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Electrical Wiring--

Residential
Unit #2Electrical Symbols and
Outlets
FACTSUNIT #2
By definitions, toggle switches and
receptacles are devices because they carry
current, but do not consume power
When a receptacle is connected to the
branch-circuit wires, the outlet is called a
receptacle outlet.
When a luminaire (light fixture) is
attached to the branch-circuit wires, the
outlet is called a lighting outlet.
FACTSUNIT #2 cont.
Dashed lines run from an outlet to a
switch would normally indicate that the
switch controls a portion of that outlet.
The dashed lines are curved so that they
cannot be mistaken for invisible edge
lines. Outlets without curved dashed lines
are independent outlets and have no
switch control.
FACTSUnit 2 cont.
Most modern surface-mounted luminaires
(light fixtures) can be fastened to a
luminaire (fixture) stud in the box or an
outlet box or plaster ring using
appropriate No. 8-32 metal screws.
Special consideration has to be made for
luminaires that weigh 50 lbs or more and
for fixtures that weigh only 6lbs or less
may be mounted with 6/32 screws on a
standard outlet box (plastic or metal).
A box (or fitting) must be installed
wherever there are splices, outlets,
switches, or other junction points. The
boxes must meet the following:
NEC 300.11 and 314.23: Boxes must be
securely mounted and fastened in place.

NEC 300.15: Where conduit, electrical
metallic tubing (EMT), nonmetallic-sheathed
cable (Romex), Type AC cable or other cables
are installed, a box or conduit body must be
installed at each conductor splice connection
point, outlet, switch point, junction point, or
pull point.
Boxes cont.--
NEC 300.15: Where cables enter or exit from
a conduit or tubing that is used to provide
cable support or protections against physical
damage, a fitting shall be provided on the
end(s) of the conduit or tubing to protect the
cable from abrasion.

NEC 314.3: Permits nonmetallic outlet and
device boxes to be installed where the wiring
method is nonmetallic sheathed cable or
nonmetallic raceway
Boxes cont.--
NEC 314.3 (Exceptions) allows metal
raceways and metal-jacketed cables (BX) to
be used with non-metallic boxes provided all
metal raceways or cables entering the box are
bounded together to maintain the integrity of
the grounding path to other equipment.

NEC 314.16: Boxes must be large enough for
all of the enclosed conductors and wiring
devices.
Boxes cont.

NEC 314.16(C): The exception allows
multiple cables to be run through a single
knockout opening in a nonmetallic box
(plastic), but not for metallic boxes.

NEC 314.20: Boxes installed in combustible
material the box must be flush with the outer
wall surface. If the boxes are installed in a
noncombustible wall it is acceptable to have
the front edge of the box set back not more
than in. (6 mm) for the finished surface.
Boxes cont.--
NEC 314.22: A surface extension from a box
of a concealed wiring system is made by
mounting and securing an extension ring over
the concealed box or by a cover that secures
the cover so that it will not fall off if it
becomes loose. The grounding continuity
must be independent of the connection
between the box and cover. You may not use
the mounting screws of the surface extension
for the grounding or bonding of the extension
ring, unless the mounting of the extension
ring is independent from the cover.
Boxes cont.

NEC 314.23(B)(1): States that when a switch
box or outlet box is mounted to a stud or
ceiling joist with nails or screws through the
box, the nails or screws must be not more
than in. (6mm) from the back or ends of
the box.Nails or screws will not interfere
with the wiring devices in the box.
Boxes cont.--
NEC 314.25: In completed installations, all
boxes shall have a cover, faceplate, or
luminaire (fixture) canopy.DO NOT LEAVE
ANY ELECTRICAL BOXES UNCOVERED.

NEC 314.27(A): Boxes used at lighting outlets
must be designed or installed so that a
luminaire (lighting fixture) may be attached to
it.
Boxes cont.--
NEC 314.27(A) and (B): Listed outlet boxes
are suitable for hanging luminaires (lighting
fixtures) that weigh 50 lb. (23 kg) or less.
Luminaires that weigh more than 50 lbs must
be supported independently of the outlet box,
or the outlet box must be listed for the
weight to be supported.Wall-mounted
luminaires of less than 6 lb may be supported
by a box or by a plaster ring secured to a box,
by not less than two No. 6-32 or larger
screws.
Boxes cont.--
NEC 314.27(D): Standard outlet boxes must
not be used as the sole support for ceiling
suspended (paddle) fans unless they are
specifically listed for this purpose.

