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Health and Psychology

Health Psychology
Biopsychosocial model of health
Focus: AIDS in the Philippines
Stress and stressors.
General Adaptation Syndrome
Coping with Stress
Health is the level of functional or metabolic
efficiency of a living organism. In humans, it is the
general condition of a person's mind and body,
usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or
pain (as in "good health" or "healthy").
[1]
The
World Health Organization (WHO) defined health
in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete
physical, mental, and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
Health Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with
individuals behaviors and lifestyles affecting a
persons health and illness.
Uses psychological processes to help improve the
physical outcomes of individuals.
In general, health psychology is concerned with the
role of cognitive, affective, behavior, and social
factors affecting health illness.

The shift to Biopsychosocial model of
Health

Central to linking the mind (realm of psychology)
and the body (realm of biology) in understanding
illness.

As of December 2012:
Source: Philippine National AIDS Council
http://www.pnac.org.ph/uploads/documents/pu
blications/NEC_HIV_Dec-AIDSreg2012.pdf

Focus: AIDS in the Philippines
Focus: AIDS in the Philippines
Social factors:
Thriving commercial sex industry
Failure to use condoms especially in paid sex.
Sexual cultural norms
Embarrassment, from a social psychological perspective (e.g.,
Dahl, Gorn& Weinberg, 1998), can occur when a situation poses a
dilemma between a publicly observable behavior (e.g., buying
condoms at a drugstore) and apprehension about negative social
evaluation by others (e.g.,
disapproving judgments by others, like people in line at the counte
r or even imaginedothers not physically present like ones
parents). (Manalastas, 2009)
Focus: AIDS in the Philippines
Increase in casual sex among the youth.
Methamphetamine use was strongly associated
with behavioral risk factors for HIV infection. (US
Center for Disease Control)
Term used to describe the physical,
emotional, cognitive, and behavioral
responses to events that are appraised as
threatening or challenging.
Stress-causing events
May come from within a person or from an
external source, and ranges from mild to
severe.
Distress
Eustress
Catastrophes
Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress
Disorder
Major Life Changes
Hassles

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
College Undergraduate Stress Scale
Pressure
Uncontrollability
Frustration
Conflict
Happens when
There are urgent demands for a persons behavior
coming from an outside source.
Depends on the degree pf control a person
has over a situation
The lesser the control, the greater the stress.
Occurs when people are blocked or prevented
from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a
perceived need.
External Frustration
Internal/Personal Frustration

Responses to frustration
Persistence
Continuation of efforts to get around whatever is
causing the frustration.
Aggression
Actions meant to harm or destroy
Displaced aggression

Occurs when people are blocked or prevented
from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a
perceived need.
External Frustration
Internal/Personal Frustration

Approach-Approach Conflict
Involves choosing between two desirable goals.
Also a win-win situation.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Involves choosing between two or more unpleasant
goals.


Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Involves only one goal or event, which may have
both positive and negative aspects
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Involves multiple goals that have both positive and
negative elements.
General Adaptation Syndrome
What is the General Adaptation Syndrome?
The General Adaptation Syndrome (or GAS)
describes the body's short and long-term emotional
and physical effects of stress.
GAS: A Brief History
Introduced by Hans Selye in 1936. Hans Selye is
considered as the founding father of stress research.
He conducted a research involving rats in which he
injected various extracts from the glands of the body.
The rats exhibited the same symptoms.
He believed at first that he discovered a new
hormone.
GAS: A Brief History
However, after further tests using other substances
and methods such as injecting formaldehyde, cutting
the rats spinal cord, exposure to cold and forced
exercise, the results were still the same.
The predictable sequence he observed on the rats is
now what we call the General Adaptation Syndrome.
Three Stage
Reaction
Alarm phase
Stage of resistance
Exhaustion stage.

The alarm phase of the general adaptation
syndrome
In the alarm phase you enter a heightened
psychological and physiological arousal, known as
the fight or flight response.
Stress hormones are released into the bloodstream.
Adrenaline increases muscle tension, heart rate, and
causes a number of other physical effects of stress.
You are now immediately equipped with enough
energy to handle it.
You are more focused and alert!
The resistance phase of the general adaptation
syndrome
The mind and the body attempt to adapt to the cause
of stress.
Also known as the adaptation phase.
Homeostasis begins restoring balance and a period
of recovery for repair and renewal takes place.
Body remains alert (at a lower level) but continues
the normal functions.
Stress hormone levels may return to normal but you
may have reduced defenses and adaptive energy left.
The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation
syndrome
Exhaustion sets in.
Stress has generally occurred for some time and at
this point, resistance can drop off and the activity
returns to the point before the emergency.
Characterized by issues such as burnout and
exhaustion.
Bodys immune system that fights off disease and
infection is weakened.
The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation
syndrome
Chronic stress can damage nerve cells in tissues and
organs. Particularly vulnerable is the hippocampus
section of the brain. Thinking and memory are likely
to become impaired, with tendency toward anxiety
and depression.
Coping
Coping

The process of managing external
and/or internal demands that are
appraised as taxing or exceeding the
resources of the person. By Lazarus and Folkman (1984)

Basically


Coping is anything we
do to deal with stress!
Coping is divided into two basic types:


Problem-focused Coping

Emotion-focused Coping
Problem-Focused Coping

Problem-Focused strategies includes:
Defining the problem.
Generating the alternative solutions.
Weighing those solutions.
Implementing the selected alternative.

Emotion-Focused Coping

- Means concentrating on alleviating
the emotions associated with the stressful
situatione.
- Especially when the situation is
beyond ones control.


This involves cognitive strategies,
some behavioral strategies to cope with
negative feelings are exercise, use of alcohol,
drugs, releasing anger and seeking
emotional support from friends.(Atkinson et al., 1996)
Defense Mechanism
1. Repression
2. Rationalization
3. Projection
4. Intelectualization
5. Denial
6. Displacement
Positive Thinking
Religion
Stress Management Programs
Culture related to Stress and coping

What people find stressful and how they
respond to stress is partly patterned by culture
(Western,1996)
1. Cultural context shapes the types of
stressors we experience.
2. Culture may affect how we appraise the
stressfulness of a given event.
3. Culture affects our individual choice of
coping strategy.
4. Culture provide different institutional
mechanisms for coping with stress.