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Consumer Behavior,

Ninth Edition

Schiffman & Kanuk


Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Chapter 1
Consumer Behavior:
Its Origins and
Strategic Applications
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Chapter Outline
Overview of Consumer Behavior
The Marketing Concept
The Marketing Mix and Relationships
Digital Technologies
Societal Marketing Concept
A Simplified Model of Consumer
Decision Making
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Consumer Behavior
The behavior that consumers display in
searching for, purchasing, using,
evaluating, and disposing of products
and services that they expect will satisfy
their needs.

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Customers Search for Products
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Personal Consumer
The individual who buys goods and
services for his or her own use, for
household use, for the use of a family
member, or for a friend.
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Organizational Consumer
A business, government agency, or other
institution (profit or nonprofit) that buys
the goods, services, and/or equipment
necessary for the organization to
function.

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Government Buying
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Development of the Marketing
Concept
Production
Concept
Selling Concept
Product Concept
Marketing
Concept
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The Production Concept
Assumes that consumers are
interested primarily in product
availability at low prices
Marketing objectives:
Cheap, efficient production
Intensive distribution
Market expansion
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The Product Concept
Assumes that consumers will buy the
product that offers them the highest
quality, the best performance, and the
most features
Marketing objectives:
Quality improvement
Addition of features
Tendency toward Marketing Myopia
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The Selling Concept
Assumes that consumers are unlikely
to buy a product unless they are
aggressively persuaded to do so
Marketing objectives:
Sell, sell, sell
Lack of concern for customer needs
and satisfaction
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The Marketing Concept
Assumes that to be successful, a
company must determine the needs
and wants of specific target markets
and deliver the desired satisfactions
better than the competition
Marketing objectives:
Make what you can sell
Focus on buyers needs

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Discussion Question
What two companies do you believe
grasp and use the marketing concept?
Why do you believe this?
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The Marketing Concept
Consumer
Research
Segmentation
Targeting
Positioning
The process and
tools used to study
consumer behavior
Two perspectives:
Positivist approach
Interpretivist
approach

Implementing the
Marketing Concept
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weblink
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
The Marketing Concept
Consumer
Research
Segmentation
Targeting
Positioning
Process of dividing
the market into
subsets of
consumers with
common needs or
characteristics

Implementing the
Marketing Concept
Segmentation Used
by Sports Illustrated
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Discussion Question
What products that you regularly
purchase are highly segmented?
What are the different segments?
Why is segmentation useful to the
marketer for these products?
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
The Marketing Concept
Consumer
Research
Segmentation
Targeting
Positioning
The selection of one
or more of the
segments to pursue
Implementing the
Marketing Concept
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The Marketing Concept
Consumer
Research
Segmentation
Targeting
Positioning
Developing a distinct image
for the product in the mind
of the consumer
Successful positioning
includes:
Communicating the
benefits of the product
Communicating a unique
selling proposition



Implementing the
Marketing Concept
This product is
positioned as
a solution to
facial redness.
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The Marketing Mix
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
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Successful Relationships
Customer
Value
Customer
Satisfaction
Customer
Retention
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Successful Relationships
Customer
Value
Customer
Satisfaction
Customer
Retention
Defined as the ratio between
the customers perceived
benefits and the resources
used to obtain those
benefits
Perceived value is relative
and subjective
Developing a value
proposition is critical
Value, Satisfaction,
and Retention
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Discussion Question
How does McDonalds create value for
the consumer?
How do they communicate this value?
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Successful Relationships
Customer
Value
Customer
Satisfaction
Customer
Retention
The individual's perception of
the performance of the product
or service in relation to his or
her expectations.
Customers identified based on
loyalty include loyalists,
apostles, defectors, terrorists,
hostages, and mercenaries


Value, Satisfaction,
and Retention
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Successful Relationships
Customer
Value
Customer
Satisfaction
Customer
Retention
The objective of providing value
is to retain highly satisfied
customers.
Loyal customers are key
They buy more products
They are less price sensitive
They pay less attention to
competitors advertising
Servicing them is cheaper
They spread positive word of
mouth


Value, Satisfaction,
and Retention
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Customer Profitability-Focused
Marketing
Tracks costs and revenues of
individual consumers
Categorizes them into tiers based on
consumption behavior
A customer pyramid groups customers
into four tiers
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Customer Profitability-Focused
Marketing
Tier 1: Platinum
Tier 2: Gold
Tier 3: Iron
Tier 4: Lead
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Traditional Marketing Concept Vs. Value
and Retention Focused Marketing
Table 1-2
Traditional Marketing
Concept
Value and Retention
Focused Marketing
Make only what you can sell instead
of trying to sell what you make
Use technology that enables
customers to customize what
you make
Do not focus on the product; focus on
the need that it satisfies
Focus on the products
perceived value, as well as the
need that it satisfies
Market products and services that
match customers needs better than
competitors offerings
Utilize an understanding of
customer needs to develop
offerings that customers
perceive as more valuable than
competitors offerings
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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Impact of Digital Technologies
Consumers have more power and access to
information
Marketers can gather more information about
consumers
The exchange between marketer and
customers is interactive and instantaneous
and goes beyond the PC.
Marketers must offer more products and
services
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Societal Marketing Concept
Marketers adhere to principles of social
responsibility in the marketing of their
goods and services; that is, they must
endeavor to satisfy the needs and
wants of their target markets in ways
that preserve and enhance the well-
being of consumers and society as a
whole.

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Consumer Behavior Is
Interdisciplinary
Psychology
Sociology
Social psychology
Anthropology
Economics
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A Simplified Model of Consumer
Decision Making Figure 1-1