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Training Session on Energy

Equipment
Monitoring Equipment

Monitoring Equipment
Presentation from the
“Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia”
www.energyefficiencyasia.org

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© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
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Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Monitoring Equipment:
Introduction

• Have you used any before?


Monitoring Equipment

• Why do we need them?


• Can we do without them?
• How accurate should they be?
• What properties should they posses?

3
© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

What Do They Do?


Monitoring Equipment

• Measure electrical parameters: KVA,


kW, power factor, Hertz, KVAr, Amps
and Volts, harmonics
• Hand-held meters: instant
measurements
• Advanced facilitates: cumulative
readings with printouts at specified
intervals
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© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

What do they do?


Monitoring Equipment

• The HIOKI 3286-20 clamp on power hitester


measures:
- Voltage - Reactivity
- Current - Phase angle
- Voltage/current peak - Frequency,
- Effective / reactive / - Phase detection(3-phase)
apparent power
- Voltage/current harmonic
(single-phase or 3-
levels (up to 20th)
phase)
- Power factor 5
© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

Where are they


Monitoring Equipment

HIOKI 3286-20
used? clamp on power
hitester
www.hioki.co.jp
• These
instruments
are applied on-
line to
measure
various
electrical
parameters 6
© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

How to use them?


Monitoring Equipment

• Three leads with


crocodile clips:
red, yellow and
black (RYB)
• Used to measure
voltage
• Need naked wires
www.electricfence-online.co.uk/ishop/1047/shopscr91.html 7
© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

How to use them?


Monitoring Equipment

• Clamp that can


open and close
• Used to measure
current
• Need insulated
wire

HIOKI 3286-20 clamp on power hitester


www.hioki.co.jp 8
© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

How to use them?


Monitoring Equipment

• Only the combination of clamp and


crocodile clips give other
measurements
• Power
• Power factor
• Frequency
• Etc.
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© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

How to use them?


Monitoring Equipment

• Measurements are taken at the


junction or distribution box
• Electricity distribution to different
equipment
• Live and neutral wires visible
• Insulated and naked wires available

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© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

Current measurement
Monitoring Equipment

Clamp sensor

Live wire

Neutral wire

Display
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© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

Voltage measurement
Monitoring Equipment

Live wire

Neutral wire

Display
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© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

Measurement of all electrical


parameters on 3-phase, 4-wire circuit
Monitoring Equipment

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© UNEP 2006
Electrical Measuring Instruments

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

• Never attach the clamp to a circuit


operating > maximum rated voltage, or over
bare conductors
• Connect clamp on probe to the secondary
side of a breaker/fuse
• Use rubber hand gloves, boots, and safety
helmet to avoid electrical shocks
• Consult the operation manual before using
the equipment
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© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
15
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

What does it do?


Monitoring Equipment

• Measures the products of combustion:


• CO
• CO2
• NOx
• SOx
• O2
• Fly ash, soot, others…
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© UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

What does it do?


Monitoring Equipment

• Measures the composition of flue gases


after combustion in percentage
• Measure % oxygen or % CO2 in the flue
gases. If one is measured, the other can
most often be calculated
• Combustion efficiency can be calculated
with an inbuilt programme

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© UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

Fuel Efficiency Monitor


Monitoring Equipment

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www.fuelefficiencyllc.com/ feinc1.jpg © UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

Fyrite
Monitoring Equipment

omnicontrols.com/
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lists/gifs/Bach5.gif
© UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

Bacharach Fyrite® Pro Combustion Gas Analyzer


Gas Analyzer www.apexinst.com/ assetsnew/Fyrite-pro.gif
Monitoring Equipment

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© UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

Where is it used?
Monitoring Equipment

• Any equipment where combustion


takes place: boilers, furnaces
• Measurements are taken in the duct
• Measurements are used to identify
efficiency, leakages

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© UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

How to use them: Gas Analyzer


Monitoring Equipment

Probe

Display
screen

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www.apexinst.com/ assetsnew/Fyrite-pro.gif © UNEP 2006
Combustion Analyzer

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

• Always calibrate the instrument in open fresh air


before taking measurements
• Check for clogging of the air filters
• Ensure that the rubber tubing carrying the gases
to the instrument is not bended
• Plug the open space of monitoring hole with
cotton rags
• Use gloves, goggles and safety helmet
• Consult the operating manual before use
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© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
24
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Manometers

What does it do?


