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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
WCDMA UTRAN
Optimization Flow
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1
Foreword
WCDMA optimization is a very important part in the life of
the network.
Mainly, the optimization contents the preparation, single site
verification, RF optimization, parameters optimization.
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2
Contents
1. Introduction of Optimization Flow
2. The preparation for the Optimization Project
3. Single Site Verification
4. RF Optimization
5. Parameters Optimization
6. Optimization Report
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page3
WCDMA Optimization Flow
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4
Contents
1. Introduction of Optimization Flow
2. The preparation for the Optimization Project
3. Single Site Verification
4. RF Optimization
5. Parameters Optimization
6. Optimization Report
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WCDMA Optimization Flow - Preparation
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The Preparation for Projection
The following work is required:
Understanding of the Existing Network
Cluster Division and Optimization Team Establishment
Optimization Tools and Software
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The Preparation for Projection
Understanding of the Existing Network :
Radio Network Planning report
Latest site configuration parameter table and radio part
parameter configuration table
OMC statistic data and subscriber complaints of the existing
network
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The Preparation for Projection
Optimization Tool:
UMTS Scanner
UMTS Test UE
GPS and data line
Digital camera
spectrum analyzer
Optimization Software:
Post processing
tool
MapInfo
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Contents
1. Introduction of Optimization Flow
2. The preparation for the Optimization Project
3. Single Site Verification
4. RF Optimization
5. Parameters Optimization
6. Optimization Report
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WCDMA Optimization Flow Single Site
Verification
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Single Site Verification
Purpose:
The single site verification test is a part of the WCDMA network
optimization to ensure that the basic functions of the cell are normal,
such as call access, call quality, handover and so on.
Single site verification involves the following aspects:
Parameter setting check in idle mode
Services call (AMR/VP/PS) function check in connected mode
HSDPA function check
CPICH RSCP & Ec/Io
Installing problems check
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Single Site Verification
Single site verification includes :
preparations before test
single site test
solving problems

The single site verification is completed by:
On-site engineers
RNO engineers


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Single Site Verification - Task of
the on-site engineers
Preparations
Site Status Check
For each cell to be measured, check Status by LMT or M2000 Status
Configuration Data Collection and Check
check whether the data configured is consistent with the planned data
Testing Point Selection
Test UE Setup
Set the handset to testing mode before test
Other Preparations

Application key
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Single Site Verification - Task of the on-
site engineers
Verification in Idle Mode
Frequency Check
Check whether the frequency number of the cell to be measured is consistent
with the planned data
Scramble Check
Check whether the scramble configuration is consistent with the planned
configuration
LAC/RAC Check
Check whether the LAC/RAC of the cell to be measured is consistent with the
planed one.
CPICH_RSCP/CPICH_Ec/Io (Near Site) Test
Check whether the CPICH RSCP and CPICH Ec/Io received by UE are greater
than the threshold
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Single Site Verification - Task of the on-
site engineers
Verification in connect Mode
Originating and Terminating Connection Test of Voice Service
Check whether the originating and terminating function of voice service
function normally by call quality test
Originating and Terminating Connection Test of VP Service
Check whether the originating and terminating function of VP service function
normally by call quality test
Connection Test of PS Services
Check whether the originating function of PS services are normal by handset
online service
Solving Problems
If on-site engineers find product function problems or parameter configuration
problems, the engineers must location them and retest until the problems are
solved and process terminates.
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Single Site Verification Task of the
RNO engineers
Preparations
Cell Status Confirmation
Before checking site, you need to inquiry product support
engineers whether the cell is in normal status
Testing Route Selection
Before test, you must select a proper testing route according to
site distribution and local environment
Precautions

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Single Site Verification Task of the
RNO engineers
Coverage DT Check
Check whether CPICH RSCP and CPICH Ec/Io received by
scanner is normal
Abnormal power amplifier
Abnormal connection of antenna-feeder
Inconsistency of antenna tile/direction angle from planned one
Blocking by buildings

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Single Site Verification Task of the
RNO engineers
HSDPA Access Function Test
To test HSDPA access function
Check whether the antenna for receiving diversity signals is
reversely connected
Fixed Maximum Transmit Power of UE, measure the RTWP of
the cells
Checking Antennas by Exchanging Feeders
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Single Site Verification Task of the
RNO engineers
Antenna Diversity Check
The method for UE to transmit signals at the fixed maximum
power is a recommended method of test and operation
Solving Problems
If RNO engineers find problems about product function, RNO
engineers must ask product support engineers to solve
problems

