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Krar Gill Smid
Technology of Machine Tools
6
th
Edition
Measurement
Section 5
History
Egyptians used length called cubit
Equal to length of forearm (middle finger to
elbow)
James Watt measured tolerances of steam
engine with thickness of thin shilling
International System of Units (SI)
developed in 1960
Two major systems of measurement
Inch system in US and Canada
Metric system for 90% of world
Metric (Decimal) Systems
Jan 16, 1970, Canada adopted SI for
implementation throughout Canada by 1980
Dec 8, 1975, US Senate passed Metric Bill
Will take long time to convert
All machine tools and measuring devices will
have to be redesigned
Long life expectancy of costly machine tools
People resistant to change
Fractional/Inch System
Increased use of CNC and digital data
make fractional sizes impractical
ANSI recommends decimal dimensions
Fractional dimensions still used to identify
sizes of holes produced by drills, standard
taps, and screw thread sizes
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PowerPoint to accompany
Krar Gill Smid
Technology of Machine Tools
6
th
Edition
Basic Measurement
UNIT 7
Objectives
Identify several types of steel rules
Measure round and flat work to 1/64-in.
accuracy with a rule
Measure with spring calipers and a rule
Inch System
Unit of length is the inch
May be divided into fractional or decimal
fractions
Fractional system based on binary system
Common fractions: 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64
Decimal-fraction system uses base 10
Number written as product of 10 or fraction of 10
Inch System
Value Fraction Decimal
one-tenth 110 .1
one-hundredth 1100 .01
one-thousandth 11000 .001
one ten-thousandth 110,000 .0001
one hundred-thousandth 1100,000 .00001
one millionth 11,000,000 .000001
Inch/Metric Conversion
Metric Size
mm cm dm m
1 in. 25.4 2.54 0.254 0.0254
1 ft 304.8 30.48 3.048 0.3048
1 yd 914.4 91.44 9.144 0.9144
Fractional Measurement
Measured with rulers or calipers
Steel rules graduated
Binary-fractional divisions
1, , , 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64
Decimal fractional divisions
decimeters, centimeters, millimeters, half-millimeters
1/64 in. or 0.50 mm. smallest used
Precision instruments
Micrometers and verniers used for dimensions
of less than 0.50 mm
Steel Rules
Metric steel rules graduated in millimeters
and half-millimeters
Linear measurement without great accuracy
Lengths from 15 c. to 1 m.
Factional steel rules graduated in common
binary fractions (1/8 1/64 in.)
Several varieties (spring-tempered, flexible,
narrow, and hook)
Lengths range from 1 to 72 in.
Fractional Steel Rules
Spring-tempered quick reading 6 in. rules
Most frequently used in shop work
Hook rules
Used to make accurate measurements from edge
of workpiece and also flanges and circular pieces
Use for setting inside calipers to a dimension
Decimal rules
Used for linear measurements smaller
than 1/64 in.
Fractional Steel Rules
Short-length rules
Used to measure small openings and hard-to-reach
locations
Five small rules in set: range between and 1 in.
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Measuring Lengths
Fairly accurate measure with steel rules
Butt end of rule against shoulder or step
Steel rules become worn with constant use
Can make measurements taken from end inaccurate
Compensate by measuring from 1-in or 1-cm mark and
subtracting 1 from measurement
Keep edge of rule parallel to edge of work
Rule used as straightedge to test flatness of
workpieces
Edges ground flat: place, hold to light and view
Outside Calipers
Not precision tools
Used to approximately measure outside
surface of either round or flat work
Several styles
spring joint
firm joint
Do not use when accuracy < .015 in.needed
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Using Outside Calipers
Hold both legs of caliper parallel to edge of rule.
Turn adjusting nut until end of lower leg just splits
desired graduation line on rule
Place caliper on work
with both legs of caliper
at right angles to
centerline of the work
Diameter correct when
caliper just slides over
work by own weight
Inside Calipers
Used to measure diameter of holes or width of
keyways and slots
Several styles
Spring joint
Firm Joint
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Measuring An Inside Diameter
Place 1 leg of caliper near hole's bottom edge
Hold caliper leg in position with finger
Keep caliper legs vertical or parallel to hole
Move top leg in direction of arrows and turn
adjusting nut until slight drag felt on leg
Find size of setting by placing end of rule and
one leg against flat surface
Hold legs of caliper parallel to edge of rule
and note reading
Transferring Measurements
Check caliper setting with outside micrometer
for accurate measurement
Hold micrometer in right hand
Place one leg of caliper
on micrometer anvil
and hold position
Rock top leg of caliper
in direction of arrows
Adjust thimble until
slight drag felt as caliper leg passed over
measuring face
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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.
PowerPoint to accompany
Krar Gill Smid
Technology of Machine Tools
6
th
Edition
Squares and
Surface Plates
Unit 8
8-21
Objectives
The machinists combination square
Three types of solid and adjustable squares
Two types of surface plates

