control Channels)
– Downlink Only.
– Broadcast information of the serving cell
(System Information).
– Transmitted on timeslot zero of BCCH
carrier.
– Reads only by idle mobile at least once
every 30 secs.
BCH(Broadcast Channels)
cont’d
• SCH(Synchronisation Channels)
– Downlink Only
– Carries information for frame
synchronisation.
– Contains frame number and BSIC(Base
Station Identity Code).
BCH(Broadcast Channels)
cont’d
• FCCH(Frequency Correction
Channels)
– Downlink Only.
– Enable MS to synchronies to the
frequency.
CCCH(Common Control
Channel)
• RACH(Random Access Channel)
– Uplink only.
– Used by the MS when making its first
access to the Network.
– The reason for access could be initiation
of a call or a page response.
CCCH(Common Control
Channel) cont’d
• AGCH(Assess Grant Channel)
– Downlink only.
– Used for acknowledgement of the access
attempt sent on RACH.
– Used by the network to assign a
signaling cannel upon successful
decoding of access bursts.
CCCH(Common Control
Channel) cont’d
• PCH(Paging Channel)
– Downlink only.
– The network will page the MS ,if there is
a incoming call or a short Message.
– It contains the MS identity number, the
IMSI or TMSI.
DCCH(Dedicated Control
Channel)
• SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel)
– Uplink and Downlink.
– Used for call setup, authentication,
ciphering location update and SMS.
DCCH(Dedicated Control
Channel) cont’d
• SACCH(Slow Associated Control Channel)
– Downlink and Uplink.
– Used to transfer signal while MS have ongoing
conversation on traffic or while SDCCH is being used.
– On the forward link, the SACCH is used to send slow but
regularly changing control information to each mobile
on that ARFCN, such as power control instructions and
specific timing advance instructions
• SACCH(Slow Associated Control
Channel) cont’d
– The reverse SACCH carries information
about the received signal strength and
quality of the TCH, as well as BCH
measurement results from neighboring
cells.
DCCH(Dedicated Control
Channel) cont’d
• FACCH(Fast Associated Control
Channel)
– Downlink and uplink.
– Associate with TCH only.
– It is used to send fast message like
hand over message.
– Work by stealing traffic bursts.
Mapping on Physical
Channels
• The Logical channels are mapped on
the physical channels.
• The TDMA frames are grouped
together into multi-frame.
– 26 TDMA multi-frame for Traffic.
– 51 TDMA multi-frame for control signal.
Channel Combination
• Combined
– All the controlling signals are in the time
slot 0 of the Multi-frame.
• Non Combined
– Dedicated controlling signals are in time
slot 1 of the Multi-frame.
Combined
• Cell with single carrier.
– Timeslot 0 :BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH.
– Timeslot 1-7 :TCH/FACCH+SACCH.
Non Combined
• Cell with Two carrier
– Timeslot 0 (of carrier 1) BCCH+CCCH.
– Timeslot 1 (of carrier1) SDCCH+SACCH.
– Timeslot 2-7 & 0-7(of both carriers)
TCH/FACCH+SACCH.
•SYSTEM INFORMATION
SYSTEM INFORMATION 1
• When frequency hopping is used in cell MS needs
to know which frequency band to use and what
frequency within the band it should use in
hopping algorithm.
• Cell channel description
Cell Allocation Number(CANO)-Informs
the band number of the frequency channels used.
00-Band 0(current GSM band)
Cell Allocation ARFCN(CA ARFCN):-
ARFCN’s used for hopping.It is coded in a bitmap
of 124 bits.
SYTEM INFORMATION 1

124 123 122 121

024 023 022 021 020 019 018 017

016 015 014 013 012 011 010 009

008 007 006 005 004 003 002 001


SYSTEM INFORMATION 1
• RACH Control Parameters Access Control
Class(ACC) :-Bitmap with 16 bits. All MS spread
out on class 0 –9 . Priority groups use class 11-15. A
bit set to 1 barred access for that class. Bit 10 is
used to tell the MS if emergency call is allowed or not.

0 – All MS can make emergency call. 1 - MS with


class 11-15 only can make emergency calls.
Cell barred for access(CB):- 0- Yes 1- No
SYSTEM INFORMATION 1
• RACH Control Parameters Re-establishment
allowed(RE):-
0- Yes
1- No Max_retransmissions(MAXRET):-Number
of times the MS attempts to access the Network
[1,2,4 or 7].
Tx-integer(TX):- Number of slots to spread access
retransmissions when a MS attempts to access the
system. Emergency call allowed:- Yes/No.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2
• System Information Type 2 message
consists of the Double BA list which
defines the BCCH frequencies used in the
neighboring cells.
• The Double BA list provides the MS with
different frequencies on which to measure,
depending on whether the MS is in idle or
active mode.
• In active mode, the MS should measure
on a reduced number of frequencies in
order to improve the accuracy of
measurements.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2
• In Idle mode,the MS should measure on
larger number of frequencies, so that the
time required for the MS to access the
network after power on is reduced.
• The MS is also informed which PLMN’s it
may use.
• As well as System Information Type 2,it is
also possible to have System Information
Type 2 Bis and System information Type 2
Ater, depending on the size of the BA List.
• System Information Type 2 Bis/Ter are
optional.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2
• Neighbor Cell Description:- BA
Indicator(BA IND):- Allows to differentiate
measurement results related to different list of
BCCH frequencies sent to MS.
BCCH Allocation number(BANO):- Band 0 is
used.
• PLMN Permitted(NCCPERM):-This the PLMN
color codes permitted and tells the MS which
network color codes(NCC) on the BCCH carriers it is
allowed to monitor when it is in this cell.
.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2
• RACH Control Parameters Access Control
Class(ACC) :-Bitmap with 16 bits. All MS spread out
on class 0 –9 . Priority groups use class 11-15. A bit set
to 1 barred access for that class. Bit 10 is used to
tell the MS if emergency call is allowed or not.
0 – All MS can make emergency call. 1 - MS with class 11-
15 only can make emergency calls.
Cell barred for access(CB):- 0- Yes 1- No
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2
Re-establishment allowed(RE):-
0- Yes
1- No Max_retransmissions(MAXRET):-Number
of times the MS attempts to access the Network
[1,2,4 or 7].
Tx-integer(TX):- Number of slots to spread access
retransmissions when a MS attempts to access the
system. Emergency call allowed:- Yes/No.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2
BCCH ARFCN Number(BAIND):- ARFCN’s
used for in a Bitmap of 124 bits

