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Presentation on Energy Equipment

For Karachi University Students

Boilers & Thermic


Thermal Equipment/

Fluid Heaters
Boilers

Presentation from the


“Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in
Pakistan”

1
Training Agenda: Boiler

Introduction
Thermal Equipment/

Type of boilers
Boilers

Assessment of a boiler
Energy efficiency opportunities

2
Introduction

What is a Boiler?
Thermal Equipment/

• Vessel that heats water to become


hot water or steam
Boilers

• At atmospheric pressure water


volume increases 1,600 times
• Hot water or steam used to transfer
heat to a process

3
Introduction

STEAM TO
EXHAUST GAS VENT
PROCESS
Thermal Equipment/

STACK DEAERATOR

PUMPS

NOMI-
Boilers

ECO-

ZER
VENT
BOILER
BURNER
WATER
SOURCE
BLOW DOWN
SEPARATOR FUEL

BRINE

CHEMICAL FEED
SOFTENERS
4
Figure: Schematic overview of a boiler room
Training Agenda: Boiler

Introduction
Thermal Equipment/

Type of boilers
Boilers

Assessment of a boiler
Energy efficiency opportunities

5
Types of Boilers

What Type of Boilers Are There?


Thermal Equipment/

1. Fire Tube Boiler


2. Water Tube Boiler
Boilers

3. Packaged Boiler
4. Fluidized Bed (FBC) Boiler
5. Stoker Fired Boiler
6. Pulverized Fuel Boiler
7. Waste Heat Boiler
8. Thermic Fluid Heater (not a boiler!)
6
Type of Boilers

1. Fire Tube Boiler


Thermal Equipment/

• Relatively small steam


Boilers

capacities (12,000
kg/hour)
• Low to medium steam
pressures (18 kg/cm2)
• Operates with oil, gas
or solid fuels

(Light Rail Transit Association) 7


Type of Boilers

2. Water Tube Boiler


Thermal Equipment/

• Used for high steam


demand and pressure
requirements
Boilers

• Capacity range of 4,500


– 120,000 kg/hour
• Combustion efficiency
enhanced by induced
draft provisions
• Lower tolerance for
water quality and needs
(Your Dictionary.com) water treatment plant 8
Type of Boilers

3. Packaged Boiler • Comes in complete


package
Thermal Equipment/

To • Features
Chimney
• High heat transfer
Boilers

• Faster evaporation
• Good convective
heat transfer
• Good combustion
Oil
efficiency
Burner
• High thermal
efficiency
(BIB Cochran, 2003) • Classified based on
number of passes
9
Type of Boilers

4. Fluidized Bed Combustion


Thermal Equipment/

(FBC) Boiler
• Particles (e.g. sand) are suspended in high
velocity air stream: bubbling fluidized bed
Boilers

• Combustion at 840° – 950° C


• Capacity range 0,5 T/hr to 100 T/hr
• Fuels: coal, washery rejects, rice husk, bagasse
and agricultural wastes
• Benefits: compactness, fuel flexibility, higher
combustion efficiency, reduced SOx & NOx
10
Type of Boilers

4a. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed


Combustion (AFBC) Boiler
Thermal Equipment/

• Most common FBC boiler that uses preheated


atmospheric air as fluidization and combustion air
Boilers

4b. Pressurized Fluidized Bed


Combustion (PFBC) Boiler
• Compressor supplies the forced draft and
combustor is a pressure vessel
• Used for cogeneration or combined cycle power
generation
11
Type of Boilers

4c. Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized


Thermal Equipment/

Bed Combustion (CFBC) Boiler


• Solids lifted from bed,
Boilers

rise, return to bed


• Steam generation in
convection section
• Benefits: more
economical, better space
utilization and efficient
combustion

(Thermax Babcock & Wilcox Ltd, 2001) 12


Type of Boilers

5. Stoke Fired Boilers


Thermal Equipment/

a) Spreader stokers
• Coal is first burnt in suspension then in
Boilers

coal bed
• Flexibility to meet load fluctuations
• Favored in many industrial applications

13
Type of Boilers

5. Stoke Fired Boilers


Thermal Equipment/

b) Chain-grate or traveling-grate stoker


Boilers

• Coal is burnt on moving


steel grate
• Coal gate controls coal
feeding rate
• Uniform coal size for
complete combustion