8-22
Square
Used for layout, inspection and setup
Manufactured to various degrees of
accuracy
Range from semiprecision to precision squares
Precision squares are hardened and
accurately ground
8-23
Machinist's Combination Square
Used for quick check of 90 and 45 degree
angles and measure of length
Part of combination set that includes square
head, center head, bevel protractor and
graduated grooved rule
8-24
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8-25
Precision Square
Used chiefly for inspection and setup
purposes
Hardened and accurately ground
Must be handled carefully to preserve
accuracy
Great variety manufactured but all variations
of either solid square or adjustable square
8-26
Beveled-Edge Square
Better quality standard squares used in
inspection
Beveled edge allows blade to make line
contact with work
More accurate check
Work is square (90 degrees) if both sides
touch surface of work
8-27
Toolmaker's Surface
Plate Square
Provides convenient method of checking
work for squareness on surface plate
One-piece construction
Little chance of any inaccuracy developing
8-28
Adjustable Squares
Not as accurate as good solid square
Used where impossible to use fixed square
Diemaker's square
Used to check clearance angle on dies
Blade adjusted to angle of workpiece by blade-
adjusting screw, then angle checked with
protractor
Direct-reading type indicates angle of blade
8-29
Adjustable Micrometer Square
Used to check part for squareness accurately

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8-30
Straightedges
Used to check surfaces for flatness and act
as guide for scribing long, straight lines in
layout work
Rectangular bars of hardened and accurately
ground steel
Edges flat and parallel
Plain or beveled edges
Generally made of cast iron with ribs
8-31
Surface Plates
Rigid block of granite or cast iron
Flat surface used as reference plane for layout
Generally have three-point suspension to
prevent rocking when mounted on uneven
surface
Two types
Cast-iron plates
Granite surface plates
Trivia (Extra Credit)
Why is a granite surface plate preferred?


8-33
Surface Plates
Cast-iron plates
Well ribbed and high strength
Good wear-resistance qualities
After machined, surface scraped by hand to flat
Operation long and cost high
Granite surface plates
Manufactured from gray, pink, or black granite
Several degrees of accuracy
Extremely flat finishes produced by lapping
8-34
Advantages of Granite Plates
Not appreciably affected by temperature
change
Will not burr, therefore, accuracy not
impaired
Nonmagnetic
Rustproof
Abrasives will not embed themselves as
easily in the surface
8-35
Care of Surface Plates
Keep surface plates clean at all times
Clean occasionally with solvent to remove film
Protect with wooden cover when not in use
Use parallels whenever possible to prevent
damage to plates by rough parts or castings
Remove burrs from workpiece before placing
it on plate