124 123 122 121

024 023 022 021 020 019 018 017

016 015 014 013 012 011 010 009

008 007 006 005 004 003 002 001


SYSTEM INFORMATION 3
• The System Information Type 3 contains
information on the identity of the current LA and
cell identity, because a change means that the
MS must update the network.
• System Information 3 also as Control Channel
Description parameters used to calculate the
Paging group.
• When the MS is in idle mode it decides which cells
to lock to. Information needed by the MS for cell
selection is also broadcast in the Type 3
information.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 3
LOCATION AREA IDENTITTY(LAI)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
MCC DIG 2 MCC DIG 1
1 1 1 1 MCC DIG 1
MNC DIG 2 MNC DIG 1
LAC
LAC

CELL IDENTITY
CI
CI
SYSTEM INFORMATION 3
• Control Channel Description
Attach / Detach(ATT):-
0 = Allowed
1 = Not Allowed
bs_agblk:-Number of block reserved for
AGCH [0-7] Ba_pmfrms:-Number of 51
frame multi-frames between transmission of
paging messages to MS of the same group

T3212:- Periodic location update timer .


[1-255 deci hours].
SYSTEM INFORMATION 3

c c h _ c o nPf h y s i c a l c h a n n e l s c o m b i n e dN o . o f CCH
0 1 t im e s lo t (0 ) No 9
1 1 t im e s lo t (0 ) Yes 3
2 2 t im e s lo t (0 ,2 ) No 18
4 3 t im e s lo t (0 ,2 ,4 ) No 27
6 4 t im e s lo t (0 ,2 ,4 ,6 ) No 36
SYSTEM INFORMATION 3
• Cell options
DTX:-Whether Discontinuous
Transmission used or not.
PWRC:-Power control on the downlink.
0 = Not used.
1 = Used.
Radio link
timeout(RLINKT):-Radio link time-out
is the time before an MS disconnects
due to failure in decoding SACCH
message. Sets the timer T100 in the MS.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 3
• Cell Selection Parameters Rxlev_access_min:-
Minimum received signal level at the MS for which it is
permitted to access the system. 0-63 = -100 dBm to
–47 dBm. Mx_txpwr_cch:- Maximum power the MS
will use when accessing the system.
Cell_reselect_hysteresis:- Used for cell reselection.
• RACH Control Parameters.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 4
• Location Area Identification.
• Cell Selection Parameters
Rxlev_access_min:- Minimum received signal
level at the MS for which it is permitted to
access the system. 0-63 = -100 dBm to –
47 dBm. Mx_txpwr_cch:- Maximum power the
MS will use when accessing the system.
Cell_reselect_hysteresis:- Used for cell
reselection.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 4
• RACH Control Parameters
max_retransmissions(MAXRET)
tx_integer(TX)
Cell barred for access(CB).
Re-establishment allowed(RE)
Emergency Call Allowed
Access Control Class (ACC)
SYSTEM INFORMATION 4
• CBCH Description(Optional) :
CHN:- This is the channel number for CBCH.
It is controlled internally in BSC.
TSC:- Training Sequence Code. Base
Station Color Code(BCC) part of BSIC is used.
CBCHNO:- Absolute RF channel number of
CBCH.
MAC:- Mobile Allocation in the cell, describes
the frequencies to be used in the hopping
sequence if frequency hopping is used.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 4
Hopping Channel(H):-Informs if CBCH
Channel is hopping or single.
ARFCN:- If H=0;
MAIO:- If H=1, informs the MS where to
start hopping.
Values [0-63].
HSN:- If H=1,
informs the MS in what order the
hopping should take place. Values[0 –63].
HSN=0 Cyclic Hopping.
MA:-Indicates which RF Channels are used
for hopping. ARFCN numbers
coded in bitmap.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 5
• Sent on the SACCH on the downlink to the MS in
dedicated mode.
• On SAACH, the MS also receives information
about the BCCH carrier in each neighboring cell.
This may differ from those sent in System
information type 2.
• It is also possible to have system Information
Type 5 Bis and System Information Type 5Ter,
depending on the size of the BA list.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 5
• Neighbor Cell Description:-

BA-IND:-Used by the Network to


discriminate measurements results related to
different lists of BCCH carriers sent by the
MS(Type 2 or 5). Values 0 or
1(different from type 2).
BCCH
Allocation number:-00-Band 0(current GSM
band).
SYSTEM INFORMATION 5
BCCH ARFCN:-Neighboring cells ARFCN’s.
Sent as a bitmap.
0-Not used
1-Used.

