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Aims and Objectives

Aim

To be able to describe the operation of an injection system within an internal combustion engine

Objectives

Be able to describe the operation of an injection system within an internal combustion engine
Be able to recognize a single point injection system and a multi-point injection system
Identify how fuel and air is atomized within a fuel injection system
Fuel Injection Systems
The role of the Injectors
The injector delivers a finely atomized spray of fuel
into the inlet port

The injectors also vary the amount of fuel delivered to
suit the engines conditions

The spray is obtained by passing fuel (that is
pressurised) through the nozzle of the injector

It is located in the inlet manifold near the cylinder
head intake port

Fuel Injection Systems
Injectors
The opening of the injector is controlled by the vehicles ECU

The injector is supplied with the battery voltage via a relay, the earth circuit is controlled by
the ECU

When the circuit is completed by the ECU a solenoid operates, the injector valve opens, fuel
is then able to be sprayed into the inlet manifold

The valve moves roughly 1.5-10 milliseconds. This is known an injector duration or opening
time

The ECU will make amendments to the duration depending on engine temperature, loading air
temperature and battery voltage

Fuel Injection Systems
Fuel Atomisation
During fuelling of a cylinder the fuel is pressurised
which causes the fuel to become a vapour, allowing it
to burn easily (compared to the fuel being delivered to
the cylinder in liquid form)

Fuel Injection Systems
Question
How is fuel atomized in injector fuelling systems?

Fuel Injection Systems
Simultaneously and Sequential
Simultaneous injectors will operate all (or groups of injectors) at the same time
Sequential will operate independently and open at close at different times (determined by the
ECU)
Fuel Injection Systems
Single point injection system
Single point injection or throttle body injection system uses a single injector to spray fuel in
the air intake side of the throttle butterfly (where the carburettor is situated)
Fuel Injection Systems
Single point injection system
Fuel Injection Systems
Gives poor atomization of the fuel

Does not give precise control of the
air/fuel ratio to meet emission regulations

However, it is easier to control
electronically than a carburettor

The fuel pressure is less then that of a
multi point injection system (usually 1 bar)
Multi point injection system
Individual injectors are used for each cylinder

An injector is positioned near the inlet valve of
each cylinder

This system was originally used on diesel engines
but is also now widely used on petrol engines

Fuel Injection Systems
Multi point injection system
The multi point injection system is the most common type of fuelling system that is used on
modern vehicles today

This is mainly due to the fact that this injection system can be controlled easily by the
vehicles ECU

Furthermore, this type of fuelling system provides a better method of burning the fuel without
much wastage. Compared with other fuelling systems

Fuel Injection Systems
Question
Name three advantageous of a single point injection system ?

Name three advantageous of a multi-point injection system ?

Fuel Injection Systems
Types of injectors
Pintle Type Injector

Original injector design

Offers good atomization of fuel

Prone to deposit build up on the Pintle valve (deposits can reduce the
amount of fuel flow, and therefore the vehicle will run leaner than
recommended

Fuel Injection Systems
Hole type injector
Was introduced on later engine models, initially to reduce the reduce
concerns with injector deposits
Fuel is delivered through holes drilled in a director plate at the injector
tip.
Offers good fuel atomization and gives better resistance to deposit
build-up.

Fuel Injection Systems
High and low resistance injector windings
Two different types of injector windings are used
This is dependant on the type of drive circuit used,
And is also dependant of weather an external resistor is being used.



Fuel Injection Systems
Low resistance injector windings

Range between 2-3 at 21.1 C

Used with an external resistor in a voltage
controlled circuit

High Resistance circuits

Range around 13.8 at 21.1 C

Do not require the use of an external
resistor in a voltage controlled driver
circuit.

Question
What resistance should you expect a high resistance circuit to operate at ?



Fuel Injection Systems
Injector driver circuits
Fuel Injection Systems
Summary have we ?
Fuel Injection Systems
Been able to describe the operation of an injection system within an internal
combustion engine

Been able to recognize a single point injection system and a multi-point injection
system

Identified how fuel and air is atomized within a fuel injection system

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