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Group 2-BSMT 3D

Cruz, Krysstina
De Jesus, Cristel
Evangelista, Marix John
Fuselero, Jovimaeh
Galicia, Klarizza
After World War II-clinical and epidemiologic studies began to differentiate among
various types of acute hepatitis in the decades.

1967-The groundbreaking studies of Krugman and colleagues firmly established the
existence of at least two types of hepatitis, one of which(then called serum
hepatitis, and now called hepatitis B) was parenterally transmitted.

Blumberg and colleagues-searching for serum protein polymorphisms linked to
diseases, identified an antigen(termed Au) in serum from patients with leukemia,
leprosy, and hepatitis, though the relationship of this antigen to hepatitis was
initially unclear.

Prince and coworkers independently identified an antigen, termed SH, by
systematically studying patients with transfusion-associated hepatitis, that
appeared in the blood of these patients during the incubation period of the
disease, and further work established the Au and SH were identical.

The antigen represented the Hepatitis B surface Antigen(HBsAg)

These seminal studies made possible the serologic diagnosis of hepatitis b
and opened up the field to rigorous epidemiologic and virologic investigation.
a common and serious infection characterized by inflammation and necrosis
of the liver
silent infector globally recognized as a very serious liver ailment.
It is a liver disease that results from infection with the Hepa B virus.
It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious,
lifelong illness.
It can either be ACUTE or CHRONIC
It can lead to liver damage
Acute Hepatitis B virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6
months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis B virus. It can, but NOT always,
lead to chronic infection.
Chronic Hepatitis B virus infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the
Hepatitis B virus remains in the persons body. This is a serious disease that can
result in long-term health problems, and even.death.
It can lead to liver damage and an increased risk of liver cancer. If a pregnant
woman have the hepa B virus, her baby has a very high risk of acquiring the
virus unless the baby gets a special immune injection and the first dose of
hepatitis B vaccine at birth.
Unlike Hepatitis A, it is not spread routinely through food or water. However,
there have been instances in which Hepa B has been spread to babies when
they have received food pre-chewed by an infected person.
The younger the age of being infected with the virus, the greater the risk of
having a chronic hepatitis.

Loss of appetite
Abdominal Pain
Dark Urine
Clay-colored bowel movements
Joint Pain
Jaundice(yellow color in the skin or eyes)

Some have the same symptoms as that of the Acute type
Some remain asymptomatic for as long as 20-30 years
Some develop liver conditions, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer

Abstain from all kinds of sex (i.e. no oral, vaginal, or anal sex)
ALWAYS use latex condoms anytime the above examples are
Avoid contact with an infected persons blood
Dont use intravenous drugs or share needles or other drug tools.
Dont share things like toothbrushes or razors.
For health care professionals, wear gloves at all times when in
contact with blood or body fluids.
Health care employees must be immunized against hepatitis B

Protects against getting Hepatitis B
A copy of only one small part of the virus
Cannot give the infection
Protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the virus
Almost all children (95 out of 100) who get 3 to 4 doses of the
vaccine will be protected from Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Surface Ag is the first marker to appear and its level peak during acute
stages of infection. It is a qualitative method based on an immunochromatographic
Anti-HBs Antibody to Hepatitis B provides protective immunity
Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen or other body fluids infected
with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not

People can become infected with the virus during activities such as:
Sex with infected partner
Needle sharing, syringe, or other drug-injection equipment
Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
Direct contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
Exposure to blood from needlesticks or other sharp instruments

The virus can live on objects for 7 days or more. Even if you dont see
any blood, there could be virus on an object.

Hepatitis B virus is not spread by sharing eating utensils, breastfeeding,
hugging, kissing, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen(HBsAg) is a protein on the surface of the Hepa B
virus. It can be detected in the blood during acute or chronic Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B Surface Antibody(anti-HBs) is an antibody that is produced by the
body in response to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

Total Hepatitis B Core Antibody(anti-HBc) is an antibody that is produced by the
body in response to a part of the Hepatitis B virus called the core antigen. The
meaning of this test often depends on the results of two other tests, anti-HBs and

IgM Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen(IgM anti-HBc)is used to detect an
acute infection.

Hepatitis B e Antigen(HBeAg) is a protein found in the blood when the
Hepatitis B virus is present during an active Hepatitis B virus infection. This test is
used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for chronic Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B e Antibody(HBeAb or anti-HBe) is an antibody that is produced by
the body in response to the Hepatitis B e antigen.

Hepatitis B Viral DNA refers to a test to detect the presence of Hepatitis B virus
DNA in a persons blood. This test is also used to monitor the effectiveness of
drug therapy for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection.
GALICIA, Klarizza
DE JESUS, Cristel
FUSELERO, Jovimaeh
CRUZ, Krysstina