124 123 122 121

024 023 022 021 020 019 018 017

016 015 014 013 012 011 010 009

008 007 006 005 004 003 002 001


SYSTEM INFORMATION 6
• Ms in dedicated mode needs to know if the LA
has changed.If so, it must perform location
updating when the call is released.
• MS may change between cells with different
Radio link timeout and DTX.
• Cell Identity.
• Location Area Identification.
• PLMN permitted.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 6
• Cell options:
DTX
PWRC
Radio Link timeout.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 7/8

• System Information Types 7 and 8 contain


Cell Reselect parameters. Their function is
to supplement System Information Type 4.
GSM Interfaces
• (Um) Air interface - MS to BTS
• A bis interface - BTS to BSC
• A Interface - BSC to MSC
• B Interface - MSC to VLR
• C interface - MSC to HLR
AUC D Interface
H Interface
To other VLR EIR
Networks HLR

GMSC C Interface
B Interface
MSC F Interface
A Interface

BSC
A bis Interface

Air Interface

MS
GSM Interfaces
• The interfaces between MSC and MS is
called A, Abis and Um interfaces.
• On these interfaces only three layers are
defined.They are not corresponding to the
OSI (Open System Interconnection)
model.
A Interface
• A interface between the BSC and the MSC
• The A interface provides two distinct
types of information, signalling and traffic,
between the MSC and the BSC.
• The speech is transcoded in the TRC and
the SS7 (Signalling system) signalling is
transparently connected through the TRC
or on a separate link to the BSC.
Abis Interface
• The A-bis interface responsible for transmitting
traffic and signalling information between the BSC
and the BTS.
• The transmission protocol used for sending signalling
information on the A-bis interface is Link Access
Protocol on the D Channel (LAPD)
(Um) Air Interface
• This is the interface between the mobile station
and the Base station.
• The Air interface uses the Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) technique to transmit and
receive traffic and signalling information
between the BTS and MS.
• The TDMA technique is used to divide each
carrier into eight time slots.These time slots are
then assigned to specific users,allowing up to
eight conversations to be handled
Simultaneously by the same carrier.
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Down Link

Up Link 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time Slot

• This interface is the radio interface between the


mobile station and the network and uses layer
Three messages.
• On Layer three messages we have the division
of message types into CM (communication
Management), MM (Mobility Management), and
RR (Radio Resource Management).
Connection Management
(CM)
There are three entities within CM:
• Call Control(CC) – Which handles the procedures
concerning call control. e.g. setup,Change of bearer
service.
• Supplementary Service (SS) – Which handles such as
call bearing, call waiting , call forwarding etc.
• Short Message Service (SMS) – Enables the MS to
handle short message transfer to and from the network.
Mobility Management (MM)

• Mobility management handles functions for


authentication, location updating, identification
and others concerning the mobility of the
mobile station.
Radio Resource
Management (RR)
• It contains the functions concerning the radio
link. Here we find the capability to
establish,maintain and release the radio
connection between the network and the mobile
station, which includes the handover procedure.
B Interface
• The B interface between the MSC and the VLR
uses the MAP/TCAP protocol.
• Most MSCs are associated with a VLR, making the
B interface "internal".
• Whenever the MSC needs access to data
regarding a MS located in its area, it interrogates
the VLR using the MAP/B protocol over the B
interface.
C Interface

• The C interface is between the HLR and a MSC.


• Each call originating outside of GSM (i.e., a MS
terminating call from the PSTN) has to go
through a Gateway to obtain the routing
information required to complete the call, and the
MAP/TCAP protocol over the C interface is used
for this purpose.
• Also, the MSC may optionally forward billing
information to the HLR after call clearing.
D Interface
• The D interface is between the VLR and HLR.
• It uses the MAP/TCAP protocol to exchange the
data related to the location of the MS and to the
management of the subscriber.
E Interface
• The E interface interconnects two MSCs.
• The E interface exchanges data related to
handover between the anchor and relay MSCs
using the -MAP/TCAP+ISUP/TUP protocol.
F Interface
• The F interface connects the MSC to the EIR.
• It uses the MAP/TCAP protocol to verify the status
of the IMEI that the MSC has retrieved from the
MS.
G Interface
• The G interface interconnects two VLRs of
different MSCs.
• It uses the MAP/G protocol to transfer subscriber
information, during e.g. a location update
procedure.
Encoding and
Interleaving
of Information
Signal
in
GSM
Topics for discussion
• Speech Encoding
• Data Encoding
• Interleaving for Voice,Control and
Data signals
Speech Encoding
• We shall start with a raw voice signal
fed into the microphone, travel
through the various stages involving
vocoding, channel coding etc till it
reaches the final burst format on the
Air Interface.
Speech Encoding ckt

Raw
Voice Voice Channel
interleaving
signal Encoding coding

RF Modulation
Speech Encoding ckt
• The voice is sampled at the rate of 50
samples per second.
• This results in 20 msec blocks of speech
• Each of this 20 msec block is passed on
to the 13Kbps vocoder.
• There are 260 information bits from the
output of the vocoder for every 20 msec
input i.e.; 13Kbps *20msec = 260 bits.
Voice Encoding ckt

Vocoder I/p
13Kbps Vocoder Vocoder O/p
20 msec speech
260 bits
blocks
Channel coding
• Channel Coding is done to protect
the logical channels from
transmission errors introduced by the
radio path.
• The coding schemes depend on the
type of the logical channels, hence
the coding can differ from speech,
control and data .
Channel Coding for speech
260 bits
Class class 1b class 2
1a

50 3 132 4 tail
Bits parity bits

Convolutional coder
½ coder, k=5

456 bits=378 bits from Convolution coder + 78 class 2 bits


Channel coding for Speech
• The 260 bits of speech info from the
vocoder is broken down into three parts.
• Class 1a- 50 bits , these represent the
filter coefficients of the speech and are the
most important for proper detection of the
speech at the receiver and hence are
given maximum protection. 3 additional
parity bits are derived from the class 1a
bits for cyclic redundancy check (CRC).
Channel coding for Speech
cont’d
• Class 1b - 132 bits are not parity checked
but are fed into the convolutional coder
along with 4 tail bits which are used to set
the registers in the receiver to a known
state for decoding purpose.
• Class 2- 78 bits, these are not so
important and are not protected but are
combined with the output of the
convolution coder.
Control Channel Coding

184 bits
Control data

184 40 4 tail
Fire coded parity bits

½ Convolutional Coder
456 bits output
Control Channel Coding
• The control information is received in blocks of
184 bits.
• These bits are first protected with a cyclic code
called as Fire code, which is useful in correction
and detection of burst errors.
• 40 Parity bits are added, along with 4 tail bits.
• These 228 bits are given to the CC whose output
is again 456 bits at a bitrate of 22.8Kbps.
• The control channels include the RACH, PCH,
AGCH etc.
Data Channel Coding