Monitoring Equipment

• Measure the differential pressure across two


points
•Positive pressure
•Negative pressure (vacuum)
• The liquid-column manometer is the oldest
type: a U-shaped tube half-full of liquid
• Liquid: oil, water, mercury
• A barometer is a manometer!!
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© UNEP 2006
Manometers

What does it do - Principles


Monitoring Equipment

h h

aa b b c
c
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Source: Dwyer Instruments, www.dwyer-inst.com
© UNEP 2006
Manometers

Where is it used?
Monitoring Equipment

• To measure pressure differential in air pipes,


water pipes, gas pipes
• Of various equipment, mainly compressors,
pumps, and draft systems

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© UNEP 2006
Manometers

How to operate them – main types


Monitoring Equipment

of manometers
1) Single-limb Liquid-column Manometer
2) Flexible Membrane Manometer
3) Coiled Tube Manometer

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© UNEP 2006
Manometers

How to use a manometer: air pipes


Monitoring Equipment

and ducts
Flexible Membrane Manometer
Manometer

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© UNEP 2006
Probes
Manometers

How to use a Display


screen
manometer:
Monitoring Equipment

air pipes and


ducts
• Turn on
• Select measurement
unit
• Measured value
appears on screen
Dwyer Series 477 – Handheld Digital
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Manometer, www.dwyer.co.kr
© UNEP 2006
Manometers

How to use a manometer: air pipes


Monitoring Equipment

and ducts
• Bournoulli equation to calculate velocity:
• Differential pressure = v2/2g, where
• Differential pressure: measured
• v = velocity
• g = gravity

• Velocity – air flow – efficiency


fans/blowers etc 31
© UNEP 2006
Manometers

How to use a manometer: water


Monitoring Equipment

pipes

10 m

Water pipeline
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© UNEP 2006
Manometers

How to use a manometer: water pipes


Monitoring Equipment

• Differential pressure = f Lv2/2gD, where


• Differential pressure: measured
• f = friction factor of pipe
• L = distance between two tappings
• V = velocity
• D = pipe diameter
• g = gravity

• Velocity – flow rate – efficiency of pump


33
© UNEP 2006
Manometers

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

• Do not expose the manometer to very


high pressures
• Always consult the operating manual
before use

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© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
35
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Thermometers

What a thermometer does


Monitoring Equipment

• Measures temperatures of any


• Fluid
• Surface
• Gas
• Two types:
• Contact: clinical and thermocouple
• Non-contact or infrared 36
© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

Where thermometers are used


Monitoring Equipment

Measure the temperature of for example:


• Ambient air
• Refrigeration plant incl. compressors and
cooling towers: e.g. chilled water, air
• Boilers: surface, flue gases, steam pipes,
feed water, condensate water
• Furnaces: surface, flue gas, cooling water
• Waste heat recovery: gas, water
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© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

Where a Thermocouple is used


Monitoring Equipment

• Measuring temperature of air, liquids and


gases
• Generally not used for surfaces

Type: AZ RS232, K, J, T thermometer 38


© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

How to operate a Thermocouple


Monitoring Equipment

• Turn on
• Insert probe
• Read
temperature
on display
• Wait 2 min for
stable reading

Type: AZ RS232, K, J, T thermometer 39


© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

Where is it used?
Monitoring Equipment

• Any equipment where combustion


takes place: boilers, furnaces
• Measurements are taken in the duct
• Measurements are used to identify
efficiency, leakages

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© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

Where a non-contact / infrared


Monitoring Equipment

thermometer is used
• Measure temperature of surfaces only
• Used for:
• Moving objects
• Contamination, voltage, electromagnetic
field, vacuum
• Large distances/heights
• Too high temperatures for
thermocouples 41
© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

How to operate
Monitoring Equipment

a non-contact /
infrared
thermometer
• Turn on
• Point to
surface
• Read on panel

Hioki Non-contact Temperature


Hi Tester, model 3415-01
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www.tequipment.net
© UNEP 2006
Thermometers

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

Thermocouple:
• Immere probe in fluid/gas and only read
measure after 1-2 minutes
• Note temperature range before you start
• Do not touch naked flame with the probe
Infrared:
• Set the emissivity for the surface where
temperature is measured
Always consult the operating manual before use43
© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
44
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Water Flow Meters

How water flow is measured


Monitoring Equipment

• Water meter: measures flow rate of a liquid


or a gas
• Time of fill method: tank volume is divided
by time to fill the tank
• Float method: distance ping pong ball
traveled divided by travel time

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© UNEP 2006
Water Flow Meters

