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Diphyloborthrium latum

(fish tapeworm)

Diphyllobothrium latum is the largest parasite

of humans.
Life cycle:
Definitive host: Man.
Intermediate hosts:
First: Cyclopes.
Second: Fresh water fish.
Diphyloborthrium latum

Clinical feature:
Occasional diarrhea,
Abdominal pain,
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Pernicious anemia
Diphyloborthrium latum

Laboratory Diagnosis:
• Microscopic identification of eggs in the
stool is the basis of specific diagnosis.
• Examination of proglottids passed in the
stool is also of diagnostic value.

Three species of the genus Echinococcus

have been generally accepted as parasites of
Echinococcus granulosus - Hydatid
Echinococcus multilocularies - Alveolar
hydatid disease.
Echinococcus vogeli - Hydatid disease.
Morphology: Two morphological form:
ο Larvae/ Hydatid cyst
ο Adult worm
ο Smallest of all tapeworms about 5 mm
in length.
ο Only 3 proglottids an immature, a
mature, and a gravid proglottid.
ο Scolex is globular.
Adult worm

 Larval form is called 'Hydatid cyst‘

 Large spherical, fluid filled hollow bladders
 Contents: numerous protoscolices forming
the hydatid sand, brood capsules and
daughter cysts
 Cyst wall consists of an outer laminated
hyaline layer and inner germinal layer.
Hydatid cyst
Life cycle

 Definitive host: Dogs or other canids.

 Intermediate host:
Man: Accidental & dead end intermediate.
Cattle: Optimum or natural intermediate.
1.Seriousness depends on the organ and size
of the hydatid cyst.
2. Sometimes infection is asymptomatic, only
evidence of infection being the presence of
calcified cysts on autopsy.
3. The major pathology is due to the size of
the cyst, giving rise to pressure related injury
 Rupture of the cyst possibly due to blows to
the body, or during operation.
 Cyst fluid is highly allergenic and may result
in anaphylactic shock.
 Contents of the cyst is released into the
body's circulatory system and the liberated
protoscolices may give rise to numerous
secondary cyst.

Diagnosis is done mainly by

 Microscopy
 USG or CT scan
 Detection of antibody.
Fluid aspirated from a hydatid cyst will
shows multiple protoscolices each of which
has typical hooklets.
Antibody Detection

Antibody can be detected in patients

serum by:
Indirect hemagglutination Assay (IHA).
indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test.
Enzyme immunoassays (EIA).

• Most species are flattened dorsoventrally

and usually leaf shaped.
• Size: 1 mm to several centimeters in length.
• Digestive system present but incomplete.
• Excretory and nervous systems are
• Most species are hermaphroditic.
• Worms are oviparous.

Classification according to habitat:

Intestinal flukes:- F. buski, M. yokogawai,
W. watsoni, and H. heterophyes
Liver flukes:- F. hepatica, C. sinensis.
Lung flukes:- P. westermani
Blood flukes:- Schistosoma haematobium,
S. mansoni, S. japonicum,

Modes of Infection:
1. By ingestion of encysted cercariae in-
a) Vegetables: F. hepatica, F. buski,
b) Fish: C. sinensis, H. heterophyes
M. yokogawi.
c) Flesh of crab: P. westermani.
2. Penetrating trough skin: S. hematobium,
S. mansoni, S.japonicum

Clinically important Trematode with

S. hematobium: Hematuria, carcinoma of
W. watsoni: Diarrhea.
F. hepatica: Biliary colic.
F. buski: Diarrhea.
Clinically important Trematode with

 C. sinensis: Jaundice, carcinoma of liver.

 H. heterophyes: Diarrhea
 M. yokogawai: Diarrhea
 P. westermani: Hemoptysis