240 bits 4 tail


Data bits

½ Convolutional Coder
Output= 488 bits

After Puncturing
Output=456 bits
Data Channel Coding
• The data bits are received in blocks of 240
bits. These are directly convolution coded
after adding 4 tail bits.
• The output of the CC is now 488 bits,
which actually increases the bitrate to
24.4 Kbps.
• To keep the bitrate constant on the air
interface we need to puncture the output
of the CC. Hence, we have a final bitrate
of 22.8 Kbps again .
Channel Coding cont’d
• The above explanation was given
keeping in view a full rate Traffic,
Control, or Data channel.
• For Half rate or Lesser rates the
same principle of channel coding
holds good, with slight differences in
the encoding process.
Interleaving
• Having encoded the logical channel
information, the next step is to build
its bit stream into bursts that can be
transmitted within the TDMA frame
structure. This is the stage where the
interleaving process is carried out.
• Interleaving spreads the content of
one information block across several
TDMA timeslots or bursts.
Interleaving cont’d
• The following interleaving depths are used :
• Speech – 8 blocks
• Control – 4 blocks
• Data – 22 blocks
• The interleaving process for a speech block is
shown wherein which a 456 bit speech block
is divided into 8 blocks of 57 bits each and
each of these odd and even 57 bit blocks are
interleaved diagonally on to alternate bursts
on the TDMA frame.
Speech Interleaving
456 bit speech data
Speech block 8* 57 bits each = 456 bits
N-1 Of Speech block N

57 57 57 57
T+F odd T+F odd Even T+F Even
Of N-1 Of N Of N-1 Of N

The speech is spread over 8 such normal bursts


Each normal burst consists of two blocks of 57 bit speech
from different 20msec blocks (say N, N-1) along with
26 bit training sequence T and 2 flag F plus 6 start stop bits .
Control Data Interleaving
456 bits control data

114 114 114 114

TDMA
Burst blocks

The control data is spread over 4 blocks using rectangular


interleaving instead of diagonal interleaving as in
speech the receiver will have to wait for at least
2 multiframes before being able to decode the control
message
Data Interleaving
456 bit data block

114 114 114 114

First 6 First 6
bits bits
Last 6 Last 6
bits bits

Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 Burst 19 Burst 22


Data Interleaving cont’d
• Here the data block of 456 bits is divided
into 4 blocks of 114 bits each.
• The first 6 bits from each of the 114 bit
blocks is inserted in to each frame, the
second 6 bits from each of the 114 bits
into the next frame and so on spreading
each 114 block over 19 TDMA bursts while
the entire 456 bits is spread over 22 TDMA
bursts.
• Thus the data interleaving is said to have a
depth of 22 bursts.
Data Interleaving cont’d
• The reason why data is spread over such along
period of time is that if data burst is corrupted or
lost, only a small part of it is lost which can be
reproduced at the receiver.
• This wide interleaving depth does produce a time
delay during transmission but that is acceptable
since it does not affect the data signal quality at
the receiver, unlike speech where delay could
result in bad quality of signal to the subscriber.
• *Note – The interleaving used in data is diagonal
interleaving.
Interleaving Advantage
Before Deinterleaving
3 successive bursts corrupted

After Deinterleaving
The corrupted bursts are spread over a length equal to the
interleaving depth so that the effect of the errors is
minimized.
Air Interface Bitrate
• The information which is now coded and
interleaved at 22.8 Kbps now has to be
transmitted over the Air interface to the
BTS.
• The information burst is not sent directly ,
but is sent in ciphered form within a burst
envelope. This ciphering is done using
ciphering keys and algorithms known both
by the mobile and the BSS.
Air Interface Bitrate cont’d
• The Kc is the ciphering key and A5
algorithm are applied to the
information(speech or data) which increases
the bitrate to a final rate of 33.8 Kbps
from/to each mobile.
• If we assume all 8 timeslots of the cell to be
occupied then the bitrate of the Air interface
comes to 33.8 * 8= 270.4 Kbps/channel.
Air Interface Bitrate cont’d

Kc Information
Block 22.8 Kbps

A5 Algorithm

Sent on Air interface


Ciphered information burst
33.8 Kbps
Air Interface Bitrate cont’d
TDMA Fn TDMA Fn+1
Cell rx’s 8*33.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 KBps = 270.4 Kbps
Per TDMA frame

Mobile
Tx’s at
Cell coverage area 33.8 Kbps
Decoding and
Deinterleaving at the
Receiver
• At the receiver the reverse process of
Deinterleaving and decoding have to take
place respectively, so as to recover the
information from the signal.
• After Deinterleaving the signal will be
decoded which is the reverse process of
the Convolutional coding, using Viterbi
decoders.
• The decoder can recover lost or corrupted
data up to 4 successive bits, because the
memory depth of the CC is 4(for k=5).
Channelization

• Frequency band has several


application segments
• Certain blocks of the Band are
reserved for certain applications by
regulating authorities
• Technologies have decided their
frequency bands
• E.g. AMPS/DAMPS: 824-894 MHz
Channelization methods

Channelization can be done primarily


by three methods:
– FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple
Access)
– TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
– CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
Power FDMA
Time

Frequency
• E.g. AMPS band is divided into 30
KHz channels (1666 Freq. channels)
• Television Channels (Star, Zee,
Sony,..)
Power TDMA
Time

Frequency

• E.g. AMPS has 3 timeslots on each


30 KHz channel
CDMA

• Frequency channel is divided into


code channels
• E.g. in IS-95 CDMA, 1.228 MHz
channel is divided into 64 Code
Channels
• Each user has a particular code
• Codes are orthogonal to each other,
do not interfere with each other
Duplex Access Methods
Duplex
Amplitude
Time

Tx Rx

F1 F2 Frequency
• Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
• Transmit on one frequency and
receive on another frequency
Amplitude
Time Division Duplex
Time