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Single Site Verification
Summarization:
In single site verification stage, engineers check whether
equipment functions normally
Single site verification is a basis for the following RF
optimization and service optimization
If all verifications about function are accepted, the single site
verification is completed
After single site verification, optimization comes to RF
optimization
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page21
Contents
1. Introduction of Optimization Flow
2. The preparation for the Optimization Project
3. Single Site Verification
4. RF Optimization
5. Parameters Optimization
6. Optimization Report
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WCDMA Optimization Flow RF
Optimization
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RF Optimization - Overview
Once all the sites are installed and verification is complete, RF
optimization starts.
During the RF optimization stage, you will optimize radio
frequency (RF) signals , so that the distribution of radio signals is
normal in next service -- parameters optimization stage
RF optimization includes the following aspects:
Coverage optimization
Pilot pollution optimization
Handover optimization

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RF Optimization flow
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RF Optimization - Preparation (1)
Deciding Optimization target
Weak coverage
Pilot pollution
High SHO Factor based on DT
Dividing Clusters
Deciding Test Route
Confirm the KPI DT acceptance route with the operator before
DT
Preparing Tools and Data
Preparing Software
Preparing Hardware
Preparing Data
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RF Optimization - Preparation (2)
Index Reference Remarks
CPICH Ec/Io 9dB
97% in urban area
According to test result from the scanner, in
unloaded and outdoor conditions, in planning
coverage areas, test in a grid-like route to cover all
cells.
97% in suburban
area
CPICH RSCP
95dBm
98% in urban area
According to test result from the scanner, in
unloaded and outdoor conditions, in planning
coverage areas, test in a grid-like route to cover all
cells. The coverage level request is basic. If
operators have penetration loss request, add the
penetration loss to the coverage level.
95% in suburban
area
SHO Factor based on
DT
30%40%
The SHO Factor based on DT should be 5% to
10% lower than the goal, because the following
optimizations cause the soft handover factor to
increase
Pilot pollution ratio 5%
RF Optimization - Targets
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RF Optimization - Preparation (3)
Dividing Clusters
RF optimization must be performed on a group of or a cluster
of NodeBs ,This ensures that interference from intra-frequency
neighbor cells are considered during optimization.
Dividing clusters involves approval by the operator.
Deciding Test Route
The KPI DT acceptance route is the core route of RF
optimization test routes. Its optimization is the core of RF
optimization.
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RF Optimization - Preparing Tools and
Data:
Software
Genex Probe
Genex Assistant
Genex Nastar
Mapinfo
Device
Scanner
Test terminal and
data line
Laptop
Vehicle mounted
inverter
Needed data
List of engineering
parameters
Map
KPI requirements
Network configuration
parameters
Survey report
Single site verification
checklist
Floor plan of the target
buildings
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RF Optimization - Data Collection
During RF optimization stage, the key is the optimization of radio
signals distribution, with the major means of DT and indoor test
DT is a major test. Collect scanner and UE data of radio signals
by DT test
Usually the DT and indoor test during RF optimization stage is
based on VP service.
During RF optimization stage, collect neighbor cell data of network
optimization and other data configured in RNC database
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RF Optimization - RF problem
solutions
Antenna tilt
Antenna azimuth
Antenna location
Split sector
Remove sector
Combine sector
Antenna height
Antenna type
TMA
RRU
Site location
New site
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RF Optimization
Attention:
During the RF optimization ,sometimes the problems can be
resolved completely by proper adjustment, but there is also
some disadvantages of the RF optimization
The duration of the RF Optimization will be always very long
Some adjustment is difficult to implement
If the problems are not resolved by the RF optimization, it is
difficult to recover the antennas back to the former
conditions

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RF Optimization
Some advices:
Before the RF adjusting, wed better survey the relative sites,
and give some applicable advice
If possible, do the RF adjustment and test the effect at the
same time