Where a water flow is used


Monitoring Equipment

• Water flow rate is measured to determine


the efficiency of
• Pumps
• Cooling towers
• Refrigeration / AC plant
• Heat exchangers
• Condensers
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© UNEP 2006
Water Flow Meters

How to operate water flow meters


Monitoring Equipment

Water flow meters used to measure water flow


in open channels:
• Turbine flow meters
• Parallel wheels
• Positive displacement flow meters

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© UNEP 2006
Water Flow Meters

How to operate water flow meters


Monitoring Equipment

Water flow meters that are permanently


installed on water pipelines:
• Rotameter
• Spring and piston flow meter
• Vortex meters

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© UNEP 2006
Water Flow Meters

How to operate water flow meters


Monitoring Equipment

Water flow meters


that not permanently
installed on water
pipelines
• Ultrasonic flow
meters

www.rshydro.co.uk 49
© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
50
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Speed Measurement: Tachometers
and Stroboscopes

What tachometers and


Monitoring Equipment

stroboscopes do and where they


are used
• Measure speed of a rotating object in
revolutions per minute (RPM)
• Used for motors, fans, pulleys
• Tachometers: direct contact
• Stroboscopes: direct contact not possible
or not safe
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© UNEP 2006
Speed Measurement: Tachometers
and Stroboscopes

display
How to operate
Monitoring Equipment

panel
a tachometer
• Turn on
• Bring wheel in contact
with rotating body
• Read RPM on display
panel

Extech Contact/Laser Photo Tachometer,


model 461995-NIST. wheel 52
www.mytoolstore.com/extech/tachndx.html
© UNEP 2006
Speed Measurement

How to operate
Monitoring Equipment

a stroboscope
• Mark line on rotating
object
• Point stroboscope at
object
• Change flashing
light until marked
line stops moving
• Read RPM on
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display panel Source: Reliability Direct, Inc. © UNEP 2006
Speed Measurement

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

• Be careful when bringing the wheel of the


tachometer in contact with the rotating
body
• Do not wear loose clothes while taking
measurements with a tachometers
• Avoid taking measurements alone
• Always consult the operating manual before
use
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© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
55
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Leak Detectors

What does a leak detector do


Monitoring Equipment

• Detects the location of leaks


• Detects almost any leak because
• Short distance/access not needed
• High pressure not needed
• Sensitive to sound
• Filters background noises
• Does not measure the size of the leak
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© UNEP 2006
Leak Detectors

Where is a leak detector used


Monitoring Equipment

For measuring
• Compressed air leaks
• Refrigerant leaks

But no leak detector will find every leak!!

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© UNEP 2006
Leak Detectors

How to operate a leak detector


Monitoring Equipment

• Turn on and put monitoring


on headphones device

• Move probe headphones


along pipeline
• Mark locations
where hissing
sound is heard
probe
Type: Accutrack Ultrasonic Leak
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Detector, model VPE
© UNEP 2006
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Leak Detectors

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

• Dust or smoke should not come out of


the pipe
• Avoid measurement at places with high
sound levels
• Always consult operating manual

60
© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Monitoring
Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments


Monitoring Equipment

Combustion analyzer
Manometers
Thermometers
Water flow meters
Speed measurement
Leak detectors
61
Lux meters © UNEP 2006
Lux Meters

What do Lux meters do and where


Monitoring Equipment

are they used


• Measures illumination (light) levels at
• Offices
• Industrial plants
• Streets
• All other (work) places

62
© UNEP 2006
Lux Meters

Display
How to operate panel
Monitoring Equipment

lux meters
• Consist of a Body
body, a photo
cell and a
readout/display
panel
• Lux meters
readings vary for Photo cell
different light
sources
63
© UNEP 2006
Lux Meters

Where & How It’s Used?


Monitoring Equipment

• Turn on the lux meter


• Place sensor where the light intensity
is to be measured
• Read illumination levels on the display
panel

64
© UNEP 2006
Lux Meters

Precautions
Monitoring Equipment

• Place sensor properly on the workstation


• Store the sensor safely due its high
sensitivity
• Always consult the operating manual

65
© UNEP 2006
Training Session on Energy
Equipment


Monitoring Equipment

Monitoring Equipment

THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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© UNEP GERIAP
Disclaimer and References

• This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of


the project “Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from
Monitoring Equipment

Industry in Asia and the Pacific” (GERIAP). While


reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the
contents of this publication are factually correct and
properly referenced, UNEP does not accept responsibility
for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall
not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned
directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the
contents of this publication. © UNEP, 2006.
• The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish
International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)
• Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is
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available on www.energyefficiencyasia.org
© UNEP 2006