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By:

Mark Nico E. Palad


&
Roselle Angeli Reyes
Are a group of disorders in which people experience
significant physical symptoms in which there is no
apparent organic cause.
For example, Pseudocyesis.
Conversion Disorder
People with this disorder lose functioning in a part of
their bodies, apparently due to neurological or other
general medical causes.
Involves one specific symptom:
Blindness or paralysis
hearing loss
Loss of sensation or numbness
Freud and his contemporaries viewed conversion
symptoms as the result of the transfer of the psychic
energy attached to repressed emotions or memories to
physical symptoms. For example, a soldier who had shot
a civilian in the chest might have chest pains.



Treatment
Psychoanalytic treatment for conversion disorder focuses on
the expression of painful emotions and memories and on
insight into the relationship between these and the
conversion symptoms.
Behavioral treatments focus on relieving the persons anxiety
around the initial trauma that caused the conversion
symptoms and the on reducing any benefits the person is
receiving from the conversion symptoms.
Exposure Therapy: Systematic desensitization and flooding.
This is also known as Briquet's syndrome. Patients with
this type have a long history of medical problems that
starts before the age of 30.
In SD, this loss of functioning is only one of a multitude of
physical complaints; in CD, the complaint is only loss of
functioning.
Symptoms:
Pain in at least four areas of the body
Two non-pain-related gastrointestinal symptoms. (nausea
and diarrhea)
Non-pain-related sexual symptom. (erectile dysfunction)
Neurological symptom (double vision or paralysis)



Treatment:
Psychodynamic therapies (recall events and memories)
Behavioral therapies (reinforcements-rewards)
Cognitive therapies
People who have pain disorder typically experience
pain that started with a psychological stress or trauma.
For example, they develop an unexplained, chronic
headache after a stressful life event.
Pain is the focus of the disorder. But psychological
factors are believed to play a role in the perception and
severity of the pain.
People with pain disorder frequently seek medical
care. They may become socially isolated and
experience problems with work and family life.

People with this type are preoccupied with concern
they have a serious disease.
They may believe that minor complaints are signs of
very serious medical problems.
For example, they may believe that a common
headache is a sign of a brain tumor.
People with this disorder are
obsessed with -- or may
exaggerate -- a physical flaw.
Patients may also imagine a
flaw they don't have.
The worry over this trait or
flaw is typically constant. It
may involve any part of the
body. Patients can be obsessed
with things such as wrinkles,
hair, or the size or shape of the
eyes, nose, or breasts.
Any body part may be the focus
of concern; the genitals,
breasts, buttocks, abdomen,
arms, hands, feet, legs,
muscularity, etc.

Frequent checking
Checking in mirrors
or windows
(or avoiding them)
Using a magnifying glass to
scrutinize
the defect
Constant requests
for reassurance
Excessive grooming
Hair combing or
Hair removing
Skin picking

Ritualized makeup application

Behaviors aimed at
improving
the defect

Excessive exercise

Dieting

Frequent changing
of clothes

Camouflaging
Growing a beard

Wearing a hat Stuffing their shorts
to enhance a
small penis
Body dysmorphic disorder
usually begins in adolescent
years.

The age of onset is around 14-17
years of age, and may come on
either gradual or abruptly.

BDD tends to be a chronic
disease.

Throughout a lifetime, the
symptoms may become less
severe at times, but rarely will be
in full remission.


Doctors say that
Stalking Cat displays a
form of body
dysmorphic disorder,
which affects one's
perception of personal
appearance to the point
of obsession.


Dennis Avner
(Stalking Cat)
Body dysmorphic symptoms are experienced more in
adolescent girls than boys.

Generally, adolescent girls and boys have different
areas of concern.

Girls are more disturbed by their lower bodies
(legs, buttocks) and weight related issues.

Boys are more disturbed by their upper bodies,
and overall muscle mass.


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Individuals identify their negative thoughts and replace them
with alternative beliefs
Exposure and response prevention


Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors
Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or
antidepressant medications reduce the obsessive dysmorphic
thoughts, the emotional distress, and the associated
ritualistic behavior.

Treatment with only medicine proves to be ineffective,
because nearly all patients who quit the medicine relapse.




The most common forms of treatment are:
Pierre Janet (French neurologist):
dissociation as a process in which systems of ideas
are split off from consciousness but remain accessible
through dreams and hypnosis.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Formerly known as multiple personality disorder
People with this disorder appear to have more than
one distinct identity or personality, and many have
more than a dozen.
Each personality has different ways of perceiving and
relating to the world, and each takes control over the
individuals behavior on a regular basis.

People having DID may create the alternate personalities to
help them cope with their traumas, much as a child might
create imaginary playmates to ease pangs of loneliness.
These alternate personalities can provide the safety,
security, and nurturing that they are not receiving from
their caregivers.
Symptoms:
Cardinal symptom is apparent presence of multiple
personalities with distinct qualities, referred to as alters.
Have significant periods of amnesia.
Self-destructive behavior
Behavioral and emotional problems
Report hearing voices inside their heads.
Treatment
Hypnosis is used heavily in the treatment of DID to contact
alters.


Caused by sudden unexpected travel away from home
or work
Unable to recall past(or where on has been)
Confused about personal identity/ or assumes new
identity

Individuals claim to have amnesia for those periods of
time when their alternate personalities are in control
or when they are in a fugue state.
They cannot remember important facts about their
lives and their personal identities and typically are
aware of large gaps in their memory or knowledge of
themselves.
Involves frequent episodes in which individuals feel
detached from their mental processes or body.
Occasional experiences of depersonalization are
common, particularly when people are sleep-deprived
or under the influence of drugs.

Symptoms:
History of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual
abuse.