8-36
Care of Surface Plates
Slide heavy parts onto the plate rather than
place them directly on the plate
Remove all burrs from cast-iron plates by
honing
When not in regular use, cover cast-iron
plates with thin film of oil to prevent rusting
Center punching or prick punching layout
lines should not be done on a surface plate
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PowerPoint to accompany
Krar Gill Smid
Technology of Machine Tools
6
th
Edition
Micrometers
Unit 9
9-38
Objectives
Identify the most common types of outside
micrometers and their uses
Measure the size of a variety of objects to
within .001-in. accuracy
Read vernier micrometers to .0001-in.
accuracy
Measure the size of a variety of objects to
within 0.01-mm accuracy
9-39
Precision Measuring Tools
Five categories of tools based on the
dimension being measured
Outside
Inside
Depth
Thread
Height
9-40
Micrometer Caliper
Standard inch micrometer accurate to .001 in.
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9-41
Principle of the Inch Micrometer
Zero line on thimble lined up with index
line on sleeve (barrel)
Measuring faces just touch
Pitch is 1/40 (.025) in.since 40 threads
One complete revolution of spindle, one line
appears
Every fourth line longer (represents .100 in.)
Thimble has 25 equal divisions
Represents .001 in.
9-42
To Read Standard Inch
Micrometer
Note last number showing on sleeve and
multiply by .100
Note number of small lines visible to right
and multiply by .025
Note number of divisions on thimble from
zero to line that coincides with index line on
sleeve and multiply by .001
Add three products to get total reading
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9-43
Sample Reading
Note last number showing on sleeve and
multiply by .100
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2 x .100

.200
9-44
Sample Reading
Note number of small lines visible to right
and multiply by .025
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3
3 x .025

.075
9-45
Sample Reading
Note number of divisions on thimble from
zero to line that coincides with index line on
sleeve and multiply by .001
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13 x .001

.013
9-46
Sample Reading
Add three products to get total reading
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.200
.075
.013
.288 in.
9-47
Vernier
Micrometer
Added to sleeve
Each division on vernier
scale has a value of .0001 in.
Scale consists of 10 divisions
that run parallel to index line.
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Friction thimble
9-48
To Read Vernier Micrometer
Read as would a standard micrometer
Note line on vernier scale that coincides with
one on thimble
Indicates number of ten-thousandths
Multiple the line number times .0001
Add to total of the other readings

9-49
Micrometer Adjustments:
Remove Play in Threads
Back off the thimble
Insert C-spanner into slot or hole of
adjusting nut
Turn adjusting nut clockwise until play
between threads has been eliminated
Note: After adjusting, spindle should advance freely
while ratchet stop or friction thimble is being turned
9-50
Testing Accuracy of Micrometers
Test periodically to ensure accuracy
Clean measuring faces before testing
Turn thimble using friction thimble or
ratchet stop until measuring faces contact
each other
Zero line on thimble coincides with center index
line on sleeve = accuracy
Can also check by measuring gage block or
other known standard
9-51
Adjusting Accuracy of a
Micrometer
Clean measuring faces; inspect for damage
Close measuring faces carefully by turning
ratchet stop or friction thimble
Insert C-spanner into hole or slot in sleeve
Carefully turn sleeve until index line on
sleeve coincides with zero line on thimble
Recheck accuracy
9-52
Special-Purpose Micrometers
Direct-reading micrometer
Additional digital readout
built into frame
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Large-frame micrometer
Made for measuring large
outside diameters up to 60 in.
Interchangeable anvils give
range of 6 in.
9-53
Other Micrometers
Indicating micrometer
Uses indicating dial and movable anvil
Accurate to ten-thousandths of an inch
Can be used as a comparator with gage blocks
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Mul-T-Anvil
micrometer
Used for measuring tubing
and distances from a slot to
an edge
Round and flat anvils
9-54
Digi-Matic Micrometer
Used as hand gage for inspecting small parts
Accurate up to 50 millionths of an inch and
displays both inch or metric sizes
Statistical process
control when added
provides stand-alone
inspection system
Interface with PC
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9-55
Screw Thread Micrometers
Measures pitch diameter of threads
Pointed spindle and double-V swivel anvil
Shaped to contact pitch diameter of thread
Equal to outside diameter less depth of one thread
Limited to certain range
Four ranges for one-inch
8-13 TPI
14-20 TPI
22-30 TPI
32-40 TPI
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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.
PowerPoint to accompany
Krar Gill Smid
Technology of Machine Tools
6
th
Edition
Vernier Calipers
Unit 10
10-57
Objectives
Measure workpieces to within an accuracy
of .001 in. using a 25-division inch vernier
caliper
Measure workpieces to within an accuracy
of .001 in. using a 50-division inch vernier
caliper
Measure workpieces to within an accuracy
of 0.02 mm using a metric vernier caliper