NEC 314.29: Conduit bodies, junction, pull,
and outlet boxes must be installed so the
wiring contained in them is accessible without
removing any part of the building.NEVER
INSTALL OUTLET BOXES WHERE THEY WILL
BE INACCESSIBLE BEHIND OR ABOVE
PERMANENT FINSHED WALLS OR CEILINGS.
Boxes cont.

NEC 314.71: Pull and junction boxes must
provide adequate space and dimensions for
the installation of conductors, and devices
that are to be installed.

NEC 314.23 (B)(1)stated that when a switch
box or outlet box is mounted to a stud or
ceiling joist with nails or screws through the
box , the nails or screws must be not more
than in. (6mm) from the back or ends of
the box.THIS ENSURES THAT WHEN NAILS
OR SCREWS PASS THROUGH THE BOX, THEY
WILL NOT INTERFERE WITH THE WIRING
DEVICES IN THE BOX.

FACTSUNIT 2 cont.
When two or more switches or
receptacles are located at the same point ,
the switches or receptacles are referred to
as being ganged, meaning that they are
inside the same box.

If when installing an outlet box in a
combustible wall and the box is not flush
with the outer surface of the wall you may
use a box extender, sometimes referred to
as a goof ring.

FACTSUNIT 2 cont.
When raised covers or plaster rings are
marked with their volume in cubic inches,
that volume may be added to the box
volume to determine maximum number of
conductors allowed in the combined box
and raised cover
FACTSUNIT 2 cont.
Switch boxes installed between studs
using metal switch box supports, often
referred to as Kruse strips. If wood
strips are used, they must have a cross-
sectional dimension of not less than 1 in. x
2 in. (25mm x 50mm)
FACTSUNIT 2 cont.
Four-inch square boxes can be trimmed
with one-gang or two-gang plaster rings
where devices will be installed.
Luminaires (lighting fixtures) will be
installed , a plaster ring having a round
opening should be installed.
FACTSUNIT 2 cont.
Remodel work require the use of boxes
having plaster ears and snap-in brackets
that can be inserted from the front into
the existing walls. Another popular
method is to use boxes with plaster ears,
inserting them from the front and then
using Madison Hold-Its or Madison
Hangers
FactsUnit #2
Spread of Fire:
Fire must be contained and not allowed to
spread

Use of 5/8-in gypsum wallboard instead of the
normal -in on the ceiling and on the walls
between the garage and living areas and
requiring draft stopping where ducts, cables
and piping run through bottom (sole) and top
plates.This requires all holes or openings in
these two plates to be calked using an
approved fire rated calk or foam.
FactsUnit #2
Spread of Fire:cont.
In walls, partitions, and ceilings that are fire-
resistance-rated, are defeated if electrical
boxes are installed back-to-back or in the
same stud or joist space of common walls or
ceilings.
Rating of fire-resistance materials are rated in
hours.
FactsUnit #2
Spread of Fire:cont.
Fire rating of boxes
The surface area of individual metallic outlet
or switch boxes shall not exceed 16 square
inches (i.e., a 4-in. square box is 4 in. x 4 in.
= 16 in.
2
),
the aggregate surface area of the boxes shall
not exceed 100 in.
2
per 100 ft.
2
of wall
surface,
boxes located on opposite sides of walls or
partitions shall be separated by a minimum
horizontal distance of 24 in. (600mm),
FactsUnit #2
Spread of Fire:cont.
Fire rating of boxes
the metallic outlet or switch boxes shall be
securely fastened to the studs and the
opening in the wallboard facing shall be cut
so that the clearance between the box and
the wallboard does not exceed 1/8 in. (3
mm).

Using nonmetallic boxes in fire-resistance-
rated walls, the restrictions are more stringent
that for metallic boxesi.e. non-metallic
boxes may be restricted to openings not to
exceed between 10 in.2 to 25 in.2.
FactsUnit #2
Spread of Fire:cont.
Fire rating of boxes
Certain molded fiberglass outlet and device
boxes are listed for use in fire-resistance-
rated partitions without the use of putty pads,
mineral wool batts, or fiberglass batts,
provided a minimum horizontal distance of 3
in. (75 mm) is maintained between boxes and
the boxes are not back-to-back.
FactsUnit #2
Spread of Fire:cont.
Fire rating of boxes
Using and intumescent (expands when
heated) fire resistant material that comes in
pads, when properly installed may make the
24 in. separation between boxes not required.
Providing that the outlet boxes must not be
installed back-to-back.