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Coverage problem analysis is key to RF optimization. It
involves signal distribution. The coverage problems to be
analyzed include:
Weak coverage
Overshoot coverage
Unbalance between uplink and downlink
No primary pilot cell
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Coverage Analysis Processes:
Downlink Coverage Analysis
Analyzing Pilot Coverage Strength
Analyzing Pilot Coverage quality
Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell
Analyzing comparison of UE and Scanner Coverage
Uplink Coverage Analysis
Analyzing Uplink Interference
Analyzing distribution of UE Transmit Power
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage Strength
Analysis
Check areas of poor coverage, suggestion value as below:
Good: RSCP -85 dBm
Fair: -95 dBm RSCP < -85 dBm
Poor: RSCP < -95 dBm
Mark the areas with weak coverage or common seamless
coverage of large areas for further analysis
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage Strength Analysis
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage quality
Analysis
Ec/Io plot should also be analysed based on the thresholds :
Good: Ec/Io -8 dB
Fair: -14 dB Ec/Io < -8 dB
Poor: Ec/Io < - 14 dB
Areas of poor Ec/Io should be highlighted for further
investigation
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
-15.5
-104
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
Ec/Io RSCP
-120
-115
-110
-105
-100
-95
-90
Whats the
problem?
Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage quality Analysis:
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
-15.5
-63
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
Ec/Io RSCP
-90
-85
-80
-75
-70
-65
-60
Whats the
problem?
Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage quality Analysis:
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell:
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell:
Cell primary pilot analysis is analyzing cell scramble
information obtained in DT
The content to be checked include :
Weak coverage cell
Cross-cell coverage cell
No primary pilot cell
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell:
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RF Coverage Problem Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing comparison of UE and Scanner Coverage :
Inconsistent Best Service Cell between scanner and UE
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RF Coverage Problem
Analysis
Uplink coverage analysis is analyzing UE transmit power obtained in DT.
The quality standards of UE transmit power must be combined with optimization
standards.
Assume the optimization indexes of UE transmit power as below:
UE_Tx_Power 10 dBm >= 95%
The test result of voice service by
test handset. Assume the maximum
transmit power of UE is 21 dBm
The defined corresponding quality standards are:
Good if UE_Tx_Power 0 dBm
Fair if 0 dBm < UE_Tx_Power 10 dBm
Poor if UE_Tx_Power > 10 dBm
Uplink coverage analysis:
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RF Coverage Problem
Analysis
Uplink - Distribution of UE Transmit Power:
The distribution of UE transmit power reflects the distribution of uplink
interference and uplink path loss
The distribution of UE transmit power
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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis
Pilot Pollution Point Definition:
The pilot pollution is that excessive strong pilots exist in a point
but no primary pilot is strong enough
Pilot pollution exists if all the following conditions are met:
The number of pilots that meet the following condition is more than
4 and CPICH_RSCP > -100dBm
(CPICH_RSCP1st - CPICH_RSCP 4th)< 5dB

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Pilot Pollution Problem
Analysis
-62
-63
-64
-66
-67
-81
-90
-85
-80
-75
-70
-65
-60
SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 SC5 SC6
R
S
C
P

(
d
B
m
)

Active Set Pilot Pollution
Margin
Not
Pilot Pollution
Pilot Pollution Definition - Judgment Standards :
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Pilot Pollution Problem
Analysis
Pilot Pollution Definition - Estimated Active Set Size Example :
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Pilot Pollution Problem
Analysis
SC Count % in Pollution Set
8 206 12.9%
9 165 10.3%
10 157 9.8%
11 156 9.7%
12 148 9.2%
13 135 8.4%
16 95 5.9%
17 94 5.9%
18 76 4.7%
19 74 4.6%
20 73 4.6%
21 56 3.5%
32 54 3.4%
35 39 2.4%
37 33 2.1%
43 19 1.2%
48 8 0.5%
53 7 0.4%
67 3 0.2%
80 2 0.1%
130 2 0.1%
Should be investigated
Pilot Pollution Definition - Estimated Active Set Size Example :
Pilot pollution results
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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis
Causes of Pilot Pollution :
Improper Cell Distribution
Over High NodeB or Highly-mounted Antenna
Improper Antenna Azimuth
Improper Antenna Down Tilt
Improper PICH Power
Ambient Factors
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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis
Influence of Pilot Pollution :
Pilot pollution causes the following network problems:
Ec/Io Deterioration
Call Drop Due to Handover
Capacity Decline
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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis
Process for Analyzing Pilot Pollution
Analyze scanner-based RSCP for 1st Best Service Cell and
Ec/Io for 1st Best Service Cell
Analyze scanner-based Whole PP
Locate the cells that cause pilot pollution of the key areas.
Judge whether the pilot pollution is caused by existence of
multiple strong pilots or lack of a strong pilot
Confirm the cells that need eliminating the coverage of an area
and that need enhancing the coverage of an area
Retest after adjustment
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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis
Solutions of Pilot Pollution :
Antenna Adjustment
PCPICH Power Adjustment
Using RRU or Micro Cells

