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An Introduction of Iron Making and Steel Making

Process Flow Diagram
Cold Rolled Steels
Introduction to Cold Rolling

Processing of CRCA and Essar Steel

Properties and Surface Characteristics of Cold Rolled Steel (CRCA)

Defects in Cold Rolled Steel

Applications of CRCA

Cold Rolled Steels
What is Cold Rolling ?

process by which hot rolled strip or stock is introduced between rollers
and then squeezed or compressed to the desired thickness
Amount of strain introduced determines the properties of the finished

Cold Rolled Steel
Introduction to Cold Rolling
Cold Rolled Steels

Why is Cold Rolling done ?

Good Formability

Superior Surface Finish

Reasonable Strength

Cold Rolled Steels

Commonly used Grades of Cold Rolled Steel

D/DD - Drawing/Deep Drawing Simple forming/bending
EDD - Extra Deep Drawing Deep Drawn components

IF - Interstitial Free Critical Draw and Stretch
Components in terms of
geometry of the component,
type and depth of draw and
press parameters
Cold Rolled Steels

Chemical Composition Typical Ranges

%C %M
%Si %S %P %Al N,
%Ti %Nb
D/DD 0.05 0.3 0.02 0.01 0 0.05 70
EDD </=.04 0.2 0.02 0.01 0 0.03 50
IF 0.003 0.2 0.015 0.01 0 0.04 40 0.06 0.01
Cold Rolled Steels

Process flow of Cold Rolled Steel

Pickling (to remove oxides
and scales)
Cold Rolling in reversing or
tandem mill to desired
Annealing (batch or
continuous)for stress
Skin passing to remove Luder lines,
develop mech prop,impart desired
surface finish improve flatness
Cold Rolled Steels


Why is Pickling done ?

To remove scales and oxide layers present on the surface of hot rolled
Make the steel surface suitable for cold rolling
Scales and oxide layers are harder than steel and hence hinder
the process of cold rolling of low carbon steel .

Cold Rolled Steels


Hows scale and oxide removal are achieved?

Hot rolled strip is passed through tanks containing
hydrochloric acid wherein the acid dissolves the
oxide layer

The strip is then rinsed with water to remove any
excess acid. dried and the strip is ready for cold

Cold Rolled Steels

Cold Rolling

Hot rolled Pickled Coils are reduced to the desired thickness

Achieved either in;

Reversing Cold Rolling Mills : Thickness achieved by
repeated passes through the
same rolling stand back and
Tandem Cold Rolling Mills : Thickness achieved through
series of rolling stands in

Cold Rolled Steels


Why annealing is done?

Steel Coils are hard and brittle after Cold Rolling

Has Elongated grain Structure

Not suitable for end use

Cold Rolled Steels

Skin Passing

Why is Skin Passing Done ?

To remove Yield point by supplying load

To prevent occurrence of stretcher strains in annealed steel

To impart desired surface finish - matte on the strip surface

To improve strip shape

Cold Rolled Steels

Skin Passing
What are Stretcher Strains?

Generated due to the yield point phenomenon
exhibited by cold rolled and annealed low carbon
steel sheet/strip

Appears as discrete bands on the strip surface

Cold Rolled Steels

Defects in cold Rolled Steels

Surface Defects

Rolled in Scales

Left over oxides formed during hot rolling
Rolled into the sheet surface remaining unremoved even after pickling


Defect mainly caused by alumina inclusions entrapped during steel
making/casting operations
Gets elongated linearly by rolling
Leads to cracking/failure during drawing operation

Cold Rolled Steels

Defects in cold Rolled Steels

Surface Defects

Roll Marks

Defect transferred to the strip from the rolls
Appears at regular intervals in the rolling directions
Caused due to scratches on rolls , foreign substance sticking to
rolls, metal pick up on rolls during strip breakage

Cold Rolled Steels

Defects in cold Rolled Steels

Surface Defects

Sticker Marks

Semi circular marks on the surface of the strip.
Generates due to sticking tendency of subsequent coil wraps
Sticking tendency is due to any of the following reasons
Higher tension of the coils being taken for annealing
Higher soaking time/temperature
Poor shape of the strip

Cold Rolled Steels

Application of Cold Rolled Steel (low Carbon)

Automobile components

Panels for White Goods/Appliances

Packaging (Drums ,Barrels and Containers)


Electrical Panels

General Engineering

Cold Rolled Steels

Application of Cold Rolled Steel (low Carbon)

Exposed Component
UN-exposed Component Critical draw Components