Rx
Tx
F1 Frequency
• Time division duplex
• Tx and Rx is on the same frequency
but on different times
GSM Air Interface
• Separate Bands for Uplink and Downlink
– Downlink: 935-960Mhz (EGSM: 925-960MHz)
– Uplink: 890-915 MHz (EGSM: 880-915 MHz)

TDMA and TDMA Multiplex



124 Frequency Channels (ARFCN) for GSM900

1 to 124 fro current band

975 to 1023 for E-GSM

200kHz Channels

8 Mobiles share ARFCN by TDMA

GSM Air interface (1800)
– 1800: Downlink: 1805-1880 MHz
– 1800: Uplink: 1710-1785 MHx
• 374 ARFCNs
• Separation of 95 MHz
• ARFCNs are numbered from 512 to
885 inclusive
The GSM Burst
Control Control
Tail Bits Tail Bits
Bit Bit

3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25
Data Midamble Data Guard
Period
Speech Coder
20 ms blocks • RPE/LTP coder
(Regular Pulse
Speech Coder excitation/Long term
Prediction)
• Converts 64 kbps
Bits Ordered speech to 13 kbps
• At the end we get
13kbps speech i.e.
260 bits in 20 ms
50 very 132 78 other
important important bits
bits bits
Error Correction
Type 1a 50 3(CRC) Type 1b 132 Type II 78

Reordering
Type 1b Type 1b Tail
25 66 3 66 25 4 Type II 78
Type 1a Type 1a
Half rate convolutional code

378 Type II 78

456 bits from 20 ms of speech


Diagonal Interleaving
456 bits from 20ms of speech 456 bits from 20ms of speech

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

• Traffic channel (TCH) bursts carry two 57 bit


blocks (114)
• Each 120 ms of speech = 456*6 = 2736 bits
2736/114 = 24 bursts i.3. 24 frames
Multiframe has 26 frames in 120ms.
There are 2 spare frames .. 1 SACCH, 1 Idle
Convolutional Coding and
Interleaving
• Bits to be Tx ed: HELLO
• Convolutionally encoded:
HHEELLLLOO
• Interleaved: EE HH LL LL OO

• Bits Rx ed: EE HH LL LL OO
• De-Interleaved: HHEELLLLOO
• Viterbi Decoded: HELLO
Speech Coding Process
456 bits
20 ms
Transceiver (BTS)
Speech Coder
13 kbps
260 bits
260 bits 13 kbps
Transcoder Handler
50 1a 132 1b 78 II 16 kbps
260 + 60 = 320 bits
Channel Coder TRAU frame

456 bits 22.8 kbps Abis


TRAU frame
• 260 bits info + 60 TRAU bits = 320
bits/20ms = TRAU frame
• 60 bits contain frame Information
data which indicates speech, data,
O&M, full rate/half rate
• 60 bits = 35 synchronization + 21
control + 4 timing
Midamble
Tail Bits
or
Control Bit Training
Control Bit Bits
Tail Bits

3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25
Data Midamble Data Guard
Period
• 8 midamble patterns (Colour codes) of 26 bits
(BSIC)
• RACH and SCH have longer 41 and 64 bit
Midambles
• Equalizer estimates channel impulse response
from midamble
• Mathematically construct inverse filter
• Uses inverse to decode bits
Downlink and Uplink

• Uplink lags downlink by 3 timeslots


• Uplink and downlink use same
timeslot number
• Uplink and downlink use same
channel number (ARFCN)
• Uplink and downlink use different
bands (45 MHz apart for GSM 900)
Measurements made by MS
and BTS
Uplink RXLEV (-48 to -110 dbm)
Uplink RXQUAL (0-7)

Uplink RXLEV (-48 to -110 dbm)


Uplink RXQUAL (0-7)
• RxQual
0 < 0.2% 1 0.2 – 0.4 %
3 0.4 – 0.8 % 4 0.8 – 0.16 %
5 1.6 – 3.2 % 6 3.2 – 6.4 %
7 6.4 – 12.8 %
Mobile Power Control
Path Loss

Power Command

• Mobile is commanded to change its


Transmit Power
• Change in Power is proportionate to the
Path Loss
• Change in Power is done in steps of 2 dbs
Timing Advance
• TDMA approach requires signals to arrive
at BTS at the correct time
• A mobile at 30 km will be late by
100micro seconds
• Timing advance is in the range of 0-62
• One unit is 550m
• So maximum cell size is 63*0.55 = ~35
kms
Concepts of Channels in GSM
• A company vehicle is used for several purposes in
a day
• Similarly in GSM, the timeslots are used for
different purposes at different times
Frames and Multiframes
Control Channel Traffic Channel
Multiframe Multiframe
0 50 0 25

4.615 ms

Frame 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time
3 Data 1 Midamble 1 Data 3 8.25 bits
Slot
156.25 bits 576.92 micro sec
GSM Operations
• Location Update • DTX
• Mobile Originated • Cell Broadcast
Call • Short Message
• Mobile Terminated Service
Call • Emergency calls
• Handover • Supplementary
• Security Services
Procedures • Roaming
• Cell Barring
Mobile Turn On
• Mobile Searches for Broadcast Channels
(BCH)
• Synchronizes Frequency and Timing
• Decodes BCH sub-channels (BCCH)
• Checks if Network Allowed by SIM
• Location Update
• Authentication
Location Area
BTS
Location
LocationArea
Area11 BTS BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS BSC
MSC

Location BTS
Location
Area
Area22 BTS BSC
BTS
Location Area Identity
MCC MNC LAC

• Location area is the area covered by one


or more BTSs where a mobile can move
freely without updating the system
• One Location area can be covered by one
or more BSCs, but ony one MSC.
Importance of Location Area
• Reduce Paging load
• Resource Planning

