Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

NONSPECIFIC MECHANISMS (general barriers to

infection)
LAYERS OF DEFENSE:
SKIN
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
INTERACTING MECHANISMS
PHAGOCYTOSIS
ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE
It cant normally be penetrated by bacteria or viruses
Cuts or abrasions can allow potentially harmful bacteria or
viruses to enter the body.
Lines the digestive, respiratory and genitourinary tracts
Bars entry of harmful microbes
Also counters pathogens with chemical defenses
*saliva, tears, and mucous secretions bathe the surface of exposed epithelia washing
away many potential invaders
EX: LYSOZYME- an enzyme that digest the cell walls of many bacteria
and destroys many microbes entering the upper respiratory system and
the openings around the eyes.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
PERSONAL SHIELDS
EXAMPLES OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE AT WORK:
Mucus: the viscous fluid secreted by cells of the
mucous membranes; it traps particles that contact it.
Lining the trachea are specialized epithelial cells
equipped with cilia that sweep out microbes and
other particles trapped by the mucus, which keeps
them from entering the lungs.
If microbes in food or that are trapped in mucus are
swallowed, it must pass through the highly acidic
gastric juice produced by the stomach lining. This
destroys most of the microbes before they can enter
the intestinal tract.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE AT WORK
Internal defense mechanisms that are nonspecific depend mainly on PHAGOCYTOSIS:
* PHAGOCYTOSIS is the ingestion of invading particles by certain types of white blood cells *
Neutrophils comprise about 60% to 70% of all white blood cells
Attracted by chemical signals, neutrophils can leave the blood and enter infected tissue by
amoeboid movement.
Once there they can DESTROY the microbes!!!

(this migration of a chemical attractant is called chemotaxis)

**Neutrophils tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders so theyre average life is only
about a few days.


Monocytes (only make up about 5% of the WBC) strengthen phagocytic defense
Monocytes mature into MACROPHAGES
Neutrophils are like SUICIDE BOMBERS!
Macrophages continued on next slide
MACROPHAGES: The largest phagocytic cells
Macrophages are amoeboid cells that move through tissue fibers and engulf and digest
cellular debris and pathogens by phagocytosis
They also stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to pathogens
A majority of macrophages are stationed at strategic points where microbial invasion is
likely to occur (LIKE A BLOCKADE)
Fixed macrophages are especially numerous in the lymph nodes and in the spleen,
which are key organs of the lymphatic system.
About 1.5% of the white cells
Their defend against larger parasitic invaders such as worms

Dont attack microorganisms directly
Destroy the bodys own infected cells, especially cells harboring viruses
Also attack cells that could form tumors
The attack is not by phagocytosis but an attack on the membrane of the
target cell
This causes the cell to break open

NATURAL KILLER CELLS
The most important antimicrobial proteins in the blood and tissues are interferons
and the complement system.
INTERFERONS: proteins secreted by virus-infected cells that inhibit neighboring
cells from making new viruses
COMPLEMENT PROTEINS: involved in nonspecific and specific defense
Can lyse a cell target by combining with antibodies
A local inflammatory response is triggered by tissue damage. Injured cells release
histamine, a chemical signal that dilates blood vessels and increases capillary
permeability allowing large numbers of phagocytic white blood cells to enter the
interstitial fluid.
The immune system recognizes foreign microbes, toxins or transplanted tissues
It knows that they dont belong
It then develops an immune response to inactivate or destroy the specific type of invader

ANTIGEN: a foreign substance that elicits an immune response
Most antigens are proteins or large polysaccharides
Antigens that trigger an immune response include molecules belonging to viruses,
bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasitic worms.
ANTIBODIES: specialized lymphocytes that defend the body against one specific type of antigen.
Antibodies make up a class of proteins called immunoglobulins
An antibody does not usually destroy an antigen directly but targets it for elimination by
complement or phagocytes

IMMUNITY
Immunity is the result of the immune systems enhanced response to a previously
encountered pathogen.

