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# What is Loop Shaping?

## Loop Shaping Process

Effect of Simple TFs on L(jw)
Loop Shaping on the Nichols Chart - Example
1
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r(t )
R(s)
y(t )
Y(s)
F(s) G(s)
P(s)
H(s)
N
d1
d2
Figure SISO 2DOF feedback structure
The process of Designing a controller, G(s),
Such that the Open Loop TF L(s) = GP
satisfies certain specifications
The most important specification is that L(s)
satisfies the Nyquist Stability criteria
Other Specifications include one or more of
the following
Gain-margin, Phase-margin, cross-over
frequency, bandwidth, etc
Loop-Shaping of NMP, systems with pure-
delay, and open-loop unstable systems is
more challenging and sometimes it is
required to relax the specifications
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The process of Loop-Shaping involves
appending basic TFs to the controller until
the specifications are met
Basic TFs
Simple gain, k
Simple pole or simple zero,

+
,
+

Simple lead or lag,
+
+

Second order pole or zero,

Notch ,

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2
2
2
2
n n
n
s s

2
2
2
2
n
n n
s s

2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
n n
n n
s s
s s

Simple gain, k shifts L(jw) up by kdB if k>dB,
or down if k<dB
A simple loop located at p shifts L(jw) by
10 log 1 +

2
and
1

The Max(Min) phase of Lead(Lag) element
+
+

appears at = and is given as
= 90 2
1

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Plant, P =
10

, Requirnments, Crossover
frequency,

= 10 rad/sec, Gain-Margin =
10dB, Phase-Margin = 45deg
Solution :
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-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
6 dB
3 dB
1 dB
0.5 dB
0.25 dB
0 dB
-1 dB
-3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i n

(
d
B
)
-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
6 dB
3 dB
1 dB
0.5 dB
0.25 dB
0 dB
-1 dB
-3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
-80 dB
-100 dB

Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i n

(
d
B
)
Nichols chart of P
without Controller
Nichols Chart after
Loop Shaping
Gm = 9.34dB(at 28.9rad/sec)
Pm = 44.8deg(at 10.6 rad/sec)
How?
Changing the dynamics of the Plant by
designing a Controller to meet the required
specs
Start from Simple gain, k, As the OL is
straight line, adding k has no effect
First Add a lag compensator,
+
+
, which has
Max lag Phase of 45deg at w = 10rad/sec
Using = , and = 90 2
1

a = 24, and b = 4
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-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
6 dB
3 dB
1 dB
0.5 dB
0.25 dB
0 dB
-1 dB
-3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
GM = (Not
good)

PM = 48.1 deg
(at 5.83rad/sec)
Gain Margin is
almost Achieved,
But the crossover
frequency is
changed
Next step is to
add Simple gain
to fix it.
We need to move L(j10) up by 7.8dB, so that
L(j10) = 0dB
20log(k) = 7.8dB, implies k = 2.2
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-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
6 dB
3 dB
1 dB
0.5 dB
0.25 dB
0 dB
-1 dB
-3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
GM = (Not
good)

PM = 44.5deg
(at 9.31rad/sec)
Add a zero, such that the Phase of L(jw) is -
90 at -14dB(4dB less than the desired GM)
The element is 1 + s/45
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-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
6 dB
3 dB
1 dB
0.5 dB
0.25 dB
0 dB
-1 dB
-3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
System: sys
Gain (dB): -14
Phase (deg): -90.1
Frequency (rad/s): 28.3
Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
From the previous step frequency at [-14dB,
-90deg] is about 30rad/sec
Adding a complex pole with appropriate
damping ratio to shift the phase of L(j30) to -
180 degrees
After several iterations
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1 30 / 6 . 0 30 /
1
2 2
s s
-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
System: sys
Gain (dB): -10.5
Phase (deg): -180
Frequency (rad/s): 30.5
6 dB
3 dB
1 dB
0.5 dB
0.25 dB
0 dB
-1 dB
-3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
-80 dB
-100 dB
System: sys
Gain (dB): 5.27e-05
Phase (deg): -136
Frequency (rad/s): 9.99
Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
-180 -150 -120
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
System: sys
Gain (dB): -10.5
Phase (deg): -180
Frequency (rad/s): 30.5
6 dB
3 dB
System: sys
Gain (dB): 5.27e-05
Phase (deg): -136
Frequency (rad/s): 9.99
Nichols Chart
Open-Loop Phase (deg)
O
p
e
n
-
L
o
o
p

G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
1
30
6 . 0
30
45
1
4
1
24
1
2 . 2 ) (
2
2

s
s
s
s
s
s G
Quantitative Feedback Design of Linear and
Non-linear Systems by Oded Yaniv
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