Smaller Location Areas – Location


update increases

Larger Location Areas – Paging load


increases
What is Location Update?
• MSC should know the location of the
Mobile for paging
• Mobile is continuously changing location
area
• Mobile when changes Location Area
informs the MSC about its new LA
• Process of informing MSC about new
Location area is Location Update
Types of Location Updates
1. Normal Location
Update
2. IMSI Attach
3. Periodic Location
Update

Hi,
I am in Location area
xxx
IMSI Attach
• Mobile turns off and sends an IMSI
Detach to MSC
• Mobile turns on again and compares
LAI
• If same, sends an IMSI attach to
MSC
If same,
Sends
Is the received IMSI
LAI same as
attach
before
Normal Location Update
• Mobile Turns on Power
• Reads the new LAI
• If different, does a Location Update

If differe
n t,
does
Is the received Location
LAI same as Update
before
Periodic Location Update

• The periodic location Update time is set


from OMC/MSC
• After the periodic location update timer
expires, the mobile has to do a location
update
What happens at Location
Update?
• Mobile changes location area
• Reads the new Location Area from
BCCH
• Sends a RACH (request for channel)
• Gets a SDCCH after AGCH
• Sends its IMSI and new and old LAI in
a Location Update request to MSC on
SDCCH
What happens at location
update cont..
….. . .
• MSC starts Authentication
• If successful, Updates the new
Location area for the Mobile in the
VLR
• Sends a confirmation to the Mobile
• Mobile leaves SDCCH, and comes to
idle mode
Mobile Originated Call
Channel Request
Immediate Assign
Service Request
Authentication
Ciphering
Set Up
Call Proceeding
Assignment
Alerting
Connection
Mobile Terminated Call
Paging
Channel Request
Immediate Assign
Paging Response
Authentication
Ciphering
Set Up
Call Confirmed
Assignment
Alerting
Connection
Security Features
• Authentication
–Process to verify Authenticity of
SIM
–Mobile is asked to perform an
operation using identity unique to
• Ciphering
SIM
– Process of coding speech for secrecy
– The speech bits are EXORed with bit
stream unique to MS
Security Features (TMSI
Reallocation)
Location Update
TMSI Allocation

Call Setup
TMSI Reallocation
GSM
Infrastructure
Mobile

TMSI- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity


Security Features
(Identity Check)

Identity Check

Sends IMEI

EIR
White listed /Grey Listed/ Black
Listed mobiles
Handover

Cell 1 Cell 2

Handover is a GSM feature by which the


control/communication of a Mobile is transferred
from one cell to another if certain criteria’s are
met. It is a network initiated process.
Criteria for Handover
• Receive Quality (RXQUAL) on uplink
and downlink
• Receive Signal Strength (RXLEV) on
uplink and downlink
• Distance (Timing Advance)
• Interference Level
• Power Budget
Handover Decision
• BSC process the measurements reported by
Mobile and the BTS

BTS BTS

BTS BTS

BTS BTS

Mobile has measurements of six neighbors


Handover Decision (cont..)

• BSS performs averaging function on


these measurements every SACCH
frame (480ms)

• Handover Decision algorithm is


activated after a set number of SACCH
frame periods by comparison against
thresholds
Types of Handovers

• INTRA-CELL HANDOVERS
• INTER-CELL HANDOVERS
• INTRA-BSC HANDOVERS
• INTER-BSC HANDOVERS
• INTER-MSC HANDOVERS
INTRA-CELL HANDOVER

C1

C0

Handover between timeslots of same frequency


Handover between different frequencies of the same cell
(to reduce interference)
MSC is not aware about this
Inter-cell Handover

BTS
Cell 1 Cell 2

Handover between cells of the same BTS


Inter-cell Handover (cont..)
• MSC is told about HO
• BTS -> BSC -> MSC
• Why MSC is informed?
– In case of change of LA, MSC may need LAC
for paging. As MS is busy, a link already
exists. So, MSC can send a tone in case of
call waiting, and does not need to page
again.
– This is needed also for billing and call tracing
INTRA-BSC Handover

BTS

MSC BSC

BTS

This HO takes place if the cell to which handover


is to be done belongs to the same BSC
Inter BSC Handover
BSC BTS

MSC

BSC BTS

The MSC is completely involved in this Handover


Inter MSC Handover
MSC BSC BTS

GMSC/
PSTN/
Backbone

MSC BSC BTS

In this case the handover takes place through the


interconnecting element which can be GMSC or
PSTN or private Backbone between the MSCs
Cell Barring

BTS

Cell Barring is a GSM feature by which certain


mobiles could be barred access to certain cells
Cell barring is activated/deactivated at BTS level
Cell barring is done for mobile categories and
priorities
Cell Barring
• Every mobile has an access class
• The access class is stored in the SIM
– Classes 0-9 are termed normal calsses
– Classes 11-15 are emergency classes

• Every cell has a set parameter which


defines which access classes are barred
for the particular cell. This parameter is
broadcasted on the BCCH
What is DTX?
• DTX (Discontinous Transmission)
• Each direction of Transmission is only
50%
• Transmitter is switched ON for useful
information frames
Need for DTX
•To increase battery life
•To reduce the average interference level
DTX is done by DTX handlers which have
the following functions.
VAD (Voice Activity
Detector)
• Senses for speech in 20ms blocks
• Removes stationary noise
• VAD is an energy detector
• Compares Energy of filtered speech
threshold
• It determines which 20ms blocks
contain speech and it only forwards
those frames
Evaluation of Background
Noise
• Background noise is always present
with speech
• DTX cuts off this noise with speech
• Gives an uncomfortable feeling to
the listener
• VAD takes care of this by inserting
comfort noise at the receiving end
when speech discontinues.
Emergency Calls
• GSM specs define 112 as an emergency
number
• ‘112’ is accessible with or without SIM
• Without SIM it is sent on the best channel
• Mobile on sensing ‘112’ sets the
establishment cause to emergency call in
the RACH
• Routing of this call be done to a desired
location defined in the switch
Cell (Re)selection
• Cell reselection is done using C1 path
loss criterion.
• The purpose is to ensure that the MS
is camped on to the cell with the best
transmission quality.
• The MS will camp on to the cell with
the highest C1 value if C1 > 0.
The following parameters are used to
calculate the C1 criterion
• The received signal at the MS side.
• Rxlev_access_min - broadcast on the
BCCH - The minimum received level at
the MS required for access to the
network.
• Ms_txpwr_max_cch - the maximum
power that an MS may use when initially
accessing the network.
• The maximum power of the MS
C1 = A - Max(B,0)

• A = Received level Average -


Rxlev_access_min.