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Handover Problem Analysis
By adjusting RF parameters ,we can Control the size and location
of handover areas ,then we can eliminate handover call drop due
to sharp fluctuation and increase handover success rate.
During RF optimization stage, the involved handover problem
include:
Neighbor cell optimization
Controlling SHO Factor based on DT
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Handover Problem Analysis -
Neighbor cell optimization
During RF optimization stage, missing neighbor cell is a key problem. The
neighbor cell optimization includes adding and removing neighbor cells
Add: Missing neighbors
Remove: These neighbors that were not measured but are in the neighbor list.
Careful consideration is needed prior to removing neighbours
Neighbor cell optimization can be analyzed by :
Scanner Data
UE Data Analysis
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Handover Problem Analysis - Neighbor
cell optimization
By the scanner data, the Assistant can generate a neighbor cell
analysis report in the format of Excel
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Handover Problem Analysis - Neighbor
cell optimization
We can also analyze a missing neighbor cell by UE DT data
The daemon analysis tool can seldom analyze UE data
automatically and generate missing neighbor cells
but we can Compare the active set Ec/Io distribution
diagram measured by UE and that measured by scanner
The spots with missing neighbor cells has a poor Ec/Io
measured by UE and a strong Ec/Io scanned by scanner .
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Handover Problem Analysis
According to the DT data from scanner, you can obtain the
SHO Factor based on DT, defined as below:
Controlling SHO Factor based on DT:
DT in points collected - scanner total of Number
conditions handover meet the that DT in points collected - scanner of Number
Ratio Handover Soft
The SHO Factor based on DT during RF optimization
stage must be 5%10% lower than the KPI target
value
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Handover Problem Analysis
UE SHO Performance
The success rates for event 1a, 1b & 1c and can be obtained
from software
Number of Active Set Updates
Event Count
Event 1a - 328
Event 1b - 306
Event 1c - 64
Number of Active Set Update Completes
Event Count
Event 1a - 326
Event 1b - 305
Event 1c - 62
Soft-Handover Success Rate
Event Rate
Event 1a - 99.4
Event 1b - 99.7
Event 1c - 96.9
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RF Analysis Approaches Neighbor List
If the SHO Factor based on DT is over large, decrease or
change the handover areas by using the following methods
for shrinking coverage areas:
Increase the down tilt
Adjust azimuth
Decrease the antenna height
Decrease the PICH power
Controlling SHO Factor based on DT:
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page61
Contents
1. Introduction of Optimization Flow
2. The preparation for the Optimization Project
3. Single Site Verification
4. RF Optimization
5. Parameters Optimization
6. Optimization Report
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WCDMA Optimization Flow Parameter
Optimization
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Purpose of Parameters Optimization
Purpose of parameters optimization
Decrease the access success ratio
Decrease the call drop ratio
Increase the quality of service
The tools and data for analysis:
scanner and UE
RNC record data
Statistic tools and KPI
MSC & SGSN record if necessary
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Drive test
The contents of drive test
The call setup test for voice service
The continuous call test for voice service
Idle mode test
The call setup test for video phone service
The continuous call test for voice service
The call setup test for PS service
The continuous call test for PS service
The test should be performed repeatedly to the position with
problems to make sure that the problem is repeatable
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Drive Test Data Analysis
Drive Test Data Analysis
Analyzing and finding out the solution for access failure
Analyzing and finding out the solution for drop call
Analyzing and finding out the solution for service quality related
problems
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Adjustment Recommendation and
Implementation
Adjustment Recommendation and Implementation
Common Control Channel Power Allocation parameters
RL Maximum Power parameters
Intra-frequency Handover parameters
Inter-frequency Handover parameters
Inter-RAT Handover parameters
Power Control parameters
Access parameters
Other related parameters
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Test for Special Areas
Special area refers to a small district or indoors environment
Operator offices, residence of VIP
Key hotels or entertainment location
Government location
Locations of large company or group subscribers
Locations tend to be cared , such as railway station or airport
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Contents
1. Introduction of Optimization Flow
2. The preparation for the Optimization Project
3. Single Site Verification
4. RF Optimization
5. Parameters Optimization
6. Optimization Report
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WCDMA Optimization Flow Optimization
Report Output
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Optimization Report
The optimization report should be presented after the project passes
the customer acceptance. The optimization report should include:
Project background introduction
Existing network status
Acceptance criteria
Optimization process
Problem analysis and adjustment recommendation, and the effect for the
implemented part
Acceptance test and result
Leftover problems and suggestions from the optimization point of view.
Thank you
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