(University of Missouri, 2004) 14


Type of Boilers

6. Pulverized Fuel Boiler


Thermal Equipment/

• Pulverized coal powder blown with combustion


air into boiler through burner nozzles
Boilers

• Combustion
temperature at 1300
-1700 °C
• Benefits: varying coal
quality coal, quick
response to load
changes and high pre-
heat air temperatures Tangential firing
15
Type of Boilers

7. Waste Heat Boiler


Thermal Equipment/

• Used when waste heat


available at medium/high
temp
Boilers

• Auxiliary fuel burners


used if steam demand is
more than the waste heat
can generate
• Used in heat recovery
from exhaust gases from
gas turbines and diesel
Agriculture and Agri-Food engines
16
Canada, 2001
Type of Boilers

8. Thermic Fluid Heater


Thermal Equipment/

• Wide application for indirect process heating


• Thermic fluid (petroleum-based) is heat transfer
Boilers

medium
• Benefits:
• Closed cycle = minimal losses
• Non-pressurized system operation at 250 °C
• Automatic controls = operational flexibility
• Good thermal efficiencies
17
Type of Boilers 3. Heat transfer
through heat
8. Thermic Fluid Heater exchanged
Thermal Equipment/

User equipment
2. Circulated
to user 4. Fluid
returned to
Boilers

equipment
heater
Control
panel

Insulated
outer wall
1. Thermic
fluid heated Blower Exhaust
motor
in the heater unit
(Energy
Fuel oil
filter Machine India)
18
Training Agenda: Boiler

Introduction
Thermal Equipment/

Type of boilers
Boilers

Assessment of a boiler
Energy efficiency opportunities

19
Assessment of a boiler

1. Boiler
Thermal Equipment/

2. Boiler blow down


Boilers

3. Boiler feed water treatment

20
Assessment of a Boiler

1. Boiler performance
Thermal Equipment/

• Causes of poor boiler performance


-Poor combustion
Boilers

-Heat transfer surface fouling


-Poor operation and maintenance
-Deteriorating fuel and water quality

• Heat balance: identify heat losses


• Boiler efficiency: determine
deviation from best efficiency
21
Assessment of a Boiler

Heat Balance
Thermal Equipment/

An energy flow diagram describes geographically


how energy is transformed from fuel into useful
energy, heat and losses
Boilers

Stochiometric
Excess Air
Un burnt

Stack Gas

FUEL INPUT STEAM


OUTPUT

Convection & Blow Ash and Un-burnt parts


Radiation Down of Fuel in Ash 22
Assessment of a Boiler

Heat Balance
Thermal Equipment/

Balancing total energy entering a boiler against the


energy that leaves the boiler in different forms
Boilers

12.7 %
Heat loss due to dry flue gas

8.1 % Heat loss due to steam in fuel gas


1.7 %
100.0 % Heat loss due to moisture in fuel
BOILER 0.3 %
Fuel Heat loss due to moisture in air

2.4 % Heat loss due to unburnts in residue

1.0 %
Heat loss due to radiation & other
unaccounted loss
73.8 %
Heat in Steam

23
Assessment of a Boiler

Heat Balance
Thermal Equipment/

Goal: improve energy efficiency by reducing


avoidable losses
Boilers

Avoidable losses include:


- Stack gas losses (excess air, stack gas
temperature)
- Losses by unburnt fuel
- Blow down losses
- Condensate losses
24
- Convection and radiation
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Efficiency
Thermal Equipment/

Thermal efficiency: % of (heat) energy input that is


effectively useful in the generated steam
Boilers

BOILER EFFICENCY
CALCULATION

1) DIRECT METHOD: 2) INDIRECT METHOD:


The energy gain of the The efficiency is the
working fluid (water and steam) different between losses
is compared with the energy and energy input 25
content of the boiler fuel.
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Efficiency: Direct Method


Thermal Equipment/

Heat Input x 100 Q x (hg – hf) x 100


Boiler efficiency (η ) = =
Heat Output Q x GCV
Boilers

hg -the enthalpy of saturated steam in kcal/kg of steam

hf -the enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg of water


Parameters to be monitored:
- Quantity of steam generated per hour (Q) in kg/hr
- Quantity of fuel used per hour (q) in kg/hr
- The working pressure (in kg/cm2(g)) and superheat
temperature (oC), if any
- The temperature of feed water (oC)
- Type of fuel and gross calorific value of the fuel (GCV) in
26
kcal/kg of fuel
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Efficiency: Direct Method


Thermal Equipment/

Advantages
• Quick evaluation
Boilers

• Few parameters for computation


• Few monitoring instruments
• Easy to compare evaporation ratios with
benchmark figures