• B = MS_txpwr_max_cch - maximum
output power of the MS
Cell Reselect Hysteresis
• Cell reselection on the border of two location areas
result in a location update. When an MS moves on
the border of two location areas lots of location
updates take place. To avoid these location updates,
the reselect hysteresis is introduced.
• A location update is performed only if:
– The C1 value of the new location area is higher
than the C1 value in the current location area and
– The received signal strengths have at least a
difference of the reselect hysteresis.
Cellular concept
Why to use the cellular
concept ?
 Solves the problem of Spectral
congestion and user capacity by means
of frequency reuse.
 Offers high capacity in a limited
spectrum allocation.
 Offers system level approach, using low
power transmitters instead of a single,
high power transmitter (large cell) to
cover larger area.
 A portion of the total channels
available is allocated to each base
station.
 Neighboring base stations are
assigned different groups
channels, in order to minimize
interference.
Cell shape
1-Omni-directional cell-site (Omni-
directional antenna).
2-Rhombus-shaped sectors
(Directive antenna).
3-Hexagonal shaped sectors
(Directive antenna).
Cell size
Large cell : (up to 70km in diameter)
It exists where :
1-Radio waves are unobstructed.
2-Transmission power can cover the area.
3-low subscriber density.

Small cell : (up to 2km in diameter)


It exists where :
1-Radio waves are obstructed.
2-Low transmission power to decrease
interference.
3-High subscriber density.
Types of cells
1-Macro-cells 2-Micro-cells.
3-Pico-cells. 4-Umbrella-cells.
What is a cluster ?
 A cluster is a group of
cells.
 No channels are
reused within a cluster.
 It is the unit of design.
Cluster size
 Definition : It is The number of
cells per cluster
N = i^2 + ij + j^2
Where :
i = 0, 1, 2….& j = 0,1,2…. etc.
N = 1 , 3 , 4 ,7, 9 , 12 ,……
Types of clusters
1-N=7 omni frequency plan (2-
directional).
2-N=7 trapezoidal frequency plan
(1-directional).
3-N=9 omni frequency plan.
4-Tricellular plans
a) N=3 tricellular plan (3/9).
b) N=4 tricellular plan (4/12).
Channel assignment
strategies
 Considerations :
1) Max. capacity.
2) Min interference.
3) Perfect handover.

 Types of assignment strategies :


1) Fixed :
 Each cell has permanent predetermined set of
voice channels.
 New calls served by unused channels of this cell.
 Borrowing strategy if all channels are occupied.
 High probabiltity that call is Blocked if channels
are occupied.( disadv.)
2) Dynamic :

 Channels are not allocated to different


cells permanently.

 Each new call BTS requests new channel


from MSC.

 MSC allocate a channel, by using an


algorithm that takes into account:
1- Frequency is not already in use.
2- Min. reuse distance to avoid co-
channel interference.
 Adv. of dynamic assignment
strategy :

1) Increase channel utilization


( Increase trunking efficiency ).

2) Decrease probability of a blocked


call.
Frequency reuse
Concept
Reuse cluster
Co-channel Reuse ratio
(Q) :

 R : cell radius.
 D : reuse distance.

 Q = D/R. =
sqrt(3N).
Where :
N : cluster size
Handover
Definition : procedure that allows
MS to change the cell or time-slot
to keep as good link as possible
during all the call.
Types of handover
 IntraCell : bet. 2 channels of same cell.

 InterCell : bet. 2 channels of 2 different cell


& same BTS.

 InterBTS (intra BSC) : 2 cells of different


BTS Same BSC.

 InterBSC : bet. 2 cells of different BSC’s &


same MSC.
Measurements before
handover
1- Measurements from MS to BSC :
a) Strength of BTS signal.
b) Quality of BTS signal.
c) Signal strength of 6 neighbor BTS’s.

2-Measurements from BTS to BSC :


a) Strength of MS signal.
b) Quality of MS signal.
c) Distance between serving BTS & MS.
Different causes
Different causes of
of
handover
Handover

Emergency HO Better cell HO

Level PBGT
Quality
Distance Traffic causes
Interference
Basic handover
algorithms
a)“Min. acceptable performance”
algorithm:
MS power is increased when quality
deceases till handover is the only
way.
b) “Power budget “ algorithm:
Prefer direct handover when quality
deceases without increasing MS
power first .
Handover priority
1) UL quality cause (or
interference).
2) DL quality cause (or
interference).
3) UL level cause.
4) DL level cause.
5) Distance cause.
6) Better cell cause.
Inter ference
Sources of interference
include:

1) Another mobile in the same cell.


2) A call in progress in the neighboring
cell.
3) Other BTS’s operating in the same frequency
band.
Interference effects :
• In voice channel causes crosstalk

• In control channels it leads missed


and blocked calls due to errors in the
digital signaling.
Main types of
interference :

1) Co-channel interference.

2) Adjacent channel
interference.
1) Co-channel interference
Source : Near cell using same frequency.

It is a function of reuse distance(D/R).
General rule :

io = No. of co-channel interfering cells.


S = Signal power from a desired BS.
Ii = interference power caused by the ith
interfering co-channel cell BS.
• Another form :
C/I = 10 log {(1/n)(D/R)*m}
Where :
m = propagation constant
(dep’s on nature of
environment)
n = number of co-channel
interferers.

