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In-Building Coverage Planning


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Indoor Planning Work flow
Determine the service requirements
Frequency band
Cellular & PCS
Capacity requirements
Erlang
Power Per Carrier
Allow for future growth !
Coverage design goals
DL Level
Load Factor
Isolation from Macro layer
Determine the Type of environment
Determine the signal source
Repeater
Base Station / Node-B
Make link budget
Include the Noise Figures (UL/DL)

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Principle of indoor coverage design
You need to:
Know the Noise figure of your active or passive DAS, this will set the UL limit
Know the loss of the passive DAS / PPC of the active DAS to simulate the DL
Know the s/n on the UL and DL for the mobile service voice/data
Know the UL/DL air noise floor
Know the target level on UL/DL
Know the environment, and future plans
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Indoor Planning Ex. Cellular
Determine the service requirements
Frequency band
Cellular
Capacity requirements
8 Erlang (BH)
15 TSL @ 0,9% GOS,
2 TRX (planning for 6, for the future)
Data Services
GPRS CS2
PPC = 14 dBm (Power Per Carrier)
Coverage design goals
DL Level 85dBm
Macro i/f 100dBm (Co Channel)
Determine the Type of environment
Open office PLS=33,1
16 Floors (2-16 NF 20dB)
Determine the signal source
BTS 35dBm
Make link budget
Include the Noise Figures (UL/DL)


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75 m
56,25 sq. ft.
6524,00 sq. ft.
u p
10'-0"
12'-1/
4"
1 1 ' - 3 "
8 ft. 11,0 in. x 4 ft. 5,5 in.
GPRS 35m
Indoor planning ex.1.
Cellular
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Indoor Cellular Example
Looks nice, but the heavy Elevator shaft will shield the signal

So an alternative is to split the signal from the ROU into two antennas

The elevatores are measured to have 35dB attenuation, so if ve can keep a
signal of 50dB outside the Elevator, the coverage should be OK !

This will cost 3dB on the link budget, reduce the coverage to :
Voice from 45m to 37m, GPRS CS2 from 35m to 28m

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75 m
56,25 sq. ft.
6524,00 sq. ft.
u p
10'-0"
12'-1/
4"
1 1 ' - 3 "
8 ft. 11,0 in. x 4 ft. 5,5 in.
GPRS 28m
Antenna split keeps good service,
and voice coverage in elevators

Indoor planning ex.1. Cellular 1:2 split
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Indoor Cellular Tips
Keep most of the traffic in line of sight to the antennas
Better RF-link
Lower MS UL power, less UL i/f leakining out
Less DL signal due to DL power control, less i/f
leaking out
High Orthogonality for PCS update.
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Cellular / PCS co-locating indoor
BTS
ANT
Node-B
Combiner
50dB
ANT ANT
Shared feeder systems min 50dB
isolation.
Noise UL/DL
Combining insertion loss 0.2-0.7dB
Spurious emission
RX blocking
8dBm for Cellular
0dBm for PCS

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Multi-operators
[dBm]
[Time]
Opr. A
Opr. B
[dBm]
[Time]
Opr A & B
Adj i/f
Oper A
Oper B
Oper A&B
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Opti-Link DAS quality = revenue
DAS are implemented to serve the most important users / buildings
Performance should be supervised
Errors should be detected, or even better - predicted
Errors will happen, in both active and passive DAS
DAS Errors should be resolved ASAP, using DAS system intelligence
Easy monitoring via PC will bring down , out of service time to a minimum
Faster installation = more revenue
All DAS is a compromise, no one ideal solution for all buildings, therefore DAS
need to be flexible
Easy to extend, sectorise
Only low power BTS is used, cutting the BSS cost


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Indoor system selection
Opti-Link is ideal HW for most IB solution
Select the right approach for the right solution (the right shoes for the route)
Both passive and active can be the perfect way to go, select the right approach for
the specific design.
Only one thing is for sure:
The future is bringing more need for wireless high speed data, meaning
higher demands for indoor coverage and capacity

Operators plan their macro rollout for 5-7 years ahead, surely their indoor systems
should also be future proof.

The main part (80%) are originated inside buildings, therefore good indoor
performance is the key to success !
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DUAL & TRI Band Slim Antennas
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Thank you