10-58
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Used to lock readings into place
Parts of the Vernier Caliper
Manufactured with both 25- and
50-division vernier scales
Bar of 25-division
vernier scale graduated
same as micrometer
10-59
Measuring a Workpiece
Remove all burrs from workpiece
Clean surface to be measured
Open jaws enough to pass over work
Close jaws against work and lock right-hand
clamp screw
Turn adjusting screw until jaws just touch
work surface
Lock clamp screw on movable jaw
Read measurement
10-60
Reading the Measurement
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Permission required for reproduction or display.
A 50-division inch vernier caliper reading of 1.464 in.
1 x 1.000= 1.000
4 x 0.100= .400
1 x 0.050= .050
14 x 0.001= .014
1.464 in.
10-61
Metric Vernier Caliper
Many have both metric and inch graduations
Parts same as inch vernier
Main scale graduated in millimeters
Every main division numbered, equal to 10 mm
Fifty graduations on sliding scale with every fifth
one numbered
50 graduations occupy same space as 49 graduations
on main scale (49 mm)
1 vernier division = 0.98 mm so difference between 1
main scale division and 1 vernier division = .02 mm
10-62
Reading a Metric Vernier Caliper
Last numbered division on bar to left of
vernier scale represents number of
millimeters multiplied by 10
Note how many full graduations showing
between this numbered division and zero
Multiply number by 1 mm
Find line on vernier scale that coincides with
line on bar and multiply by 0.02 mm
Add for total reading
10-63
Direct-Reading Dial Caliper
Dial indicator, hand attached to pinion,
mounted on sliding jaw
Metric: 1 revolution of hand = 2 mm of travel
Inch: 1 revolution = .100 or .200 in. of travel
Depends on manufacturer
Most have narrow sliding blade attached to
sliding jaw (and dial) used depth gage
10-64
Digital Electronic Caliper
Can provide readings to resolution of
.0005 in. or 0.01 mm at touch of button
No rack, pinion or glass scale
Can connect to Statistical Process Control (SPC)
equipment for inspection purposes
Measurements
Inside diameter
Outside diameter
Step
Depth
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Krar Gill Smid
Technology of Machine Tools
6
th
Edition
Inside-, Depth-, and Height-
Measuring Instruments
Unit 11
11-66
Transfer-Type Instruments
Size of object taken with instrument not
capable of giving direct reading
Small hole gages for small measures
Sets of four
Range: .125 - .500 in.
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Have small, round end or ball Have flat bottom
11-67
Transfer-Type Instruments
Telescope Gages
Used to obtain size of holes, slots, and recesses
from .3125 to 6.000 in.
(8 to 152 mm)
T-shaped: pair of telescoping
tubes connected to handle
Knurled knob on handle end
locks plungers into position
11-68
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Vernier Height Gage
Precision instrument
Variety of sizes:
12-72 in. or 300-1000 mm.
Height within .001 in (0.02 mm)
Digital height gage
zero function, display .0001 in.
Offset scriber
Attachment that permits
setting heights from face of plate
Depth gage attachment
11-69
To Measure with a Vernier Height
Gage and Dial Indicator
1. Thoroughly clean plate, base, work surface
2. Place finished edge of work on surface
plate
3. Clamp against angle plate if necessary
4. Insert snug-fitting plug into hole with .500
in projecting
5. Mount dial indicator on movable jaw
6. Adjust movable jaw until indicator almost
touches surface plate
11-70
To Measure with a Vernier Height
Gage and Dial Indicator
7. Lock upper slide of height gage, use
adjusting nut to move indicator until dial
registers turn
8. Set indicator dial to zero
9. Adjust vernier height gage until indicator
registers zero on top of plug
10. Subtract initial reading plus half diameter
of plug