Can be minimized by :
Choosing minimum reuse distance
= (2.5….3)(2R).
2) Adjacent channel
interference
• Source : A cell using a frequency adjacent
to the one in another cell due to imperfect
reciever’s filter.
• General rule : ACI= -10 Log[(d1/d2)*m]
– Adj ch isolation.
Where :
d1: distance between MS & proper BTs
d2: dist. Bet MS & adj BTS causing
interference.
Adj ch isolation = Filter isolation =
- 26db.

Can be minimized by :
1-careful filtering
2-careful channel assignments
3-Directional antenna.
Traffic engineering
theor y
Why do we need to
know traffic?
 The amount of traffic during peak hours
allows us to dimension our wireless
system for a certain GOS.

 GOS : probability of having a call


blocked during busy hour (block rate).
Traffic intensity (E)
 Erlang : A unit of traffic intensity
measure.

 1 Erlang = 1 circuit in use for 1 hour.

 T ( in Erlangs) = [No. of calls per


hour*average call holding time(sec.)] /
[3600]
Typical traffic profile
Traffic tables
Erlang B Blocked calls are not held
Table

Erlang C Blocked calls are held in


Table the queue indefinitely

Poisson Blocked calls are held in


Table the queue for a time =
the mean holding time of
Erlang – B table
 P(N;T) = [ (T^N)*exp(-T) ] / N!

N GOS 1% GOS 2%

2 0.153 0.223
4 0.869 1.093
10 4.46 5.084
20 12.0 13.182
40 29.0 30.997
Trunking
 Sharing channel among several users.

 Trunking efficiency (nT) : Measures the number


of subscribers that each channel in every cell can
accommodate.

nT = (traffic in Erlangs / no. of channels)*100.


 Trunking  Trunking
efficiency in efficiency in
presence of presence of
one operator : two
operators :

N = 7 , 312 one N = 7 , 312 / 2 = 156


direction voice one direction voice
channels channel for each
operator.
No. of channels / cell =
312 / 7 = 44 ch./cell. No. of channels / cell
= 156 / 7 = 22
From Erlang-B table ch./cell.
@GOS 2%,this’s From Erlang-B table
equivalent to 35 @GOS 2%,this’s
Erlangs equivalent to 15
nT = 35 / 44 = 79.55. Erlangs.
nT = 15 / 22 = 68.18.
System capacit y
 S : total duplex channels available for use = k*N

Where:
N : cluster size.
k : No. of channels / cell.

 C : total No. of duplex channels in system;

C = M*k*N.

Where :
M : No. of times the cluster is repeated.
Improving system
capacity

 Cell splitting.
 Sectoring.
Cell splitting
Sectoring
 We use directional antennas instead
of being omnidirectional
What does sectoring
mean?
 We can now assign frequency sets
to sectors and decrease the re-use
distance to fulfill :
1) More freq reuse.
2) Higher system capacity.
3) Improve S/I ratio ( better signal quality ).
 How S/I ratio is improved?
-e.g. In 120 degree sectoring there’s only
2 interferers instead of 6 incase of
omnidirectional N=7 cluster.
Directional frequency reuse

 Here we use
7/21 pattern for
frequency
allocation.
Comparison
between various
t ypes of clusters
N = 7 omni frequency
plan :
 n = 6 , m = 4.

 D / R = 4.583.

 1) Co-channel
interference ratio :
C / I = 18.6 dB.

 2) Adjacent channel
interference :
ACI = -26 dB @ d1=
d2.
N = 7 trapezoidal
frequency plan
 n = 2 , m = 4.

 D / R = 6.245.

 1) Co-channel
interference ratio :
C / I = 28.8.

 2) Adjacent channel
interference : disappears
because the channels are
assigned alternatively to
the cells.
 Trunking efficiency :
• 312 one direction voice channels
N=7
 312 / 7 = 44.57 ~ 44 ch./cell.

• From Erlang-B table @ GOS = 2%


T = 35 E.
 nT = 35 / 44 = 79.55 %.
N = 9 omni frequency plan
 n = 4 , m = 4.

 D / R = sqrt ( 3 * 9 ) =
5.2.

 1) Co-channel
interference :
C / I = 22.6 dB.

 2) Adjacent channel
interference :
ACI = -38 dB @ d2 =
2 (d1).
 Trunking efficiency :
• 312 one direction voice channels
N=9
 312 / 9 = 34.67 ~ 34 ch./cell.
• From Erlang-B table @ GOS = 2%
T = 25.529 E.
 nT = 25.529 / 34 = 75.085 %.
Conclusion : nT 7 > nT 9
But C/I 7 > C/I 9
ACI 7 > ACI 9
4 / 12 cell pattern
 n = 1 , m = 4.
 D / R = sqrt (3* 4) =
3.732.

 C / I = 22.87 dB.

 Trunking efficiency :
• No. of channels/cell
= 312 / 12 = 26 ch./cell.
• From Erlang-B table @
GOS = 2 %.
 T = 18.4 E/cell.
 nT = 18.4 / 26= 70.77%.
3 / 9 cell pattern
 n = 1 , m = 4.
 D / R = sqrt (3* 3) = 3.

 C / I = 19.1 dB.

 Trunking efficiency :
• No. of channels/cell
=312 / 9 = 34 ch./cell.
• From Erlang-B table @
GOS = 2 %.
 T = 25.5 E/cell.
 nT = 25.5 / 24 = 75 %.
120 degree cell sectoring
 n = 2 , m = 4.
 D / R = sqrt(3 * 7) = 4.583.

 Co-channel interference :
C / I = 23.436 + 6dB(due to
isolation) = 29.436 dB.

 Trunking efficiency :
• No. of channels/cell = 312 /
21 = 14.857.
• From Erlang-B @ GOS=2%
 T= 8.2003.
 nT = 8.2003 / 14.857
=56.216%.
 References :
• Motorola CP02
• NOKIA SYSTRA
If any Query
Contact
9903867731
shrawan.rai@adacellworks.com