Disadvantages
• No explanation of low efficiency
• Various losses not calculated

27
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Efficiency: Indirect Method


Thermal Equipment/

Efficiency of boiler (η ) = 100 – (i+ii+iii+iv+v+vi+vii)


Boilers

Principle losses:
i) Dry flue gas
ii) Evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel
iii) Evaporation of moisture in fuel
iv) Moisture present in combustion air
v) Unburnt fuel in fly ash
vi) Unburnt fuel in bottom ash
28
vii) Radiation and other unaccounted losses
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Efficiency: Indirect Method


Thermal Equipment/

Required calculation data


• Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2, O2, S, C, moisture
content, ash content)
Boilers

• % oxygen or CO2 in the flue gas


• Fuel gas temperature in ◦C (Tf)
• Ambient temperature in ◦C (Ta) and humidity of air in
kg/kg of dry air
• GCV of fuel in kcal/kg
• % combustible in ash (in case of solid fuels)
• GCV of ash in kcal/kg (in case of solid fuels) 29
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Efficiency: Indirect Method


Thermal Equipment/

Advantages
• Complete mass and energy balance for each
Boilers

individual stream
• Makes it easier to identify options to improve
boiler efficiency

Disadvantages
• Time consuming
• Requires lab facilities for analysis

30
Assessment of a Boiler

2. Boiler Blow Down


Thermal Equipment/

• Controls ‘total dissolved solids’ (TDS) in the


water that is boiled
Boilers

• Blows off water and replaces it with feed water


• Conductivity measured as indication of TDS
levels
• Calculation of quantity blow down required:

Feed water TDS x % Make up water


Blow down (%) =
Maximum Permissible TDS in Boiler water

31
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Blow Down


Thermal Equipment/

Two types of blow down


• Intermittent
Boilers

• Manually operated valve reduces TDS


• Large short-term increases in feed water
• Substantial heat loss

• Continuous
• Ensures constant TDS and steam purity
• Heat lost can be recovered
• Common in high-pressure boilers
32
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Blow Down


Thermal Equipment/

Benefits
• Lower pretreatment costs
Boilers

• Less make-up water consumption


• Reduced maintenance downtime
• Increased boiler life
• Lower consumption of treatment
chemicals
33
Assessment of a Boiler

3. Boiler Feed Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

• Quality of steam depend on water


treatment to control
Boilers

• Steam purity
• Deposits
• Corrosion

• Efficient heat transfer only if boiler


water is free from deposit-forming
solids
34
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Feed Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

Deposit control
• To avoid efficiency losses and
Boilers

reduced heat transfer


• Hardness salts of calcium and
magnesium
• Alkaline hardness: removed by boiling
• Non-alkaline: difficult to remove

• Silica forms hard silica scales


35
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Feed Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

Internal water treatment


• Chemicals added to boiler to prevent scale
Boilers

• Different chemicals for different water types


• Conditions:
• Feed water is low in hardness salts
• Low pressure, high TDS content is tolerated
• Small water quantities treated
• Internal treatment alone not recommended
36
Assessment of a Boiler

Boiler Feed Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

External water treatment:


• Removal of suspended/dissolved solids and
dissolved gases
Boilers

• Pre-treatment: sedimentation and settling


• First treatment stage: removal of salts
• Processes
a) Ion exchange
b) Demineralization
c) De-aeration
37
d) Reverse osmoses
Assessment of a Boiler

External Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

a) Ion-exchange process (softener plant)


• Water passes through bed of natural zeolite of
synthetic resin to remove hardness
Boilers

• Base exchange: calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)


replaced with sodium (Na) ions
• Does not reduce TDS, blow down quantity and
alkalinity

b) Demineralization
• Complete removal of salts
• Cations in raw water replaced with hydrogen ions
38
Assessment of a Boiler

External Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

c) De-aeration
• Dissolved corrosive gases (O2, CO2)
Boilers

expelled by preheating the feed water


• Two types:
• Mechanical de-aeration: used prior to addition
of chemical oxygen scavangers
• Chemical de-aeration: removes trace oxygen

39
Assessment of a Boiler

External Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

Mechanical
Vent
de-aeration
Spray
Boilers

Boiler Feed Nozzles • O2 and CO2 removed by


Water
Stea
heating feed water
Scrubber m
Section • Economical treatment
(Trays) process

Storage • Vacuum type can reduce


Section O2 to 0.02 mg/l
De-aerated • Pressure type can
Boiler Feed
Water reduce O2 to 0.005 mg/l
( National Productivity Council) 40
Assessment of a Boiler

External Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

Chemical de-aeration
• Removal of trace oxygen with scavenger
Boilers

• Sodium sulphite:
• Reacts with oxygen: sodium sulphate
• Increases TDS: increased blow down
• Hydrazine
• Reacts with oxygen: nitrogen + water
• Does not increase TDS: used in high pressure
boilers 41
Assessment of a Boiler

External Water Treatment


Thermal Equipment/

d) Reverse osmosis
• Osmosis
Boilers

• Solutions of differing concentrations


• Separated by a semi-permeable membrane
• Water moves to the higher concentration

• Reversed osmosis
• Higher concentrated liquid pressurized
• Water moves in reversed direction 42
Assessment of a Boiler

External water treatment


Thermal Equipment/

d) Reverse osmosis
Pressure
Boilers

Feed Fresh Water


Water
More
Concentrated
Solution
Concentrate Water Flow
Flow

Semi Permeable 43
Membrane
Training Agenda: Boiler

Introduction
Thermal Equipment/

Type of boilers
Boilers

Assessment of a boiler
Energy efficiency opportunities

44
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

1. Stack temperature control


2. Feed water preheating using
Thermal Equipment/

economizers
3. Combustion air pre-heating
4. Incomplete combustion
Boilers

minimization
5. Excess air control
6. Avoid radiation and convection
heat loss
7. Automatic blow down control
8. Reduction of scaling and soot
losses
9. Reduction of boiler steam
pressure
45
10. Variable speed control
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

1. Stack Temperature Control


Thermal Equipment/

• Keep as low as possible


• If >200°C then recover waste heat
Boilers

2. Feed Water Preheating


Economizers
• Potential to recover heat from 200 – 300 oC flue
gases leaving a modern 3-pass shell boiler

3. Combustion Air Preheating


• If combustion air raised by 20°C = 1% improve
thermal efficiency 46
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

4. Minimize Incomplete Combustion


Thermal Equipment/

• Symptoms:
• Smoke, high CO levels in exit flue gas
Boilers

• Causes:
• Air shortage, fuel surplus, poor fuel distribution
• Poor mixing of fuel and air
• Oil-fired boiler:
• Improper viscosity, worn tops, cabonization on
dips, deterioration of diffusers or spinner plates
• Coal-fired boiler: non-uniform coal size
47
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

5. Excess Air Control


Thermal Equipment/

• Excess air required for complete combustion


• Optimum excess air levels varies
Boilers

• 1% excess air reduction = 0.6% efficiency rise


• Portable or continuous oxygen analyzers
Fuel Kg air req./kg fuel %CO2 in flue gas in practice
Solid Fuels
Bagasse 3.3 10-12
Coal (bituminous) 10.7 10-13
Lignite 8.5 9 -13
Paddy Husk 4.5 14-15
Wood 5.7 11.13

Liquid Fuels
Furnace Oil 13.8 9-14
LSHS 14.1 9-14 48
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

6. Radiation and Convection Heat


Thermal Equipment/

Loss Minimization
• Fixed heat loss from boiler shell, regardless of
Boilers

boiler output
• Repairing insulation can reduce loss

7. Automatic Blow Down Control


• Sense and respond to boiler water conductivity
and pH
49
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

8. Scaling and Soot Loss Reduction


Thermal Equipment/

• Every 22oC increase in stack temperature = 1%


efficiency loss
• 3 mm of soot = 2.5% fuel increase
Boilers

9. Reduced Boiler Steam Pressure


• Lower steam pressure
= lower saturated steam temperature
= lower flue gas temperature
• Steam generation pressure dictated by process
50
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

10. Variable Speed Control for Fans,


Thermal Equipment/

Blowers and Pumps


• Suited for fans, blowers, pumps
Boilers

• Should be considered if boiler loads are


variable

11. Control Boiler Loading


• Maximum boiler efficiency: 65-85% of rated load
• Significant efficiency loss: < 25% of rated load

51
Energy Efficiency Opportunities

12. Proper Boiler Scheduling


Thermal Equipment/

• Optimum efficiency: 65-85% of full load


• Few boilers at high loads is more efficient than
large number at low loads
Boilers

13. Boiler Replacement


Financially attractive if existing boiler is
• Old and inefficient
• Not capable of firing cheaper substitution fuel
• Over or under-sized for present requirements
• Not designed for ideal loading conditions 52
Training Session on Energy
Equipment


Thermal Equipment/

Boilers & Thermic


Fluid Heaters
Boilers

THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

53