ACTIVE IMMUNITY: acquired by exposure to an actual disease or to a vaccine that
simulates a disease.
PASSIVE IMMUNITY: acquired by administering antibodies formed in others, or it can be
passed from mother to child via the placenta and milk.
HUMORAL IMMUNITY: based on circulation of antibodies in the blood and lymph, and
defends against free viruses, bacteria, and other extracellular threats.

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: reacts against transplanted tissue and cancer cells.

LYMPHOCYTES=MAIN CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
LYMPHOCYTES:
Originate in bone marrow

B LYMPHOCYTES: mature in the bone marrow and function in humoral immunity.
B cells defend against pathogens in body fluids by generating specific
antibodies
T LYMPHOCYTES: mature in the thymus and function mainly in cell-mediated immunity.
T cells defend against intracellular pathogens
CLONAL SELECTION OF LYMPHOCYTES
Is the cellular basis for immunological specificity and diversity
Each lymphocyte recognizes and responds to only one antigen
There is an enormous diversity of antigen-specific lymphocytes.
This allows the immune system to defend against an almost unlimited variety of antigens

HOW IT WORKS:
Each lymphocytes specificity for an antigenic target is predetermined during embryonic
development (before an encounter with an antigen ever takes place)
The mark of this specificity is the antigen receptor the lymphocyte bears on its surface
If that antigen enters the body and binds to receptors on the specific lymphocytes, then those
lymphocytes are activated to mount an attack (immune response)
The selected cells go through cell division and develop into a large number of a clone of cells that
combats the antigen that initiated the response.


CLONE TROOPERS
DONT HAVE TO WRITE
CELL MEMORY OF IMMUNITY
Upon first exposure to an antigen lymphocytes go through PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE
PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE: between initial exposure to an antigen and maximum
production of effector cells, there is a lag period of 5 to 10 days. During this
lag period, the lymphocytes selected by the antigen are differentiating into
effector T cells and antibody-producing plasma cells.
If the body is exposed to the same antigen at some time later, the response is faster (only 3 to
5 days) and more prolonged than the primary response.

SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE: the antibodies produced at this time are also
more effective in binding to the antigen than those produced during the
primary response.
IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY: The immune systems ability to recognize an antigen that it already
encountered
IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY is possible due to MEMORY CELLS

MEMORY CELLS
MEMORY CELLS are produced along with the relatively short -lived effector cells of the
primary immune response.
During the primary response, memory cells are inactive
Survive for long periods of time
Multiply rapidly when exposed again to the same antigen that caused their formation

Memory cells are responsible for the usual lifelong immunity of chickenpox after childhood
exposure

MOLECULAR MARKERS
Molecular markers on cell surfaces function in self/ nonself recognition
SELF-TOLERANCE: develops as T and B lymphocytes bearing antigen receptors mature in the
thymus and bone marrow, and continues to develop even as the cells migrate to lymphoid
tissues.
Any lymphocytes with receptors for molecules present in the body are destroyed or are made
nonfunctional
This leaves only lymphocytes that are reactive against foreign molecules
MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX (MHC): a biochemical fingerprint unique to each
individual
2 TYPES OF MHC:
CLASS I MHC: LOCATED ON ALL NUCLEATED CELLS (ALMOST EVERY CELL IN
THE BODY)
CLASS II MHC: RESTRICTED TO A FEW SPECIALIZED CELL TYPES OF THE
BODYS DEFENSE SYSTEM (MACROPHAGES, B CELLS, AND ACTIVATED T
CELLS)
DISEASES CAUSED BY ABNORMALITIES IN IMMUNE FUNCTION
Sometimes the immune system screws up and turns against itself
This can lead to autoimmune diseases such as:
Rheumatoid arthritis
Insulin-dependent diabetes



Or in allergies such as:
Hay fever (histamine is released from mast cells by the
allergen pollen)


Some people are naturally deficient in humoral or cell-mediated immune defenses, or both.
AIDS is caused by the destruction of CD4-bearing T cells and other cells by HIV, the
human immunodeficiency virus, over a period of years
AIDS is marked by a low level of helper T cells and
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
MACROPHAGES
ANTIGENS
ANTIBODIES
MEMORY CELLS
MOLECULAR MARKERS