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Compilation and interpretation of primary

and secondary sources of information.



The integration of different sources will
consolidate the write up of the report.

DATA COLLECTION
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Primary Source
Data is collected by
researcher himself

Data is gathered
through questionnaire,
interviews,
observations etc.
Secondary Source
Data collected,
compiled or
written by other
researchers eg. books,
journals, newspapers
Any reference must
be acknowledged
STEPS TO COLLECT DATA
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION












REVIEW & COMPILE SECONDARY SOURCE INFORMATION
(Referred to in the BACKGROUND/ INTRODUCTION section of report)

PLAN & DESIGN DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
TO GATHER PRIMARY INFORMATION
(Referred to in the FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS &
RECOMMENDATIONS sections of report)

DATA COLLECTION
METHODS USED
TO COLLECT
PRIMARY SOURCE DATA
1. Interviews
2. Questionnaires
3. Survey
4. Experimentation
5. Case Study
6. Observation

However, for a small-scale study, the most commonly used
methods are interviews, survey questionnaires and observations.



Effective way
of gathering
information

INTERVIEW
Involves verbal
and non-verbal
communications
Can be conducted
face to face, by telephone,
online or through mail

Steps To An Effective Interview
Prepare your interview schedule
Select your subjects/ key informants

Conduct the interview

Analyze and interpret data collected from the interview



The most common
data collection instrument

Survey
Questionnaire
Useful to collect
quantitative and qualitative
information
Should contain 3 elements:
1. Introduction to explain the objectives
2. Instructions must be clear, simple language & short
3. User-friendly avoid difficult or ambiguous questions
2 Basic Types of survey
questions:
1. Open-ended Questions
Free-response
(Text Open End)
Fill-in relevant
information

2. Close-ended Questions
Dichotomous question
Multiple-choice
Rank
Scale
Categorical
Numerical
Note: For specific examples and students activities on each question style,
please refer to the notes on Data Collection in the e-learning.
Steps To An Effective Survey Questionnaire
Prepare your survey questions
(Formulate & choose types of questions, order them, write instructions, make copies)
Select your respondents/sampling
Random/Selected
Administer the survey questionnaire
(date, venue, time )
Analyze and interpret data collected
Tabulate data collected
(Statistical analysis-frequency/mean/correlation/% )
A sample of complete survey questionnaire
http://www.custominsight.com/demo/form_widgets.rtf



Observe verbal &
non-verbal communication,
surrounding atmosphere,
culture & situation
Observations
Need to keep
meticulous records of
the observations


Can be done through discussions,
observations of habits, rituals,
review of documentation,
experiments


Steps To An Effective Observation
Determine what needs to be observed
(Plan, prepare checklist, how to record data)
Select your participants
Random/Selected
Conduct the observation
(venue, duration, recording materials, take photographs )
Analyze and interpret data collected
Compile data collected
DATA ANALYSIS
3. In a small scale study, the most common forms of statistical
analysis presented are:
Frequency
Mean
Percentage
1. To analyse data from interviews and observation, use
Summary sheet
Checklist
2. To analyse data from questionnaires, use
Manually
SPSS
DATA INTERPRETATION
1. It involves 2 terms
Results presentation of data/findings (statistics)
Discussion interpretation of data/findings

2. Things to consider when interpreting your data:
Interpret findings based on the purpose and
objectives of your study
Relate the findings to real life context
Use persuasive language to convince your readers
to see the research from your point of view.
Order your interpretation to highlight the most important
findings
Include limitations to your research.
Use simple, clear language